East Riding of Yorkshire
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or East Riding, is an area in Northern England and can refer either to the administrative county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, a unitary authority, to the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire or to the easternmost of the three subdivisions of the traditional county of Yorkshire. No two of these areas share the same geographical boundaries despite sharing the same name; the traditional East Riding of Yorkshire includes parts of ceremonial North Yorkshire such as Filey but not Goole, whereas both the administrative and ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire include Goole but not those parts of North Yorkshire. Both the traditional and ceremonial East Riding include Kingston upon Hull, but the administrative East Riding does not as Kingston upon Hull is in its own unitary authority; the traditional East Riding covers a larger area than both the ceremonial and administrative East Riding. The East Riding, North Riding and West Riding were treated as three separate counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions.
In 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, administrative counties with a county council were created on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the Local Government Area and the Lieutenancy of the East Riding of Yorkshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, being succeeded in most of the riding by the newly created Humberside which included parts of the West Riding and parts of Lincolnshire; the modern Local Government Area and the ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire were formed in 1996 from the northern part of Humberside upon its abolition. At the 2011 Census, the population was 334,179; the landscape consists of a crescent of low chalk hills, the Yorkshire Wolds, surrounded by the low-lying fertile plains of Holderness and the Vale of York. The Humber Estuary and North Sea mark its eastern limits. Archaeological investigations have revealed artefacts and structures from all historical periods since the last ice age. There are no industrial centres; the area is administered from the ancient ecclesiastical town of Beverley.
Christianity is the religion with the largest following in the area and there is a higher than average percentage of retired people. The economy is based on agriculture and tourism, contributing to the rural and seaside character of the Riding with its historic buildings, nature reserves and the Yorkshire Wolds Way long-distance footpath; the open and maritime aspects and lack of major urban development have led to the high levels of energy generation from renewable sources. Major sporting and entertainment venues are concentrated in Kingston upon Hull, while the seaside and market towns support semi-professional and amateur sports clubs and provide seasonal entertainment for visitors. Bishop Burton is the site of an agricultural college, Hull provides the region's only university. On the southern border, close to Hull, the Humber Bridge spans the Humber Estuary to enable the A15 to link Hessle with Barton-upon-Humber in North Lincolnshire; when the last glacial period ended, the hunter gatherers of the Palaeolithic period followed the animal herds across the land between continental Europe and Britain.
As conditions continued to improve and vegetation became more able to support a greater diversity of animals, the annual range of seasonal movement by Mesolithic communities decreased, people became more fixed to particular localities. Until about 6,000 BC, Mesolithic people appear to have exploited their environment; as communities came to rely on a smaller territorial range and as population levels increased, attempts began to be made to modify or control the natural world. In the Great Wold Valley, pollen samples of Mesolithic date indicate that the forest cover in the area was being disturbed and altered by man, that open grasslands were being created; the Yorkshire Wolds became a major focus for human settlement during the Neolithic period as they had a wide range of natural resources. The oldest monuments found on the Wolds are the Neolithic long barrows and round barrows. Two earthen long barrows in the region are found at Fordon, on Willerby Wold, at Kilham, both of which have radiocarbon dates of around 3700 BC.
From around 2000 to 800 BC, the people of the Bronze Age built the 1,400 Bronze Age round barrows that are known to exist on the Yorkshire Wolds. These are grouped together to form cemeteries. Many of these sites can still be seen as prominent features in the present-day landscape. By the Bronze Age, an open, landscape predominated on the Wolds, it was used for grazing and for arable cultivation. The wetlands on either side of the Wolds in the River Hull valley and the Vale of York were being used for animal rearing at this time. In the Iron Age there were further cultural changes in the area. There emerged a distinctive local tradition known as the Arras Culture, named after a site at Arras, near Market Weighton. There are similarities between the chariot burials of the Arras Culture and groups of La Tene burials in northern Europe, where the burial of carts was practised; the area became the kingdom of the tribe known as the Parisi. After invading Britain in AD 43, the Romans crossed the Humber Estuary in AD 71 to invade the Northumbrian territory of the Parisi tribe.
