The United States Navy, United States Coast Guard, United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration use a hull classification symbol to identify their ships by type and by individual ship within a type. The system is analogous to the pennant number system that the Royal Navy and other European and Commonwealth navies use; the U. S. Navy began to assign unique Naval Registry Identification Numbers to its ships in the 1890s; the system was a simple one in which each ship received a number, appended to its ship type spelled out, added parenthetically after the ship's name when deemed necessary to avoid confusion between ships. Under this system, for example, the battleship Indiana was USS Indiana, the cruiser Olympia was USS Olympia, so on. Beginning in 1907, some ships were referred to alternatively by single-letter or three-letter codes—for example, USS Indiana could be referred to as USS Indiana and USS Olympia could be referred to as USS Olympia, while USS Pennsylvania could be referred to as USS Pennsylvania.
However, rather than replacing it, these codes coexisted and were used interchangeably with the older system until the modern system was instituted on 17 July 1920. During World War I, the U. S. Navy acquired large numbers of owned and commercial ships and craft for use as patrol vessels, mine warfare vessels, various types of naval auxiliary ships, some of them with identical names. To keep track of them all, the Navy assigned unique identifying numbers to them; those deemed appropriate for patrol work received section patrol numbers, while those intended for other purposes received "identification numbers" abbreviated "Id. No." or "ID. The SP/ID numbering sequence was unified and continuous, with no SP number repeated in the ID series or vice versa so that there could not be, for example, both an "SP-435" and an "Id. No 435"; the SP and ID numbers were used parenthetically after ship's name to identify it. The United States Revenue Cutter Service, which merged with the United States Lifesaving Service in January 1915 to form the modern United States Coast Guard, began following the Navy's lead in the 1890s, with its cutters having parenthetical numbers called Naval Registry Identification Numbers following their names, such as, etc.
This persisted until the Navy's modern hull classification system's introduction in 1920, which included Coast Guard ships and craft. Like the U. S. Navy, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey – a uniformed seagoing service of the United States Government and a predecessor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – adopted a hull number system for its fleet in the 20th century, its largest vessels, "Category I" oceanographic survey ships, were classified as "ocean survey ships" and given the designation "OSS". Intermediate-sized "Category II" oceanographic survey ships received the designation "MSS" for "medium survey ship," and smaller "Category III" oceanographic survey ships were given the classification "CSS" for "coastal survey ship." A fourth designation, "ASV" for "auxiliary survey vessel," included smaller vessels. In each case, a particular ship received a unique designation based on its classification and a unique hull number separated by a space rather than a hyphen.
The Coast and Geodetic Survey's system persisted after the creation of NOAA in 1970, when NOAA took control of the Survey's fleet, but NOAA changed to its modern hull classification system. The U. S. Navy instituted its modern hull classification system on 17 July 1920, doing away with section patrol numbers, "identification numbers", the other numbering systems described above. In the new system, all hull classification symbols are at least two letters; the combination of symbol and hull number identifies a modern Navy ship uniquely. A modified or re-purposed ship may receive a new symbol, either retain the hull number or receive a new one. For example, the heavy gun cruiser USS Boston was converted to a gun/missile cruiser, changing the hull number to CAG-1; the system of symbols has changed a number of times both since it was introduced in 1907 and since the modern system was instituted in 1920, so ships' symbols sometimes change without anything being done to the physical ship. Hull numbers are assigned by classification.
