History of the San Fernando Valley
The history of the San Fernando Valley from its exploration by the 1769 Portola expedition to the annexation of much of it by the City of Los Angeles in 1915 is a story of booms and busts, as cattle ranching, sheep ranching, large-scale wheat farming, fruit orchards flourished and faded. Throughout its history, settlement in the San Fernando Valley was shaped by availability of reliable water supplies and by proximity to the major transportation routes through the surrounding mountains. Before the flood control measures of the 20th century, the location of human settlements in the San Fernando Valley was constrained by two forces: the necessity of avoiding winter floods and need for year-round water sources to sustain communities through the dry summer and fall months. In winter, torrential downpours over the western-draining watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains entered the northeast Valley through Big Tujunga Canyon, Little Tujunga Canyon, Pacoima Canyon; these waters spread over the Valley floor in a series of braided washes, seven miles wide as late as the 1890s, periodically cutting new channels and reusing old ones, before sinking into the gravelly subterranean reservoir below the eastern Valley and continuing their southward journey underground.
Only when the waters encountered the rocky roots of the Santa Monica Mountains were they pushed to the surface where they fed a series of tule marshes and the sluggish stream, now the Los Angeles River. By the time the Spanish conquest of Mexico reached Alta California in 1769, successive groups of indigenous peoples, or Native Americans, had inhabited the area for at least 7,000 years; these peoples tended to settle on wooded areas at the Valley's margins. The Tongva, who spoke the Tongva language, a Uto-Aztecan or Shoshonean language, had a series of villages in the southern Valley along or near the river, including Totongna and Kawengna. In the north-central Valley was an permanent village called Pasakngna, in the lower foothills of the mountains near natural springs and a tule marsh. Other characteristic place-names of Tongva origin in the Valley include Topanga; the Tataviam were established in the valleys to the north. The Hokan-speaking Chumash people inhabited Malibu, the Santa Monica Mountains, the Simi Hills in the western area of the Valley, much of the coastal areas to the northwest.
At Bell Creek below the rocky outcropping called Escorpión Peak, Chumash pictographs and other artifacts have been identified by archeologists at a site, Hu'wam, thought to have been a meeting place and trading center for the Tongva-Fernandeño and Chumash-Venturaño. In the Simi Hills the Burro Flats Painted Cave pictographs are located on Rocketdyne's Santa Susana Field Laboratory property, inaccessible but well protected; the Tataviam-Fernandeño people inhabited the foothills of the Santa Susana Mountains in the Valley. The Tongva-Fernandeño inhabited the Valley, along the tributaries to the Los Angeles River. In 1769, the expedition led by explorer Gaspar de Portolà reached the Los Angeles area of California overland from Baja California. Accompanying him were two Franciscan Padres, Junípero Serra and Juan Crespí, who recorded the expedition and identified locations for a proposed network of missions, along which the royal highway was built. After camping at and naming the location that would become the Pueblo de Los Angeles, the expedition proceeded westward before turning north through the Sepulveda Pass over the Santa Monica Mountains on the feast day of Saint Catherine of Bologna.
We saw a pleasant and spacious valley. We descended to it and stopped close to a watering place, a large pool. Near it we found a village of heathen friendly and docile. We gave to this plain the name of Santa Catalina de Bononia de Los Encinos, it has on its valleys many live oak and walnuts. The watering place was a pool fed by a perennial spring at what is now Encino, near the village of Siutangna; the name El Valle de Santa Catalina de Bononia de los Encinos refers to the encinos or evergreen Coast Live Oaks that studded the area. The expedition proceeded northward, camping at a site in the northern Valley before crossing over the mountains into the Santa Clarita Valley. Father Crespí had identified a location along the Los Angeles River that would be perfect for a settlement a mission, but in 1781, King Charles III of Spain ordered that a pueblo be built on the site, which would be the second town in Alta California after San José de Guadalupe, founded in 1777. By royal edict, all of the waters of the river and its tributaries were reserved for the Pueblo de Los Angeles, a condition which would have a profound impact on development of the Valley.
