The Human Rights Act 1998 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, came into force on 2 October 2000. Its aim was to incorporate into UK law the rights contained in the European Convention on Human Rights; the Act makes a remedy for breach of a Convention right available in UK courts, without the need to go to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. In particular, the Act makes it unlawful for any public body to act in a way, incompatible with the Convention, unless the wording of any other primary legislation provides no other choice, it requires the judiciary to take account of any decisions, judgment or opinion of the European Court of Human Rights, to interpret legislation, as far as possible, in a way, compatible with Convention rights. However, if it is not possible to interpret an Act of Parliament so as to make it compatible with the Convention, the judges are not allowed to override it. All they can do is issue a declaration of incompatibility.
This declaration does not affect the validity of the Act of Parliament: in that way, the Human Rights Act seeks to maintain the principle of Parliamentary sovereignty. However, judges may strike down secondary legislation. Under the Act, individuals retain the right to sue in the Strasbourg court. Former Prime Minister David Cameron criticised the Act from 2007 and proposed to replace it with a "British Bill of Rights" during his second ministry; the replacement did not take place. The Convention was drafted by the Council of Europe after World War II. Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe was the Chair of the Committee on Legal and Administrative Questions of the Council's Consultative Assembly from 1949 to 1952, oversaw the drafting of the European Convention on Human Rights, it was designed to incorporate a traditional civil liberties approach to securing "effective political democracy", from the strong traditions of freedom and liberty in the United Kingdom. As a founding member of the Council of Europe, the UK acceded to the European Convention on Human Rights in March 1951.
However it was not until the 1960s that British citizens were able to bring claims in the European Court of Human Rights. During the 1980s, groups such as Charter 88 accused the executive of misusing its power and argued that a new British Bill of Rights was needed to secure human rights in the UK. In its manifesto for the 1997 general election, the Labour party pledged to incorporate the European Convention into domestic law; when the election resulted in a landslide Labour victory, the party, under the leadership of Tony Blair, fulfilled this pledge through Parliamentary passage of the Human Rights Act the following year. The 1997 white paper "Rights Brought Home" stated: It takes on average five years to get an action into the European Court of Human Rights once all domestic remedies have been exhausted. Bringing these rights home will mean that the British people will be able to argue for their rights in the British courts – without this inordinate delay and cost; the Human Rights Act places a duty on all courts and tribunals in the United Kingdom to interpret legislation so far as possible in a way compatible with the rights laid down in the European Convention on Human Rights.
Where this is not possible, the court may issue a "declaration of incompatibility". The declaration does not invalidate the legislation, but permits the amendment of the legislation by a special fast-track procedure under section 10 of the Act; as of August 2006, 20 declarations had been made. The Human Rights Act applies to all public bodies within the United Kingdom, including central government, local authorities, bodies exercising public functions. However, it does not include Parliament. Section 3 is a wide provision that requires courts to interpret both primary and subordinate legislation so that their provisions are compatible with the articles of the European Convention on Human Rights which are part of the Human Rights Act; this interpretation goes far beyond normal statutory interpretation, includes past and future legislation, therefore preventing the Human Rights Act from being impliedly repealed. Courts have applied this through three forms of interpretation: "reading in", inserting words where there are none in a statute.
They do not interpret a statute so as to give it a meaning that would conflict with legislative intent, courts have been reluctant in particular to "read out" provisions for this reason. If it is not possible to so interpret, they may issue a declaration of incompatibility under section 4. Sections 4 and 10 allows courts to issue a declaration of incompatibility where it is impossible to use section 3 to interpret primary or subordinate legislation to be compatible with the articles of the European Convention on Human Rights, which are part of the Human Rights Act. In these cases, interpretation to comply may conflict with legislative intent, it is considered a measure of last resort. A range of superior courts can issue a declaration of incompatibility. A declaration of incompatibility is not binding on the parties to the proceedings in which it is made, nor can a declaration invalidate legislation. Section 4 therefore achieves its aim through political rather than legal means. Section 10 gives a government minister the power to make a "remedial order" in response to either a
Ferdinando Giuseppe Antonelli O. F. M. was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal. He was the last living cardinal to have been born in the 19th century. At the Time of his death he was the Oldest Member of the College of Cardinals. Born in Subbiano, Antonelli joined the Order of Friars Minor in Florence in 1909, becoming a Professed Member of the Order of Friars Minor in April 1914, he served in the Italian military during World War I. On 25 July 1922 he was ordained a Priest of the Order of Friars Minor. In 1965 Antonelli was appointed Secretary of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. Antonelli was a Faculty member of the Pontifical Antonianum Athenaeum, from 1928 to 1965, was Rector Magnifico from 1937 to 1943, 1953 to 1959, he was the General Definitor of his order from 1939 to 1945. Antonelli attended the Vatican Council II from 1962 to 1965 as an expert. On 19 February 1966 he was appointed Titular Archbishop of Idicra and was consecrated on 9 March 1966. On 7 May 1969 Antonelli was appointed Secretary of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, on 5 March 1973 he was elevated to Cardinal-Deacon of San Sebastiano al Palatino, on the same day resigning as Secretary of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.