Duplication between, but not within, classifications is permitted. Hence, CV-1 was the aircraft carrier USS BB-1 was the battleship USS Indiana. Ship types and classifications have come and gone over the years, many of the symbols listed below are not presently in use; the Naval Vessel Register maintains an online database of U. S. Navy ships showing which symbols are presently in use. After World War II until 1975, the U. S. Navy defined a "frigate" as a type of surface warship larger than a destroyer and smaller than a cruiser. In other navies, such a ship was referred to as
The Karapoti Classic is New Zealand's longest-running annual mountain bike event, started in 1986 by Paul Kennett. The full course is 50 kilometres long and starts in Karapoti Park, Akatarawa, in Upper Hutt, heads up the 8 kilometres Karapoti Gorge. From there it begins a single 30 kilometres loop in the native and pine forest of the Akatarawa Ranges; the 1986 Karapoti was New Zealand's first national mountain bike race and was self declared the National Off-Road Championships. The event was managed by the Kennett Bros until 2002; the event differs from most races because it comprises a large single loop and the route does not change from year to year. With two exceptions, it has since 1993 been held on the first Saturday of March every year. Male and female winners since the inaugural race are shown in the table below. Official website User provided write up at Tracks.org.nz
Whetumarama Wereta is a Māori political scientist and statistician from Lower Hutt, New Zealand. She belongs to the Ngāi Te Ngāti Ranginui iwis. Wereta has served as the Mäori representative on several government commissions or committees on the electoral system and justice. Wereta gained a BA Hons degree joined the Department of Statistics in the early 1970s. In 1992, Wereta became Maori Statistics, she has worked as a policy researcher and/or a manager in the Ministry of Maori Development and its predecessors, in the Department of Internal Affairs. Wereta was employed as a social researcher at the Department of Maori Affairs in Wellington in 1988. Wereta served on the New Zealand National Commission for UNESCO, she was one of the three members of the Local Government Commission from 1 April 1990 until 31 March 1993, along with Sir Brian Elwood and Doug Pearson. Rejoining Statistics New Zealand in 2001, she was appointed Maori Statistics. Wereta was a member of the five-person 1985-86 New Zealand Royal Commission on the Electoral System that recommended mixed member proportional representation for elections to the New Zealand Parliament, a major change from the previous first-past-the-post system.
She was the only member of the commission with a known political affiliation, the only Maori and the only woman on the commission. The committee embraced the principles of fairness to women and to the Maori in their report, accepted. New Zealand now follows an MMP system of elections. In 1988, Wereta was appointed to serve on the Picot task force to review the functions of the Department of Education, her role on the task force was to emphasise a Maori perspective. As the only Maori on the task force, she was at first marginalized, it was only when she threatened to resign that it was agreed to include a section on Maori aspirations in the report. The Picot Task Force caused fundamental changes in the New Zealand educational system towards greater school autonomy and separation of regulatory responsibilities into different agencies. In 1994, Wereta was appointed to the four-person Mäori Committee to the New Zealand Law Commission, an independent advisory body set up to review and develop the law of New Zealand.
The purpose of the committee is to assist the Law Commission in the "development of a bicultural framework for the law of New Zealand". She was a member of that committee when, on 15 September 1995, it submitted a report that rejected in the strongest terms the government proposal to abolish the right of appeal to the Privy Council, she was a contributor to the April 1999 report by the Law Commission on Justice: The Experiences of Mäori Women. In 2006, Wereta was appointed the government's representative on the Representation Commission to determine the boundaries of the Maori electoral districts. Other members were John McEnteer, representing the opposition, Judge Bernard Kendall, chairperson. Dr Pita Sharples, co-leader of the Māori Party, criticized the appointment on the grounds that the government had not consulted his party; as an authority on statistics, Maori statistics in particular, Wereta has published and presented a number of academic papers. In 2002, she presented a paper on Statistics in the Wake of Challenges Posed by Cultural Diversity in a Globalization Context at the International Symposium on Cultural Statistics in Montreal, Canada.
In July 2005 she was a keynote speaker at a conference of the Population Association of New Zealand. At a March 2006 meeting in Ottawa, Canada of the UN Permanent Forum of Indigenous Peoples she presented a paper on Towards a Maori Statistics Framework. Other papers: Whetu Wereta. "Māori Demographic Trends". Social Policy Journal of New Zealand: Issue 03. Retrieved 2010-12-13. Whetu Wereta and Darin Bishop. "Towards a Maori Statistics Framework". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-12-13. Sharleen Forbes, Vince Galvin, Andrew Hunter, Paul Maxwell and Whetu Wereta. "Official Statistics: An Ethical Balance". CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list