By the end of the century, Spain had issued two grazing concessions north of the pueblo that included the southeastern corner of the Valley, Rancho San Rafael and Rancho Portesuelo. Francisco Reyes, alcalde or mayor of Los Angeles from 1793–1795, had set up a grazing operation which he called Rancho Encino located in what is now Mission Hills near the village of Pasakngna. Reyes's property had a substantial water supply from artesian wells and limestone for building, was situated a day's walk from the existing missions San Gabriel and San Buenaventura. In or shortly before 1797 he was persuaded to cede this land to the Franciscans to be the site of a new mission, receiving in exchange a square league of land in the southern valley by the perennial spring wher
Cajon Pass is a mountain pass between the San Bernardino Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains in Southern California. It was created by the movements of the San Andreas Fault. Located in the Mojave Desert, the pass is an important link from the Greater San Bernardino Area to the Victor Valley, northeast to Las Vegas. Cajon Pass is at the head of Horsethief Canyon, traversed by California State Route 138 and railroad tracks owned by BNSF Railway and Union Pacific Railroad. Improvements in 1972 reduced the railroad's maximum elevation from about 3,829 to 3,777 feet while reducing curvature. Interstate 15 does not traverse Cajon Pass, but rather the nearby Cajon Summit, 34°20′58″N 117°26′47″W, elevation 4,260 feet; the entire area including Cajon Pass and Cajon Summit is collectively called Cajon Pass, but a distinction is made between Cajon Pass and Cajon Summit. In 1851 a group of Mormon settlers led by Amasa M. Lyman and Charles C. Rich traveled through Cajon Pass in covered wagons on their way from Salt Lake City to southern California.
A prominent rock formation in the pass, where the Mormon trail and the railway merge, is known as Mormon Rocks. In Spanish the word cajón refers to a drawer; the name of the pass is derived from the Spanish land grant encompassing the area. Cajon Pass is known for high wind and fog; the weather over the pass can vary from foggy days with poor visibility to clear afternoons where aircraft are bounced by gusting Santa Ana winds that top 80 mph. The wind is out of the west, although in Santa Ana and other weather conditions it may be out of the north or the southeast. Air spilling over the San Gabriels can cause violent up- and downdrafts. On a normal day, with the wind out of the west, turbulence starts a few miles west of Rialto and continues a few miles to the east, growing in strength above the altitude of the mountains and over the pass near the HITOP intersection. In Santa Ana conditions, up- and downdrafts can become violent northeast of Ontario Airport, turbulence can be experienced east to the Banning Pass, well known for turbulence.
The mass and wing loading of an aircraft determine its sensitivity to turbulence, so what may seem violent in a Cessna 172 may seem only mild to moderate in a Boeing 747. In the 2006 Mercy Air 2 accident, an air ambulance helicopter collided with mountainous terrain near the pass in foggy weather; the California Southern Railroad, a subsidiary of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, was the first railroad to use the Cajon Pass. The rail line through the pass was built in the early 1880s to connect the present day cities of Barstow and San Diego. Today the Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway use the pass to reach Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Due to the many trains, noteworthy scenery and easy access, it is a popular location for railfans, numerous photographs of trains on Cajon Pass appear in books and magazines about trains; the Union Pacific Railroad operates and owns one track through the pass, on the previous Southern Pacific Railroad Palmdale cutoff, opened in 1967. The BNSF Railway had two tracks and began to operate a third main track in the summer of 2008.
The railroads share track rights through the pass since the Union Pacific gained track rights on the Santa Fe portion negotiated under the original Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad. The original BNSF line was constructed in the 1880s and roads, U. S. Route 66 and I-15 followed this route; the 3.0% grade for a few miles on the south track is challenging for long trains, making the westbound descent dangerous, as a runaway can occur if the engineer is not careful in handling the brakes. The second track, built in 1913, is 2 miles longer to get a lower 2.20% grade. It ran through two short tunnels, but both were removed when the third main track was added next to the 1913 line. Trains may be seen traveling at speeds of 60 and 70 mph on the straighter track away from the pass, but ascend at 14 to 22 mph and descend at 20 to 30 mph; the third track enables a capacity of 150 trains per day on the BNSF lines. The steep downhill grade south of the pass was a contributing factor in the May 12, 1989, San Bernardino train disaster.
