Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not entirely categorical, a professional photographer is likely to take photographs to make money, by salary or through the display, sale or use of those photographs. An amateur photographer may take photographs for pleasure and to record an event, place, as a person without a monetary motivation. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a planned event such as a wedding or graduation. Others, including paparazzi and fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making a picture, some workers, such as crime scene detectives, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are often called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, an amateur may make considerable sums entering work in contests for prize money or through occasional inclusion of their work in magazines or the archive of a photo agency.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study, Photographers are categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of such as landscape, still life. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright, countless industries purchase photographs for use in publications and on products. This is usually referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees, an additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph. The contract may be for one year, or other duration. The photographer usually charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, the contract may be for non-exclusive use of the photograph or for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. A royalty is based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book.
Photos taken by a photographer working on assignment are often work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images, commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites and those interested in legal precision may explicitly release them to the public domain or under a free content license. Some sites, including Wikimedia Commons, are punctilious about licenses, the dictionary definition of photographer at Wiktionary Media related to Photographers at Wikimedia Commons
Silver bromide, a soft, pale-yellow, water-insoluble salt well known for its unusual sensitivity to light. This property has allowed silver halides to become the basis of modern photographic materials, AgBr is widely used in photographic films and is believed by some to have been used for making the Shroud of Turin. The salt can be found naturally as the mineral bromargyrite, modern preparation of a simple, light-sensitive surface involves forming an emulsion of silver halide crystals in a gelatine, which is coated onto a film or other support. The crystals are formed by precipitation in an environment to produce small. The coordination geometry for AgBr in the NaCl structure is unexpected for Ag which typically forms linear, unlike the other silver halides, iodargyrite contains a hexagonal zincite lattice structure. The silver halides have a range of solubilities. The solubility of AgF is about 6 ×107 times that of AgI and these differences are attributed to the relative solvation enthalpies of the halide ions, the enthalpy of solvation of fluoride is anomalously large.
Although photographic processes have been in development since the mid-1800s, there were no suitable theoretical explanations until 1938 with the publication of a paper by R. W. Gurney and N. F. This paper triggered a large amount of research in fields of chemistry and physics. Further research into this mechanism revealed that the properties of silver halides were a result of deviations from an ideal crystal structure. What is unique about AgBr Frenkel pairs is that the interstitial Agi+ are exceptionally mobile, the formation energy of the Frenkel pair is low at 1.16 eV, and the migration activation energy is unusually low at 0.05 eV. These low energies result in large concentrations, which can reach near 1% near the melting point. The low activation energy in silver bromide can be attributed the silver ions’ high quadrupolar polarizability and this property, a result of the d9 electronic configuration of the silver ion, facilitates migration in both the silver ion and in silver-ion vacancies, thus giving the unusually low migration energy.
Studies have demonstrated that the concentrations are strongly affected by crystal size. Most defects, such as interstitial silver ion concentration and surface kinks, are proportional to crystal size. This phenomenon is attributed to changes in the surface chemistry equilibrium, impurity concentrations can be controlled by crystal growth or direct addition of impurities to the crystal solutions. After this point, only silver-ion vacancy defects, which increase by several orders of magnitude, are prominent. When a photoelectron is mobilized, a photohole h• is formed, the lifetime of a photohole, does not correlate with that of a photoelectron
Felice Beato, known as Felix Beato, was an Italian–British photographer. He was one of the first people to take photographs in East Asia and he is noted for his genre works and views and panoramas of the architecture and landscapes of Asia and the Mediterranean region. Beatos travels gave him the opportunity to create images of countries and his work provides images of such events as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Second Opium War, and represents the first substantial oeuvre of photojournalism. He influenced other photographers, and his influence in Japan, where he taught and worked with other photographers and artists, was particularly deep. A death certificate discovered in 2009 shows that Beato was born in Venice in 1832, the death certificate indicates that he was a British subject and a bachelor. It is likely early in his life Beato and his family moved to Corfu, at the time part of the British protectorate of the Ionian Islands. In 1983 it was shown by Chantal Edel that Felice Antonio Beato represented two brothers, Felice Beato and Antonio Beato, who worked together, sharing a signature.
The confusion arising from the signatures continues to cause problems in identifying which of the two photographers was the creator of a given image. Little is certain about Felice Beatos early development as a photographer, though it is said that he bought his first and he probably met the British photographer James Robertson in Malta in 1850 and accompanied him to Constantinople in 1851. James Robertson, became his brother-in-law in 1855, superintendent of the Imperial Mint, Robertson opened one of the first commercial photography studios in the capital between 1854 and 1856. Robertson had been an engraver at the Imperial Ottoman Mint since 1843 and had taken up photography in the 1840s. Robertson and Beato were joined by Beatos brother Antonio on photographic expeditions to Malta in 1854 or 1856 and to Greece and Jerusalem in 1857. A number of the photographs produced in the 1850s are signed Robertson, Beato and Co. and it is believed that the. In late 1854 or early 1855 James Robertson married Beatos sister and they had three daughters, Catherine Grace, Edith Marcon Vergence, and Helen Beatruc.
