Youth is the time of life when one is young, means the time between childhood and adulthood. It is defined as "the appearance, vigor, etc. characteristic of one, young". Its definitions of a specific age range varies, as youth is not defined chronologically as a stage that can be tied to specific age ranges. Youth is an experience that may shape an individual's level of dependency, which can be marked in various ways according to different cultural perspectives. Personal experience is marked by an individual's cultural norms or traditions, while a youth's level of dependency means the extent to which he still relies on his family and economically. Around the world, the English terms youth, teenager and young person are interchanged meaning the same thing, but they are differentiated. Youth can be referred to as the time of life; this involves childhood, the time of life, neither childhood nor adulthood, but rather somewhere in between. Youth identifies a particular mindset of attitude, as in "He is youthful".
For certain uses, such as employment statistics, the term sometimes refers to individuals from the ages of 14 to 21. However, the term adolescence refers to a specific age range during a specific developmental period in a person's life, unlike youth, a constructed category; the United Nations defines youth as persons between the ages of 15 and 24 with all UN statistics based on this range, the UN states education as a source for these statistics. The UN recognizes that this varies without prejudice to other age groups listed by member states such as 18–30. A useful distinction within the UN itself can be made between young adults. While seeking to impose some uniformity on statistical approaches, the UN itself is aware of contradictions between approaches in its own statutes. Hence under the 15–24 definition children are defined as those under the age of 14 while under the 1979 Convention on the Rights of the Child, those under the age of 18 are regarded as children; the UN states they are aware that several definitions exist for youth within UN entities such as Youth Habitat 15–32 and African Youth Charter 15–35.
Although linked to biological processes of development and aging, youth is defined as a social position that reflects the meanings different cultures and societies give to individuals between childhood and adulthood. The term in itself when referred to in a manner of social position, can be ambiguous when applied to someone of an older age with low social position. Scholars argue that age-based definitions have not been consistent across cultures or times and that thus it is more accurate to focus on social processes in the transition to adult independence for defining youth. "This world demands the qualities of youth: not a time of life but a state of mind, a temper of the will, a quality of imagination, a predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the life of ease." – Robert KennedyYouth is the stage of constructing the self-concept. The self-concept of youth is influenced by variables such as peers, lifestyle and culture, it is a time of a person's life when their choices are most to affect their future.
In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the term "youth" is associated with young men from 15 to 30 or 35 years of age. Youth in Nigeria includes all members of the Federal Republic of Nigeria aged 18–35. Many African girls experience youth as a brief interlude between the onset of puberty and marriage and motherhood, but in urban settings, poor women are considered youth much longer if they bear children outside of marriage. Varying culturally, the gender constructions of youth in Latin America and Southeast Asia differ from those of sub-Saharan Africa. In Vietnam, widespread notions of youth are sociopolitical constructions for both sexes between the ages of 15 and 35. In Brazil, the term youth refers to people of both sexes from 15 to 29 years old; this age bracket reflects the influence on Brazilian law of international organizations like the World Health Organization. It is shaped by the notion of adolescence that has entered everyday life in Brazil through a discourse on children's rights; the intergovernmental organization Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines youth as "those between 15 and 29 years of age".
August 12 was declared International Youth Day by the United Nations. Children's rights cover all the rights; when they grow up they are granted with new duties. There are different minimum limits of age at which youth are not free, independent or competent to take some decisions or actions; some of these limits are voting age, age of candidacy, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, drinking age, driving age, etc. After youth reach these limits they are free to vote, have sexual intercourse, buy or consume alcohol beverages or drive cars, etc. Voting age is the minimum age established by law that a person must attain to be eligible to vote in a public election; the age is set at 18 years. Studies show; this is an important right since, by voting they can support politics selected by themselves and not only by people of older generations. Age o
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another in exchange for money. A system or network that allows trade is called a market. An early form of trade, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. Barter involves trading things without the use of money. One bartering party started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic as well as practical importance. Modern traders negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money; as a result, buying can be separated from earning. The invention of money simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade involving more than two traders is called multilateral trade. Trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs. Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere, or because different regions' sizes may encourage mass production.
In such circumstances, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations. Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser. Wholesale trade is defined as traffic in goods that are sold as merchandise to retailers, or to industrial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. Commerce is derived from the Latin commercium, from cum "together" and merx, "merchandise."Trade from Middle English trade, introduced into English by Hanseatic merchants, from Middle Low German trade, from Old Saxon trada, from Proto-Germanic *tradō, cognate with Old English tredan. Trade originated with human communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.