From their bridgehead at Petuaria they travelled northwards and built roads along the Wolds to Derventio, present day Malton, westwards to the River Ouse where they built the fort of Eboracum. There is evidence of extensive use of the light soils of the Wolds for grain farming in the Roman era. Several Roman villas which were the centres of large agric
Dairycoates is an area of Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, a former hamlet. The area was the site of a major North Eastern Railway engine shed, Dairycoates Engine Shed. Most of the Dairycoates area is now in industrial use, including the Brighton Street Industrial Estate, located on former rail use land. Dairycoates is located halfway between the town centres of Hull and Hessle, at the western edge of the Hessle Road urban area, its junction with the A1166. Hawthorn Avenue connects northward to the Anlaby Road area of Hull. Most of the modern area is used for industrial activity, including the Brighton Street Industrial Estate on Freightliner Road; the modern A63 runs through the south of the area. Dairycoates Lodge was constructed 1809 by merchant. Only three persons were recorded at Dairycoates in Edward Baines' 1823 Gazetteer: two persons involved in brick and tile manufacturing including Anthony Atkinson, a farmer. Hawthorn Avenue was built sometime after 1824; the Hull and Selby Railway was constructed through the area in the 1830s.
In 1846 a branch line, the Hull and Bridlington Branch Line was constructed from the Hull and Selby Line at a junction at Dairycoates. An engine shed was first established c. 1863. The shed was expanded during the late 19th and early 20th century into one of the largest on the North Eastern Railway's system. Two square roundhouse sheds were added 1876. In the 1850s the area contained only the railway lines; the area was adjacent to the Humber Estuary bank, the Hull railway ran alongside the bank. Much of the area was within the parish of North Ferriby. Sheahan recorded a residence Dairycoates Villa, on the Humber bank within the boundaries of Hull, beyond it Dairycoates Lodge. Dairycoates Inn was built in 1874. A wagon works, Newington Wagon Works was established in 1879, east of the Bridlington railway line and south of Hessle Road. To the south of the railway line St Andrew's Dock was opened in 1883, on land reclaimed from the Humber; the Hull and Barnsley Railway opened in 1885, with branch line passing through the area to a freight terminus, Neptune Street goods station.
By the 1890s Dairycoates Grange and Lodge had been demolished, replaced by the expansion of the railway lines. By the same period the westwards urban growth of Hull along Hessle Road had reached the area. By the first decade of the 20th century the urban extent of Hull had become continuous westwards as far as Dairycoates, with the Hull and Bridlington Branch Line coincident with the western boundary of urban growth; the industrial development and housing known as Gipsyville, west of Dairycoates had begun by this period. The general pattern of development remained constant through much of the 20th century, whilst Hull grew westwards into Gipsyville and towards Hessle and Anlaby. A church, St Mary and St Peter was established on Hessle Road in 1902, north of the wagon works. In 1912 the Eureka cinema opened on Hessle Road.. The Dairycoates engine shed was expanded by the addition of a third shed in 1915/16. A mechanical coaling plant was added in the same period. At the 1923 Grouping the overall facility contained 6 roundhouses, a straight shed, with a capacity of 150 engines.
In 1962 the level crossing at the eastern edge of the area was replaced with a road flyover at a cost of over £800,000 to reduce road congestion. Nearly £500,000 was contributed by the government, nearly £140,000 by the BTC; the Dairycoates engine shed closed in 1970. Tilcon built a rail connected asphalt concrete plant in the 1970s; as of 2013 the plant is operated by Lafarge Tarmac, with the rail connection operated by DB Schenker Rail. Supplied with stone from Rylstone; the Neptune Street goods branch of the former Hull and Barnsley line had been closed and removed by the 1970s. By the 1990s the former railway and engine shed. Birds Eye opened a pea processing facility on the estate in 2007. A Lidl supermarket was built in the 2000s over a site including the demolished former Eureka picture palace. In 2016 Lidl announced it intended to close its supermarket and build a larger one across from the previous site nearer to Brighton Street. For the nearby Dairycoates Industrial Estate, see Gipsyville
For the area south of the dock branch elevated railway, see Wilmington, Kingston upon Hull Stoneferry is a suburb of Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It was a small hamlet on the east bank of the River Hull, the site of a ferry, after 1905, a bridge; the area is industrial, is situated on the east bank of the river, as well as close by areas on the west bank. Stoneferry Road travels south through Wilmington towards the centre of Hull. Ferry Lane runs east for a short distance from Stoneferry bridge to meet Stoneferry Road; the boundaries of the Stoneferry area are formed by the River Hull to the west beyond which are the areas of Sculcoates and Clough Road/Newland. To the north-east and east are the housing estates of Sutton Ings and Garden Village; the A1033 Stoneferry Road runs north-south through the area, connected with the east end of the A1165 Clough Road/Ferry Lane via the bridges over the River Hull. Chamberlain Road, running east to the Garden Village is the areas other main road.