Cajon Pass was the site of a major train accident on December 14, 1994, when a westbound Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe intermodal train lost control and crashed into the rear of a westbound Union Pacific coal train just below California Highway 138, between Alray and Cajon. On February 2, 1996 two brakemen were killed when a BNSF chemical train derailed and caught fire at Cajon Pass; the August 16, 2016 Blue Cut Fire destroyed a trestle on the Union Pacific mainline. On August 21, 2018 a train carrying hazardous materials derailed, causing the FedEx facility on the left of it to evacuate, along with one school that took shelter. Amtrak's Desert Wind, which ceased operation in 1997, used the pass; the Southwest Chief, runs daily between Chicago and Los Angeles, through Cajon Pass on the BNSF line. The Mojave Freeway was built in 1969 over the Cajon Summit west of the Cajon Pass, it is the Inland Empire to Las Vegas. The freeway runs above and parallel to an original stretch of historic Route 66 and U.
S. Route 395; this stretch, now known as Cajon Boulevard, is a short, well-preserved fragment dating to a rerouting and widening of the highway in the early 1950s. Only the southbound/westbound lanes are in use.
U.S. Route 66 in California
U. S. Route 66 is a part of a former United States Numbered Highway in the state of California that ran from the west in Santa Monica on the Pacific Ocean through Los Angeles and San Bernardino to Needles at the Arizona state line, it was truncated during the 1964 renumbering and its signage removed in 1974. The highway is now replaced with several streets in Los Angeles, State Route 2, State Route 110, State Route 66, San Bernardino County Route 66, Interstate 15, I-40. US 66 was assigned by the American Association of State Highway Officials in November 1926 and signed in 1928 by the Automobile Club of Southern California. US 66 continued to be signed east of Pasadena until 1974, when it was removed, the remaining separate section became SR 66. In 1977, "Hotel California" alluded to Route 66 in its opening lines, "On a dark desert highway, cool wind in my hair, Warm smell of colitas rising up through the air, Up ahead in the distance, I saw a shimmering light, My head grew heavy and my sight grew dim, I had to stop for the night".
According to Eagles guitarist Don Felder, "Everybody had driven into Los Angeles on what used to be Route 66. And as you drive in through the desert at night, you can see the glow of Los Angeles from a hundred miles away; the closer and closer you get, you start seeing all of these images, these things pounded into our heads: the stars on Hollywood Boulevard, movie stars, palm trees and girls in bikinis."Nationally, Route 66 has been a decommissioned highway since 1985, with the last section through Williams, bypassed by I-40 in 1984. The first efforts to return the route to maps as "Historic Route 66" date to 1987 and Angel Delgadillo's Arizona Historic Route 66 Association; this initiative was soon followed in all eight US 66 states, including California. The California Historic Route 66 Association, established in December 1990 to advocate the preservation and promotion of historic Route 66 in California, is the youngest of the eight state-level Route 66 Associations; because the sections of historic Route 66 that are within urban Los Angeles are still dedicated streets, they remain as the most used and traveled Route 66 segments.
However because of the heavy traffic and non-historic development along these sections, they are the least traveled by Route 66 enthusiasts. Modern guide books that describe how to follow historic Route 66 suggest that when arriving at San Bernardino from the east, enthusiasts should enter Interstate 10 as a bypass for these segments exiting near Santa Monica to experience today's terminus. From San Bernardino to the Arizona state line US 66 followed the old National Old Trails Highway; the old highway veers away from I-15 between Victorville and Barstow, following the railroad through Oro Grande and Lenwood. Through Barstow, it is Main Street. East of Barstow, the National Old Trails Highway passes through a Marine Corps base, limiting public access and forcing traffic onto I-40. From Daggett, Historic 66 leaves I-40, crossing it three times before winding away through Bagdad and Essex. US 66 was all paved in California by 1935; this area is desert. From Essex the highway was Goffs Road through Goffs until about 1931, joining I-40 at the US 95 exit.