In the Mediterranean region the earliest contact between cultures were of members of the species Homo sapiens principally using the Danube river, at a time beginning 35,000–30,000 BCE. Some trace the origins of commerce to the start of transaction in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of flint during the stone age. Trade in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea from 17,000 BCE; the earliest use of obsidian in the Near East dates to the Middle paleolithic. Trade in the stone age was investigated by Robert Carr Bosanquet in excavations of 1901. Trade is believed to have first begun in south west Asia. Archaeological evidence of obsidian use provides data on how this material was the preferred choice rather than chert from the late Mesolithic to Neolithic, requiring exchange as deposits of obsidian are rare in the Mediterranean region.
Obsidian is thought to have provided the material to make cutting utensils or tools, although since other more obtainable materials were available, use was found exclusive to the higher status of the tribe using "the rich man's flint". Obsidian was traded at distances of 900 kilometres within the Mediterranean region. Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material. Networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE Anatolia was the source for trade with the Levant and Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990. Melos and Lipari sources produced among the most widespread trading in the Mediterranean region as known to archaeology; the Sari-i-Sang mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for trade of lapis lazuli. The material was most traded during the Kassite period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE. Ebla was a prominent trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE.
Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. For this purpose they established trade colonies. From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including India and China. Roman commerce allowed its empire to endure; the latter Roman Republic and the Pax Romana of the Roman empire produced a stable and secure transportation network that enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant piracy, as Rome had become the sole effective sea power in the Mediterranean with the conquest of Egypt and the near east. In ancient Greece Hermes was the god of trade and weights and measures, for Romans Mercurius god of merchants, whose festival was celebrated by traders on the 25th day o
National Human Development Report
The National Human Development Reports take the Global Human Development Report approach to the national level and are prepared and owned by national teams. More than 540 national and sub-national HDRs have been produced so far by 135 countries, in addition to 31 regional reports, they have introduced the human development concept into national policy dialogue — not only through human development indicators and policy recommendations, but through the country-led and country-owned process of consultation and report writing. Data, not published elsewhere - such as statistics disaggregated by geographic location, ethnic group or along rural/urban lines - help pinpoint development gaps, measure progress and flag early warning signs of possible conflict; as advocacy tools designed to appeal to a wide audience, the reports spur lively public debates and mobilize support for action and change. They have helped to articulate people’s perceptions and priorities, as well as serve as a resource of alternate policy opinion for development planning.
List of National Human Development Reports
Amartya Kumar Sen, is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, the United States. Sen has made contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory and social justice, economic theories of famines, indices of the measure of well-being of citizens of developing countries, he is the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor at Harvard University and member of faculty at Harvard Law School, he is a Fellow and former Master of Trinity College and was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1998 and India's Bharat Ratna in 1999 for his work in welfare economics. In 2017, Sen was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science for most valuable contribution to Political Science. In 2004, Sen was ranked number 14 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. Amartya Sen was born in a Hindu family in Bengal, British India, in the district of modern day Bangladesh, Manikganj. Rabindranath Tagore gave Amartya Sen his name.
Sen's family was from Wari and Manikganj, both in present-day Bangladesh. His father Ashutosh Sen was a professor of chemistry at Dhaka University who moved with his family to West Bengal in 1945 and worked at various government institutions, including the West Bengal Public Service Commission, the Union Public Service Commission. Sen's mother Amita Sen was the daughter of Kshiti Mohan Sen, a well-known scholar of ancient and medieval India and close associate of Rabindranath Tagore, he served as the Vice Chancellor of Delhi University for some years. Sen began his high-school education at St Gregory's School in Dhaka in 1940. In fall 1941, Sen was admitted to Patha Bhavana, where he completed his school education, in which he excelled, obtaining the highest ranks in his school board and I. A. examinations in the whole of Bengal. The school had many progressive features, such as distaste for competitive testing. In addition, the school stressed cultural diversity, embraced cultural influences from the rest of the world.