He was appointed Cardinal-Priest of San Sebastiano al Palatino on 2 February 1983. He died in Rome age nearly 97 in 1993, he was buried in La Pietà chapel in the Franciscan shrine of La Verna. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
Tineretului Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Urziceni, Romania. It is used for football matches and is the home ground of FC Urziceni; the stadium is not big, having a floodlighting system, with a density of 1400 lux, inaugurated in 2007 but it does not meets UEFA's conditions to host UEFA Champions League matches. For this reason, Unirea had to play their home matches in the 2009–2010 edition on the Steaua Stadium. In English "tineretului" means "of/to the youth", while "Unirea" is translated as "The Union". In the autumn of 2014 there were some hooligans. In the 26th of August 2017 a match between FC Urziceni and Abatorul Slobozia was played for the first time since the Tineretului been renovated from the vandalization from the autumn of 2014; the match ended up that Urziceni lost 0-2. Although the match was played, the renovation is not done yet but there can be played some matches on Tineretului. FC Urziceni used to train at the stadium the season before they played that match in August 2017.
The following national team matches were held in the stadium. List of football stadiums in Romania
Nieuwe Niedorp is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Hollands Kroon, lies about 9 kilometres northeast of Heerhugowaard. Nieuwe Niedorp was a separate municipality until 1970, when it merged with Oude Winkel. In 2007, the village of Nieuwe Niedorp had 3160 inhabitants; the built-up area of the village was 0.53 km², contained 760 residences. The statistical area "Nieuwe-Niedorp", which can include the peripheral parts of the village, as well as the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 3200, it has a remarkably leaning church tower. Dirck Pietersz van Nierop 1540-1610 Dirck Rembrantsz van Nierop 1610-1682 Pieter Rembrantsz van Nierop 1640-1708 Elisabeth van der Woude 1657-1698 Zeeuws spek J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Nieuwe-Niedorp". Map of the former municipality in 1868
Farooque Ahmed is a Pakistani American from Ashburn, Virginia, arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for plotting to bomb Washington Metro stations at Arlington cemetery, Pentagon City, Crystal City and Court House. He was charged with attempting to provide material support to a designated terrorist organization, collecting information to assist in planning a terrorist attack on a transit facility, attempting to provide material support to terrorists. On April 11, 2011, he was sentenced to 23 years in prison after pleading guilty. Ahmed was born in Pakistan and is a naturalized U. S. citizen. He was born in Lahore and became a U. S. citizen in 2002. He has lived in the US since 1993, he holds a bachelor's degree in Computer Science from the College of Staten Island and worked as a network design contractor for Ericsson. He was enrolled in an online degree in risk management from Aspen University, he has a son. He has a history of several speeding violations and credit problems. At his initial court appearance, he claimed.
According to the White House press secretary, Barack Obama was made aware of Ahmed's activities prior to his arrest. Ahmed was arrested early on October 27, 2010, he was accused of scouting the Metrorail station in Arlington County and recording video of the station on four different occasions. In July, he handed over the footage to an individual. According to the indictment, he told undercover agents that an attack would cause most casualties between 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. and suggested placing the bombs in rolling suitcases. The plan of attack began as early as April 2010, according to officials, he told undercover agents that he would be ready to conduct jihad against America in January 2011 after completing Hajj in November 2010. At the time of his arrest, it did not appear that Ahmed had received any militant training overseas from Al-Qaeda or its associates, he told operatives that he was willing to martyr himself and had taught himself martial arts, use of firearms, knife and gun tactics, skills he offered to teach others.
On April 11, 2011, Ahmed was sentenced to 23 years in prison after pleading guilty to attempting to provide material support to a designated foreign terrorist organization and collecting information to assist in planning a terrorist attack on a transit facility. As a part of a plea bargain, the prosecutors dropped one of the charges and Ahmed who had faced up to 50 years in prison agreed to a 23-year sentence. Amine El Khalifi David Headley Faisal Shahzad Rezwan Ferdaus Sami Osmakac Indictment document Video:D. C. Subway Bomb Suspect Makes Neighbors Fearful DoJ April 11, 2011 Press Release
Abraham Darby, in his lifetime called Abraham Darby the Younger, referred to for convenience as Abraham Darby II was the second man of that name in an English Quaker family that played an important role in the early years of the Industrial Revolution. Darby was born in Shropshire to Abraham and Mary, he followed in his father's footsteps in the Darby foundry business in Coalbrookdale, producing cast iron cooking pots and other goods. The Coalbrookdale Company played an important role in using iron to replace the more expensive brass for cylinders for Thomas Newcomen's steam engines, he and his partners were responsible for a important innovation in introducing the use of coke pig iron as the feedstock for finery forges. This formed a significant part of the output of Horsehay and Ketley Furnaces, which they built in the late 1750s, his father's successful use of coke pig iron as foundry feedstock, his own success in using it as forge feedstock were two of the steps towards the industrial revolution for the iron industry, but the final breakthrough that permitted the great expansion of iron production that constitutes the industrial revolution for it came later.
He died aged 51. He had married twice: firstly Margaret Smith, with whom he had three children including Hannah who married Richard Reynolds, secondly the Quaker minister Abiah Maude, with whom he had a further thirteen children although only four including Abraham Darby III survived. Abraham Darby I Abraham Darby III Abraham Darby IV The Darby family of inventors The Darby family The Darby dynasty The Darby House The Coalbrookdale Company, with which the family was associated DNB biography of Abiah Darby