The Hull Docks Branch runs south-east through the southern part of the area, has a crossing of the river. The Stoneferry area contains a large amount of industrial development focused along the banks of the River Hull, which includes manufacturing and retail sites; the eastern part has some housing, including late Victoria era/early Edwardian era, pre- and post-Second World War, late 20th century houses. In the eastern part are some managed natural spaces. There is an outcropping bed of harder rock or other agglomerate in the river bed near Stoneferry. A river crossing at Stoneferry is recorded as early as 1269, being referred to as'Stanfordrak', the name Stoneferry began to be used in the 14th century; the hamlet formed part of the parish of Wawne. In 1845 a water works was constructed at Stoneferry on the west bank of the river to meet the demands of the town of Hull. Supplies had come from chalk springs near Anlaby; the advice had been sought of Thomas Wicksteed, the engineer, who thought they could not provide sufficient volume, suggested that water should be taken from the River Hull, at ebb, when it was thought the flow of the river would be sufficient to render the water fresh.
Initial analyses suggested that the water quality would be good, but this was found not to be the case, with complaints of poor quality water, with the water being muddy and brackish. A cholera outbreak occurred in Hull in 1849, sources of a better supply were sought, it was William Warden, a local resident of Hessle who claimed that an artesian well in the area would give sufficient supply. The initial cost of the Stoneferry waterworks was £58,000, this rose to £92,808 with two further engines of 170 and 220 hp, additional water treatment facilities. Around 1891 the pumping station at Stoneferry ceased to be used to pump water to Hull. During the latter part of the 19th century the area between Hull and Stoneferry began to be developed industrially, in 1882 Stoneferry became part of the municipal borough of Kingston upon Hull; the Hull and Hornsea Railway was opened passing north through the eastern extreme of the Stoneferry area in the 1860s and the Hull and Barnsley Railway was constructed across the southern part of the area in the 1880s, curving south-east from a crossing of the River Hull.
Urban development beyond the original hamlet took place during the decades at the beginning of the 20th century around the south-western end of Leads Road, on Lorraine Street. Further housing development took place starting in the late 1930s between Stoneferry Road and the Foredyke stream, between the Fordyke and the Hull and Hornsea railway line; the development along Sutton Road was demolished in the 1970s, replaced by the Sutton Fields industrial estate. In the 1990s a small housing estate was built between Stoneferry Road and the former Foredyke drain, north of the Stoneferry railway branch; as of 2012 the area is a mixture of industrial usage, as well as housing, green spaces. In 2011 the area'Rockford Fields', remnant of the pastureland of Sutton Ings was designated as a local nature reserve. In 2012 property developer Barratt obtained planning permission to build around 100 homes on playing fields on land bequeathed by James Reckitt for recreational use by employees of Reckitts of Hull.
By the 1850s there was a whiting and oil mill in Stoneferry, by 1910 development was continuous along the River Hull banks, consisting of mills for seed oils, whiting
Humberside Fire and Rescue Service
Humberside Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the area of what was the county of Humberside, but now consists of the unitary authorities of East Riding of Yorkshire, Kingston upon Hull, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire in northern England. Humberside Fire and Rescue Service was formed in 1974 as a result of the new Government laws stating that all areas must have an official fire service; when Humberside County Council, was abolished in 1995, a parliamentary combination order came into effect, establishing Humberside Fire Authority with control of all brigade personnel and premises. This is a combined fire authority, financed by the constituent councils of East Riding of Yorkshire Council, Kingston upon Hull City Council, North Lincolnshire Council and North East Lincolnshire Council. In 1987 Humberside Fire Brigade changed its name to Rescue Service; this was to reflect the role they now play in many aspects of fire safety as they do much more than just putting out fires.
In 2007 Humberside Fire and Rescue Service featured on a BBC One show entitled Women on Fire. Cameras followed two female firefighters during a 16-day intensive training course to allow them to become retained firefighters for Humberside Fire and Rescue Service. On 1 January 2013 plans were submitted to Hull City Council expressing Humberside Fire and Rescue Service's intention to replace Clough Road fire station, to build a new £3.9 million facility on the same site. In April 2013 planning permission was granted by Hull City Council; the new station became operational in July 2015. In a similar fashion, due to the ongoing expansion of Hull New Theatre, Hull Central fire station was closed, having been demolished beforehand, operations were moved to a new station on Spring Street in 2017. In January 2017 work on a £9 million Integrated Care Centre began which will include a new fire station for East Hull; the site for this is that of the former David Lister School off Rosmead Street. The site is due to open in 2018.