In 1951, he went to Presidency College, where he earned a B. A. in Economics with First in the First Class, with a minor in Mathematics, as a graduating student of the University of Calcutta. While at Presidency, Sen was diagnosed with oral cancer, given a 15% chance of living five years. With radiation treatment, he survived, in 1953 he moved to Trinity College, where he earned a second B. A. in Economics in 1955 with a First Class, topping the list as well. At this time, he was elected President of the Cambridge Majlis. While Sen was a Ph. D student at Cambridge, he was offered the position of First-Professor and First-Head of the Economics Department of the newly created Jadavpur University in Calcutta, he is still the youngest chairman. He served in that position, starting the new Economics Department, from 1956 to 1958. Meanwhile, Sen was elected to a Prize Fellowship at Trinity College, which gave him four years of freedom to do anything he liked. Sen explained: "The broadening of my studies into philosophy was important for me not just because some of my main areas of interest in economics relate quite to philosophical disciplines, but because I found philosophical studies rewarding on their own".
His interest in philosophy, dates back to his college days at Presidency, where he read books on philosophy and debated philosophical themes. One of the books he was most interested in was Individual Values. In Cambridge, there were major debates between supporters of Keynesian economics on the one hand, the "neo-classical" economists who were skeptical of Keynes, on the other. However, because of a lack of enthusiasm for social choice theory in both Trinity and Cambridge, Sen had to choose a different subject for his Ph. D. thesis, on "The Choice of Techniques" in 1959, though the work had been completed much earlier under the supervision of the "brilliant but vigorously intolerant" post-Keynesian, Joan Robinson. Quentin Skinner notes that Sen was a member of the secret society Cambridge Apostles during his time at Cambridge. During 1960-61, Amartya Sen visited M. I. T. on leave from Trinity College, found it a great relief to get away from the rather sterile debates that the contending armies were fighting in Cambridge.
Sen's work on'Choice of Techniques' complemented that of Maurice Dobb. In a Developing country, the Dobb-Sen strategy relied on maximising investible surpluses, maintaining constant real wages and using the entire increase in labour productivity, due to technological change, to raise the rate of accumulation. In other words, workers were expected to demand no improvement in their standard of living despite having become more productive. Sen's papers in the late 1960s and early 1970s helped develop the theory of social choice, which first came to prominence in the work by the American economist Kenneth Arrow. Arrow, while working at the RAND Corporation, had most famously shown that when voters have three or more distinct alternatives, any ranked order voting system will in at least some situations conflict with what many assume to be basic democratic norms. Sen's contribution
An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, consumption of goods and services by different agents. Understood in its broadest sense,'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices and material expressions associated with the production and management of resources'. Economic agents can be individuals, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain. Economic activity is spurred by production which uses natural resources and capital, it has changed over time due to technology, innovation such as, that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations. A given economy is the result of a set of processes that involves its culture, education, technological evolution, social organization, political structure and legal systems, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, ecology, as main factors.
These factors give context and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of human transactions, it does not stand alone. A market-based economy is one where goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network, such as a unit of currency. A command-based economy is one where political agents directly control what is produced and how it is sold and distributed. A green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient, inclusive. In a green economy, growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. A gig economy is one in which short-term jobs are assigned via online platforms and a programmable economy is the set of revolutionary changes taking place in the global economy due to technology innovations.
✓. Today the range of fields of study examining the economy revolves around the social science of economics, but may include sociology, history and geography. Practical fields directly related to the human activities involving production, distribution and consumption of goods and services as a whole are engineering, business administration, applied science, finance. All professions, economic agents or economic activities, contribute to the economy. Consumption and investment are variable components in the economy that determine macroeconomic equilibrium. There are three main sectors of economic activity: primary and tertiary. Due to the growing importance of the economical sector in modern times, the term real economy is used by analysts as well as politicians to denote the part of the economy, concerned with the actual production of goods and services, as ostensibly contrasted with the paper economy, or the financial side of the economy, concerned with buying and selling on the financial markets.
Alternate and long-standing terminology distinguishes measures of an economy expressed in real values, such as real GDP, or in nominal values. The English words "economy" and "economics" can be traced back to the Greek word οἰκονόμος, a composite word derived from οἶκος and νέμω by way of οἰκονομία; the first recorded sense of the word "economy" is in the phrase "the management of œconomic affairs", found in a work composed in a monastery in 1440. "Economy" is recorded in more general senses, including "thrift" and "administration". The most used current sense, denoting "the economic system of a country or an area", seems not to have developed until the 1650s; as long as someone has been making and distributing goods or services, there has been some sort of economy. Sumer developed a large-scale economy based on commodity money, while the Babylonians and their neighboring city states developed the earliest system of economics as we think of, in terms of rules/laws on debt, legal contracts and law codes relating to business practices, private property.