The alignment is now I-40 east of Essex. The original highway winds around I-40 in the Needles area, before crossing the Colorado River into Arizona; the original western terminus of Route 66 was in downtown Los Angeles at the intersection of 7th street and Broadway Ave. In 1936, the route was extended to Santa Monica. In Santa Monica, US 66 started at the intersection of Lincoln and Olympic Blvd at U. S. 101A. Route 66 headed north on Lincoln and turned east onto Santa Monica Blvd. which was, from the Santa Monica city line with Los Angeles up to US 101, added to SR 2 during the 1964 renumbering, the same name it had before 1936. In today's terms, it followed Santa Monica Boulevard until the east end, where it continued to the southeast as Sunset Boulevard up to SR 110, at the interchange with US 101. Running northwards on SR 110 to the northern terminus in Pasadena, the highway continued east onto Colorado Boulevard; when crossing North Baldwin Avenue, Colorado Boulevard becomes Colorado Street, after 0.3 miles it changes again to Colorado Place.
Prior to the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, US 66 began north on Broadway which curves east, ending at Mission Avenue. The highway continues north on Mission which turns into Huntington Drive and turns north onto Fair Oaks Avenue until meeting Colorado Boulevard where it turns east. After the extension to Santa Monica, the route moved to Figueroa Street from Sunset Boulevard to Colorado Boulevard until the opening of the Arroyo Seco. In Arcadia the highway continues eastwards through Arcadia and Duarte as Huntington Drive, which it follows until the road crosses the San Gabriel River into Irwindale, becoming Foothill Boulevard after 5.7 miles. In Azusa, the highway veers away from Foothill Boulevard; the city of Glendora renamed their segment of Alosta Avenue to Route 66. Foothill Boulevard is numbered SR 66 from the interchange with SR 210 in La Verne onward until the road crosses into San Bernardino, where it becomes 5th Street. SR 66 ends at the 5th Street interchange with I-215
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
Indigenous peoples of California
The indigenous peoples of California are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans. With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population in the United States; the California cultural area does not conform to the state of California's boundaries. Many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as indigenous peoples of Mexico. Before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of 100 distinct languages; the large number of languages has been related to the ecological diversity of California, to a sociopolitical organization into small tribelets with a shared "ideology that defined language boundaries as unalterable natural features inherent in the land"."The majority of California Indian languages belong either to localized language families with two or three members or are language isolates."
Of the remainder, most are Athapaskan languages. Larger groupings have been proposed; the Hokan superstock has been most difficult to demonstrate. There is evidence suggestive that speakers of the Chumashan languages and Yukian languages, languages of southern Baja California such as Waikuri, were in California prior to the arrival of Penutian languages from the north and Uto-Aztecan from the east predating the Hokan languages. Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic; the several Athapaskan languages are recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago. Evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago. Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, each consisting of 50 to 500 individual members; the size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico.
Because of the temperate climate and easy access to food sources one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in the area of California. Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BC. Due to the local abundance of food, tribes tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex and the Pauma Complex, both dating from ca. 6050—1000 BC. From 3000 to 2000 BC, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by 500 BC; the indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants. They controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology. By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land and provided fresh shoots to attract food animals.
A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at different times; the southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California and southwest Arizona first encountered Spanish explorers in the 1760s and 1770s. Tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century. In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century; the Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California, their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native Californian tribes.
The population of Native California was reduced by 90% during the 19th century—from more than 200,000 in the early 19th century to 15,000 at the end of the century due to disease. Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic. Early to mid 19th Century, coastal tribes of northwest California had multiple contacts with Russian explorers due to Russian colonization of the Americas. At that time period, Russian exploration of California and contacts with local population were associated with the activity of the Russian-American Company. A Russian explorer, Baron Ferdinand von Wrangell, visited California in 1818, 1833, 1835. Looking for a potential site for a new outpost of the company in California in place of Fort Ross, Wrangell’s expedition encountered the Indians north of San Francisco Bay and visited their village. In his notes Wrangell remarked that local women, used to physical labor, seemed to be of stronger constitution than men, whose main activity was hunting.
Local provision consisted of fish and products made of seeds and grains: usually
Maritime history of California
In the California coast, the use of ships and the Pacific Ocean has included water craft, shipbuilding, Gold Rush shipping, shipwrecks, naval ships and installations, lighthouses. The maritime history of California can be divided into several periods: the Native American period. In the northwest coast of California near the redwood forests several Indian tribes developed large dugout canoes they used for fishing and warfare; these canoes were constructed by taking a large tree and shaping it with hand tools and fire to a boat's configuration. A redwood log 4 metres long and 240 centimetres diameter weighs about 2,000 kilograms; this large weight meant that the logs were selected that required a minimum of movement—usually driftwood or dead fall trees, blown over by the wind. Sometimes logs were cut to length and rolled into water where they could be floated to a selected work area; the logs were cut to length by fire and stone age hand tools and the interior of the canoe was burned out with small fires.
The basic procedure was to start a small fire on the tree where it needed shaping extinguish it after a short burn. This would leave one or more centimeters of charred wood where the fire was built that would be easier to remove. By successively using small fires to char the areas that needed to be worked the logs could be shaped by the crude scrapers and rock and horn based tools available. A finished 4 metres long dugout canoe with a nominal 5 centimetres thickness still weighed over 100 kilograms. Most larger dugouts weighed too much to move and were just pulled up on a beach far enough to get them above high tide. Constructing these types of dugout canoes took considerable time and skill with stone age tools and fire. Dugout canoes lasted several years. Tule have a rounded green stems that grows to 1 to 3 metres tall, they grow well at the edges of bodies of water. The tule stem has a pithy interior filled with spongy tissue packed with air cells—this makes it float well on water as well as a good insulator.
Native Americans used tule for making and thatching huts, mats, decoys, hats and shoes. Tule was cut using deer scapula'saws' that had rough saw like edges cut into them. Tule has to be handled with care when green to avoid breaking the stem and gains strength when it is dried. To make a tule boat, green tule was cut and spread out in the sun to dry for several days. Tule canoes were constructed of cut stalks of tule plants bundled together around a willow'core' for extra strength; the bundle of tules could be pre-bent. The length of each bundle depends on the size of the boat that were typically about 10 feet to 15 feet; the bundle that formed the bottom of the canoe on which the boatman or boatmen sat, knelt or stood was much larger than the others. To make the sides of the tule canoe two to six tapered bundles were tied to the bottom bundle with grape vines or other native material with extensive lacing at the stern and prow to bend all the tule bundles into a tapered and raised bow and stern.
Tule canoes accommodated one to four people. Tule boats can be built from dried tule, by experienced canoe builders, in less than one day. Tule boats have a limited useful life before they rot and/or come apart—typically only lasting a few weeks. Several tribes in and around the San Francisco Bay area and in northern California made and used tule canoes. Bay Miwok, Coast Miwok, Pomo, Klamath and several other indigenous natives used the tule plant to make canoes. Tule canoes were used in ocean lagoons from Tomales Bay and Point Reyes National Seashore south to Monterey Bay. Tule–reed boats were used in lakes and slow-moving rivers in much of Northern California, they were used by the Pomo living in the Laguna de Santa Rosa and Clear Lake, Tule Lake and other areas. They were common in the San Francisco Bay and on the extensive Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and its tributary rivers; these tule canoes were used for transportation to and from their favorite spots for hunting or harvesting salmon, seeds, shellfish or oysters and other fish or foods.
Extensive beds and shoals of oysters and other shellfish lay in shallow water near the shores of San Francisco Bay and Tomales Bay and were a food source used for centuries. Tule canoes were used for gathering more tule reeds and for hunting duck or geese which were often present in the wetlands, etc. in the millions. Tule canoes were used in collecting duck and goose eggs. Ducks and geese were hunted from tule canoes with arrows or nets. Tule canoes were used in fishing with nets, spears or bone fish hooks for several native fish species present in or migrating through the rivers and bays; the boatman sits, kneels or stands in the boat and either paddles it with a double bladed paddle or with his arms in a single person canoe when lying prone. If the boat was not woven enough the boatman would find himself sitting, standing or kneeling in several inches of water; the tule canoes were used for transportation to oyster mollusk and other shellfish beds that could be harvested at low tide. The Emer