Humberside Fire and Rescue Service's headquarters are on the western outskirts of Hull in Summergroves Way near the boundary with Hessle. This building houses the majority of the Service's administration and support services including Stores, IT, Health & Safety, Training etc. Humberside Fire and Rescue Service operates from 30 fire stations; these stations are strategically situated around the region to ensure suitable coverage around the region. 8 of these stations are Wholetime, 3 stations are Wholetime/Retained, 19 station are Retained. The 30 Stations are divided into four Community Protection Units each one covering a different area of Humberside. Below are various tables that list the Station Callsign, Duty System and Appliances at each of the stations. Water Ladder: P1 Water Tender: P1/P4/P5 Small Fire Unit: L1 Aerial Rescue Pump: A1 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Water Support Unit: W1 Rescue Support Unit: R1 Water Incident Unit + Inshore Rescue Boat: M1 Equipment Support Unit: S1 Incident Command & Control Unit: C1 Emergency First Responder Vehicle: V1 Prime Mover: T2/T6/T7Pods: Technical Rescue Unit Environmental Protection Unit High Volume Pump Double Hose Laying Unit Bulk Foam Unit CBRN Response: Detection, Identification & Monitoring: H8 Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T6 Fire service in the United Kingdom FiReControl Firefighter Fire engine Fire apparatus List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, diminished after 1450. Hanse spelled as Hansa, was the Old High German word for a convoy, this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities - whether by land or by sea. Merchant circles established the league to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes which the merchants used; the Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and operated their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states.
Historians trace the origins of the Hanseatic League to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, after he had captured the area from Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein. Exploratory trading adventures and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic region—the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod, for example—but the scale of international trade in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League. German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, Lübeck became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas; the hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century. Lübeck became a base for merchants from Westphalia trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267, merchants in different cities began to form guilds, or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic.
This area was a source of timber, amber and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies; the Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, commercial ships had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080. Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement, they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, further up river, in the first half of the 13th century. In 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. Before the official foundation of the league in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag.
The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London in 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to free them from all tolls in London and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England; the "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1226, as its potential trading partner Hamburg had in 1189. In 1241, Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg; the allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London.
Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes; the principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck. Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Kievan Rus' with its sea trade center Veliky Novgorod, putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor. Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire, the league never became a managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck for a Hansetag, from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities.
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Hull Minster is an Anglican minster in the centre of Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The church was called Holy Trinity Church until 13 May 2017, it is the largest parish church in England by floor area. The church dates back to about 1300 and contains what is acknowledged to be some of the finest mediaeval brick-work in the country in the transepts; the Minster Church is now a Grade I listed building. The Minster Church is a member of the Greater Churches Group. William Wilberforce, who led the parliamentary campaign against the slave trade, was baptised in Holy Trinity Church. In November 2014 plans were unveiled to reorder the church, creating an outstanding venue for performances and banquets, a visitor destination, a place where those in need of help can find assistance; the aim is to create a place for the whole community, a venue that will be a driving force in the regeneration of Hull's Old Town. The transformation, costing a total of £4.5 million, will take place in phases from 2016 onwards, the first being ready for UK City of Culture in 2017.
On 7 November 2016, Archbishop of York John Sentamu announced that the church would be given Minster status in a ceremony on 13 May 2017. Sentamu came to Hull on 13 May in a flotilla of boats with a lantern lit at All Saint's Church, Hessle to rededicate the church as Hull Minster. In March 2019, the Minster received a grant of £3.9 million from Highways England to create a visitor centre and exhibition spaces. The organ is a large four manual instrument; the oldest parts of the organ date from 1622 by the builder John Raper. There was further work in 1756 and 1758 by 1788 by Ryley. Forster and Andrews worked on the organ in 1845, 1854, 1876, 1900 and 1908, with John Compton providing the last restoration in 1938. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register Organ Scholars David Thomas since September 2011 Richard Harrison Cowley since May 2017 Grade I listed churches in the East Riding of Yorkshire Hull Trinity House Official website Historic England. "Details from image database".
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