The Babylonians and their city state neighbors developed forms of economics comparable to used civil society concepts. They developed the first known codified legal and administrative systems, complete with courts and government records; the ancient economy was based on subsistence farming. The Shekel referred to an ancient unit of currency; the first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. and referred to a specific mass of barley which related other values in a metric such as silver, copper etc. A barley/shekel was both a unit of currency and a unit of weight, just as the British Pound was a uni
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve
Oman the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Its official religion is Islam. Holding a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, the country shares land borders with the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, Yemen to the southwest, shares marine borders with Iran and Pakistan; the coast is formed by the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries. From the late 17th century, the Omani Sultanate was a powerful empire, vying with Portugal and the UK for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence or control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to modern-day Iran and Pakistan, as far south as Zanzibar; when its power declined in the 20th century, the sultanate came under the influence of the United Kingdom.
For over 300 years, the relations built between the two empires were based on mutual benefits. The UK recognized Oman's geographical importance as a trading hub that secured their trade lanes in the Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean and protected their empire in the Indian sub-continent. By contrast, the British strengthened Oman's internal unity and allied the sultanate against external threats. Muscat was the principal trading port of the Persian Gulf region. Muscat was among the most important trading ports of the Indian Ocean; the Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said has been the hereditary leader of the country, an absolute monarchy, since 1970. Sultan Qaboos is the longest-serving current ruler in the Middle East, third-longest current reigning monarch in the world. Oman is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, it has ranking 25th globally. In 2010, the United Nations Development Programme ranked Oman as the most improved nation in the world in terms of development during the preceding 40 years.
A significant portion of its economy involves tourism and trade of fish and certain agricultural produce. Oman is categorized as a high-income economy and ranks as the 70th most peaceful country in the world according to the Global Peace Index. At Aybut Al Auwal, in the Dhofar Governorate of Oman, a site was discovered in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools, belonging to a regionally specific African lithic industry—the late Nubian Complex—known only from the northeast and Horn of Africa. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at 106,000 years old; this supports the proposition that early human populations moved from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene. In recent years known from survey finds and Neolithic sites have come to light most on the eastern coast. Main Palaeolithic sites include Saiwan-Ghunaim in the Barr al-Hikman. Archaeological remains are numerous for the Bronze Age Umm an-Nar and Wadi Suq periods.
Sites such as Bat show professional wheel-turned pottery, excellent hand-made stone vessels, a metals industry, monumental architecture. The Early and Late Iron Ages show more differences than similarities to each other. Thereafter, until the coming of the Ibadhidya, little or nothing is known. Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Magan and Akkadian ones Makan, a name which links Oman's ancient copper resources. Mazoon, a Persian name used for the region. Over centuries tribes from the west settled in Oman, making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding, many present day Omani families trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia; when the emigrants from northern-western and south-western Arabia arrived in Oman, they had to compete with the indigenous population for the best arable land. In the 1970s and 1980s scholars like John C. Wilkinson believed by virtue of oral history that in the 6th century BC, the Achaemenids exerted control over the Omani peninsula, most ruling from a coastal center such as Suhar.
Central Oman has its own indigenous Samad Late Iron Age cultural assemblage named eponymously from Samad al-Shan. In the northern part of the Oman Peninsula the Recent Pre-Islamic Period begins in the 3rd century BC and extends into the 3rd century AD. Whether or not Persians brought south-eastern Arabian under their control is a moot point, since the lack of Persian finds speak against this belief. Four centuries Omanis came in contact with and accepted Islam; the conversion of Oman is ascribed to Amr ibn al-As, sent by the prophet Muhammad during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha. A decade after Vasco da Gama's successful voyage around the Cape of Good Hope and to India in 1497–98, the Portuguese arrived in Oman and occupied Muscat for a 143-year period, from 1507 to 1650, their fortress still remains. In need of an outpost to protect their sea lanes, the Portuguese built up and fortified the city, where remnants of their colonial architectural style still exist. An Ottoman fleet captured Muscat in 1552, during the fight for control of the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.
The Ottoman Turks captured Muscat from the Portuguese in 1581 and held it until 1588. Rebellious tribes drove out the Portuguese, but were themselves pushed out about a century in 1741, by the leader of an Omani tribe, who began the current line of ruling sultans. Except for a brief Persian invasion in the late 1