In 1855 Felice Beato and Robertson travelled to Balaklava, Crimea, in contrast to Fentons depiction of the dignified aspects of war and Robertson showed the destruction. They photographed the fall of Sevastopol in September 1855, producing about 60 images, in February 1858 Felice Beato arrived in Calcutta and began travelling throughout Northern India to document the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. During this time he produced possibly the first-ever photographic images of corpses and he was in the cities of Delhi, Meerut, Amritsar, Agra and Lahore. Beato was joined in July 1858 by his brother Antonio, who left India, probably for health reasons, Antonio ended up in Egypt in 1860, setting up a photographic studio in Thebes in 1862
Gelatin or gelatine is a translucent, brittle, flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts. It is commonly used as an agent in food, pharmaceutical drugs, vitamin capsules, photography. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a way are called gelatinous. It is found in most gummy candy, as well as other such as marshmallows, gelatin desserts, and some ice creams, dips. Gelatin for recipe use comes in the form of sheets, instant types can be added to the food as they are, others need to be soaked in water beforehand. During hydrolysis, the molecular bonds between individual collagen strands are broken down into a form that rearranges more easily. Its chemical composition is, in respects, closely similar to that of its parent collagen. Photographic and pharmaceutical grades of gelatin generally are sourced from beef bones, Gelatin readily dissolves in hot water and sets to a gel on cooling. When added directly to water, it does not dissolve well. Gelatin is soluble in most polar solvents, Gelatin solutions show viscoelastic flow and streaming birefringence.
Solubility is determined by the method of manufacture, gelatin can be dispersed in a relatively concentrated acid. Such dispersions are stable for 10–15 days with little or no changes and are suitable for coating purposes or for extrusion into a precipitating bath. The mechanical properties of gelatin gels are very sensitive to variations, the previous thermal history of the gels. The upper melting point is below human body temperature, a factor that is important for mouthfeel of foods produced with gelatin, the viscosity of the gelatin-water mixture is greatest when the gelatin concentration is high and the mixture is kept cool at about 4 °C. The gel strength is quantified using the Bloom test, the worldwide production amount of gelatin is about 375, 000–400,000 tonnes per year. On a commercial scale, gelatin is made from by-products of the meat, fish by-products have been considered suitable because they eliminate some of the religious obstacles surrounding gelatin consumption. Gelatin is derived from pork skins and cattle bones, the raw materials are prepared by different curing and alkali processes that are employed to extract the dried collagen hydrolysate.
These processes may take weeks, and differences in such processes have great effects on the properties of the final gelatin products
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Carl Zeiss AG
Carl Zeiss is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott they built a base for modern optics, there are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen and Munich, and Carl Zeiss GmbH located in Jena. Carl Zeiss AG is the company of the Zeiss Gruppe. The Zeiss Gruppe is located in Heidenheim and Jena, controlled by the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung are the glass manufacturers Schott AG and Jenaer Glas, located in Mainz and Jena respectively. Carl Zeiss is one of the oldest existing optics manufacturers in the world, Carl Zeiss opened an optics workshop in Jena in 1846. By 1847 he was making microscopes full-time, by 1861 Zeiss was considered to be among the best scientific instrument makers in Germany with about 20 people working under him with his business still growing. By 1866 the Zeiss workshop sold their 1, 000th microscope, in 1872 physicist Ernst Abbe joined Zeiss and along with Otto Schott designed greatly improved lenses for the optical instruments they were producing.
After Carl Zeisss death in 1888, the business was incorporated as the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung in 1889, by World War I, Zeiss was the worlds largest location of camera production. Zeiss Ikon represented a significant part of the production along with dozens of brands and factories. The Hensoldt System Technology division was continued by Zeiss under the Hensoldt name until 2006, as part of Nazi Germany Zwangsarbeiter program, Zeiss used forced labour during the Second World War. The destruction of the war caused many companies to divide into smaller subcompanies, at the end of the war Jena was occupied by the US Army. As part of the World War II reparations, the Soviet army took most of the existing Zeiss factories and tooling back to the Soviet Union as the Kiev camera works. The western business was restarted in Oberkochen as Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1946, which became Zeiss-Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1947, but was soon renamed to Carl Zeiss. West German Zeiss products were labelled Opton for sale in the Eastern bloc and this collaboration continued under Yashicas successor, until the latter ceased all camera production in 2005.
Zeiss produced lenses for the industry and, more recently, has again produced high-quality 35 mm camera lenses. Jenoptik GmbH was split off as a specialty company in the areas of photonics, the Hensoldt AG was renamed Carl Zeiss Sports Optics GmbH on 1 October 2006. The companies of the Zeiss Gruppe in and around Dresden have branched into new technologies and products for the automotive industry, there are arguably three companies with primarily Zeiss Ikon heritage, Zeiss Germany, the Finnish/Swedish Ikon, and the independent eastern Zeiss Ikon. On 28 June 2013, Carl Zeiss officially announced its plan to rename the brand from Carl Zeiss to simply Zeiss, all the products will be standardized under the Zeiss brand
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities