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Human nose

The human nose is the most protruding part of the face. It is the first organ of the respiratory system, it is the principal organ in the olfactory system. The shape of the nose is determined by the nasal bones and the nasal cartilages, including the nasal septum which separates the nostrils and divides the nasal cavity into two. On average the nose of a male is larger than that of a female; the main function of the nose is respiration, the nasal mucosa lining the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses carries out the necessary conditioning of inhaled air by warming and moistening it. Nasal conchae, shell-like bones in the walls of the cavities, play a major part in this process. Filtering of the air by nasal hair in the nostrils prevents large particles from entering the lungs. Sneezing is a reflex to expel unwanted particles from the nose. Sneezing can transmit infections, because aerosols are created in which the droplets can harbour pathogens. Another major function of the nose is the sense of smell.

The area of olfactory epithelium, in the upper nasal cavity, contains specialised olfactory cells responsible for this function. The nose is involved in the function of speech. Nasal vowels and nasal consonants are produced in the process of nasalisation; the nasal cavity is the third most effective vocal resonator. There are many plastic surgery procedures on the nose, known as rhinoplasties available to correct various structural defects or to change the shape of the nose. Defects may result from nasal disorders or from trauma; these procedures are a type of reconstructive surgery. Elective procedures to change a nose shape are a type of cosmetic surgery. Several bones and cartilages make up the bony-cartilaginous framework of the nose, the internal structure; the nose is made up of types of soft tissue such as skin, mucous membrane, muscles and blood. In the skin there are sebaceous glands, in the mucous membrane there are nasal glands; the bones and cartilages provide strong protection for the internal structures of the nose.

There are several muscles. The arrangement of the cartilages allows flexibility through muscle control to enable airflow to be modified; the bony structure of the nose is provided by the maxilla, frontal bone, a number of smaller bones. The topmost bony part of the nose is formed by the nasal part of the frontal bone, which lies between the brow ridges, ends in a serrated nasal notch. A left and a right nasal bone join with the nasal part of the frontal bone at either side; the internal roof of the nasal cavity is composed of the horizontal, perforated cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone through which pass sensory fibres of the olfactory nerve. Below and behind the cribriform plate, sloping down at an angle, is the face of the sphenoid bone; the wall separating the two cavities of the nose, the nasal septum, is made up of bone inside and cartilage closer to the tip of the nose. The bony part is formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone at the top, the vomer bone that below; the floor of the nose is made up of the incisive bone and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones, this makes up the hard palate of the roof of the mouth.

The two horizontal plates join together at the midline and form the posterior nasal spine that gives attachment to the musculus uvulae in the uvula. The two maxilla bones join at the base of the nose at the lower nasal midline between the nostrils, at the top of the philtrum to form the anterior nasal spine; this thin projection of bone holds the cartilaginous center of the nose. It is an important cephalometric landmark; the nasal cartilages are the septal, major alar, minor alar cartilages. The major and minor cartilages are known as the greater and lesser alar cartilages. There is a narrow strip of cartilage called the vomeronasal cartilage that lies between the vomer and the septal cartilage; the septal nasal cartilage, extends from the nasal bones in the midline, to the bony part of the septum in the midline, posteriorly. It passes along the floor of the nasal cavity; the septum is quadrangular–the upper half is attached to the two lateral nasal cartilages which are fused to the dorsal septum in the midline.

The septum is laterally attached, with loose ligaments, to the bony margin of the anterior nasal aperture, while the inferior ends of the lateral cartilages are free. The three or four minor alar cartilages are adjacent to the lateral cartilages, held in the connective tissue membrane, that connects the lateral cartilages to the frontal process of the maxilla; the nasal bones in the upper part of the nose are joined together by the midline internasal suture. They join with the septal cartilage at a junction known as the rhinion; the rhinion is the midpoint of the internasal suture at the join with the cartilage, from the rhinion to the apex, or tip, the framework is of cartilage. The major alar cartilages are thin, U-shaped plates of cartilage on each side of the nose that form the lateral and medial walls of the vestibule, known as the medial and lateral crura; the medial crura are attached to the septal cartilage, forming fleshy parts at the front of the nostrils on each side of the septum, called the medial crural footpods.

The medial crura meet at the midline below the end of the septum to form the lobule. The lobule contains the tip of the nose and its base contains the nostrils. At the peaks of the folds of the medial crura, they form the alar domes the tip-defining points of the nose, separated by a notch, they fold outwards, above and to the side of the nostril


E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RAD18 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RAD18 gene. The protein encoded by this ne is similar to S. cerevisiae DNA damage repair protein Rad18. Yeast Rad18 functions through interaction with Rad6, a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme required for post-replication repair of damaged DNA. Similar to its yeast counterpart, this protein is able to interact with the human homolog of yeast Rad6 protein through a conserved ring finger motif. Mutation of this motif results in defective replication of UV-damaged DNA and hypersensitivity to multiple mutagens. Model organisms have been used in the study of RAD18 function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Rad18tm1aWtsi, was generated as part of the EUCOMM program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists — at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Mice lacking Rad18 had no significant defects in viability or fertility, therefore male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion.

Twenty five tests were carried out and four significant phenotypes were reported: Mutant male mice had a decreased body weight compared to wildtype control mice. Mutant male mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry showed. A micronucleus test found a potential increase in DNA damage in mutant mice. A knockout in a human colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116, has been created. RAD18 has been shown to interact with HLTF, UBE2B and UBE2A

Viet Cong (album)

Viet Cong is the debut studio album by Canadian rock band Viet Cong. It was released on January 2015, by Flemish Eye in Canada and Jagjaguwar internationally. Viet Cong is the only album released by the band under this name, as they changed their name to "Preoccupations" in 2016; the first single from the album, "Continental Shelf", was released for streaming on October 15, 2014. The album features a re-recorded version of a previous song, "Bunker Buster"; the band embarked on a North European tour in support of the album. The album was recorded during 2014 at The Barn Window Studio, Lost Cause Studios, Basketball 4 Life and Monty's Place. Upon its release, Viet Cong received positive reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album has received an average score of 77, based on 23 reviews, indicating "generally favourable reviews". Writing for Exclaim!, Cam Lindsay noted that "Viet Cong maintains the same shadowy, droning tones that haunted Cassette, only taking them deeper into the abyss".

The album was a shortlisted nominee for the 2015 Polaris Music Prize. Viet CongMatt Flegel – bass guitar, vocals Mike Wallacedrums Scott Munro – guitar Daniel Christiansen – guitar

Manu (footballer, born 1984)

José Manuel Rodríguez Morgade known as Manu, is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Coruxo FC as a left back. Born in Wädenswil, Switzerland to Spanish immigrants, Manu started playing with CD Ourense in Segunda División B, he remained in that level for the following eight seasons, signing in summer 2007 with Galician neighbours CD Lugo. In the 2011–12 campaign, Manu contributed with 37 matches and five goals as the club promoted to Segunda División for the second time in its history, the first in 20 years, he made his debut in the competition on 18 August 2012 in a 1–0 home win against Hércules CF, scoring the game's only goal through a penalty kick, served as team captain for several seasons. On 4 July 2017, after one full decade with Lugo, free agent Manu joined fellow second level side Cultural y Deportiva Leonesa; the following 25 January, he signed for Elche CF in the third division after severing ties with the former. Manu at BDFutbol Manu at Futbolme Manu at Soccerway

Egyptian Fund for Technical Cooperation with Africa

The Egyptian Fund for Technical Cooperation with Africa known by the acronym "EFTCA" is the Egyptian governmental instrument that coordinates official development assistance and development cooperation programs with African countries. The head of the is the Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs while its director general is ambassador Ahmed Darwish, considered the real manager; the EFTCA was established in 1980 on a proposal submitted by Boutros Boutros-Ghali the former Vice Foreign Minister of Egypt to late Egyptian president Anwar El Sadat as a new approach to help Africa and to consolidate Egypt's pivotal role in the continent in the post decolonization era. As Egypt played historical role in supporting the African liberation movements in their struggle against Colonization and racial discrimination under the rule of the late Egyptian president Nasser; the EFTCA is considered a part of the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs with an independent budget and has its development cooperation programs that cover most of the African continent.

Since its establishment in 1980, "EFTCA" contributed in building capacities and developing human resources in African countries aiming at attaining sustainable development across the continent through dispatching more than 8,500 Egyptian experts in all disciplines, like medicine, agriculture, water resources and education, as well as affording training courses to nearly 10,000 African trainees in all fields in Egypt. The EFTCA offers financial grants for certain domains like health and agriculture. EFTCA aims to work on a public-benefit basis according to the formula of supporting South-South Cooperation, through providing technical cooperation and capital grants to African countries. EFTCA's developmental programs focuses on technical assistance programs/projects for capacity and institutional development. Major aid modalitiesTechnical assistance programs/projects for capacity and institutional development. Dispatching of Experts. Dispatching medical convoys. Providing humanitarian assistance in case of natural disasters.

List of development aid agencies Development aid Ministry of Foreign Affairs EFTCA on Egypt Ministry of Foreign Affairs webpage Egypt Ministry of Foreign Affairs official website

RCAF Station Centralia

RCAF Station Centralia was a Royal Canadian Air Force training base located just outside the village of Centralia near Exeter, Canada. It became one of the largest training stations in Canada. Flying schools were established across Canada as part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during World War II. Centralia was the location for No. 9 Service Flying Training School. Service Flying Training Schools provided advanced training to pilots who had graduated from Elementary Flying Training Schools. Trainee pilots flew North American Harvard. No. 9 SFTS had moved to Centralia from RCAF Station Summerside, Prince Edward Island, in July 1942. Relief landing fields for Centralia were located at St. Joseph. No. 9 SFTS was replaced by No. 1 Aircrew Conditioning Unit. ACUs trained service personnel for operations in the war's Pacific theatre; when No. 1 ACU was closed after the war, the RCAF formed No. 1 Flying Training School which used Ansons and Harvards. The first, last flying course was in January 1946.

The course lasted for three weeks. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as RCAF Aerodrome - Centralia, Ontario at 43°18′N 81°31′W with a variation of 5 degrees west and elevation of 810 ft; the aerodrome was listed as "Under construction" with three runways as follows: Because of increasing tensions between the Soviet Bloc and the West, defence expenditures were increased and the Canadian forces were strengthened. Centralia, along with a number of other stations, underwent major rehabilitation to better accommodate aircrew training. Centralia was reactivated in January 1947 to provide accommodation and training facilities for No. 1 Radar and Communications School, based in nearby RCAF Station Clinton. No. 1 Instrument Flying School was relocated to Centralia from RCAF Station Trenton in the spring of 1947. This school gave students an opportunity to obtain their instrument rating qualifications; the Expeditor was the aircraft used for this training. In 1956, No. 1 IFS moved to Saskatchewan. RCAF Station Centralia became the aerodrome's official designation in September 1947 and No. 1 Flying Training School was reactivated.

Students participating in this school flew Harvards. No. 1 FTS was one of Canada's contributions to the training of foreign airmen for a new multinational force. The last FTS course was completed in March 1957 and No. 1 Flying Training School was deactivated and merged with the Advanced Flying School at Saskatoon. The Harvards used. In April 1948, the RCAF's School of Flying Control was formed at Centralia; the school trained Flying Control Officers and Aircraft Control Assistants for deployment in control towers and operations rooms in RCAF stations. In May, a flying detachment for the No. 1 Air Radio Officers School based at RCAF Station Clinton was established. Centralia was involved with the NATO Air Training Plan; the NATO Training & Induction School located at RCAF Station London, re-located to RCAF Station Centralia in 1954. The school's purpose was to inform personnel about various aspects of working with NATO. In October 1954, the Pre-Flight School was formed at Centralia; this school provided ground instruction to students.

In 1956 Centralia began hosting the Primary Flying Training School using the Chipmunk. Graduate pilots were sent to western Canada for more advanced training on Harvards. No.2 Personnel Selection Unit, responsible for officer selection for air crew, moved to Centralia from RCAF Station London in 1958. In the late 1960s, the Canadian military was reorganized and unified; the reorganization resulted in many military bases being closed, including Centralia, which closed on 31 March 1967. Functions provided by Centralia were moved to various other stations. Today the airport still operates as Centralia/James T. Field Memorial Aerodrome. Most of the former RCAF buildings remain. Military Bruce Historical Writings by Bruce Forsyth Retrieved December 18, 2014 Tribute to RCAF Station Centralia - NATO Years