American Humanist Association
The American Humanist Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity. The American Humanist Association was founded in 1941 and provides legal assistance to defend the constitutional rights of secular and religious minorities lobbies Congress on church-state separation and other issues, maintains a grassroots network of 150 local affiliates and chapters that engage in social activism, philosophical discussion and community-building events; the AHA has several publications, including the bi-monthly magazine The Humanist, a quarterly newsletter Free Mind, a peer-reviewed semi-annual scholastic journal Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism, a daily online news site TheHumanist.com. In 1927 an organization called. In 1928 the Fellowship started publishing the New Humanist magazine.
H. G. Creel was the first editor; the New Humanist was published from 1928 to 1936. By 1935 the Humanist Fellowship had become the "Humanist Press Association", the first national association of humanism in the United States; the first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933. Signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, they identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason and social and economic justice. In July 1939 a group of Quakers, inspired by the 1933 Humanist Manifesto, incorporated under the state laws of California the Humanist Society of Friends as a religious, charitable nonprofit organization authorized to issue charters anywhere in the world and to train and ordain its own ministry. Upon ordination these ministers were accorded the same rights and privileges granted by law to priests and rabbis of traditional theistic religions. Curtis Reese was a leader in the 1941 reorganization and incorporation of the "Humanist Press Association" as the American Humanist Association.
Along with its reorganization, the AHA began printing The Humanist magazine. The AHA was headquartered in Yellow Springs, Ohio San Francisco, in 1978 Amherst, New York. Subsequently, the AHA moved to Washington, D. C.. In 1952 the AHA became a founding member of the International Humanist and Ethical Union in Amsterdam, Netherlands; as an international coalition of Humanist organizations, the IHEU stands today as the only international umbrella group for Humanism. The AHA was the first national membership organization. Around the same time, the AHA joined hands with the American Ethical Union to help establish the rights of nontheistic conscientious objectors to the Vietnam War; this time saw Humanists involved in the creation of the first nationwide memorial societies, giving people broader access to cheaper alternatives than the traditional burial. In the late 1960s the AHA secured a religious tax exemption in support of its celebrant program, allowing Humanist celebrants to officiate at weddings, perform chaplaincy functions, in other ways enjoy the same rights as traditional clergy.
In 1991 the AHA took control of the Humanist Society, a religious Humanist organization that now runs the celebrant program. Since 1991 the organization has worked as an adjunct to the American Humanist Association to certify qualified members to serve in this special capacity as ministers; the Humanist Society's ministry prepares Humanist Celebrants to lead ceremonial observances across the nation and worldwide. Celebrants provide millions of Americans an alternative to traditional religious weddings, memorial services, other life cycle events. After this transfer, the AHA commenced the process of jettisoning its religious tax exemption and resumed its educational status. Today the AHA is recognized by the U. S. Internal Revenue Service as a nonprofit, tax exempt, 501, publicly supported educational organization. Membership numbers are disputed, but Djupe and Olson place it as "definitely fewer than 50,000." The AHA has over 42,000 followers on Twitter. The AHA is the supervising organization for various Humanist affiliates and adjunct organizations.
The Black Humanist Alliance of the American Humanist Association was founded in 2016 as a pillar of its new "Initiatives for Social Justice." Like the Feminist Humanist Alliance and the LGBT Humanist Alliance, the Black Humanist Alliance uses an intersectional approach to addressing issues facing the Black community. As its mission states, the BHA "concern ourselves with confronting expressions of religious hegemony in public policy," but is "also devoted to confronting social and political deprivations that disproportionately impact Black America due to centuries of culturally ingrained prejudices." The Feminist Humanist Alliance of the American Humanist Association was established in 1977 as a coalition of both women and men within the AHA to work toward the advancement of women's rights and equality between the sexes in all aspects of society. Called the Women's Caucus, the new name was adopted in 1985 as more representative of all the members of the caucus and of the caucus' goals. Over the years, members of the Caucus have advocated for the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment and participated in various public demonstrations, including marches for women's and civil rights.
In 1982, the Caucus established its annual Humanist Heroine Award, with the initial award being presented to
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings and collectively, prefers critical thinking and evidence over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it; the term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature. However, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress, it views humans as responsible for the promotion and development of individuals and emphasizes a concern for man in relation to the world. In modern times, humanist movements are non-religious movements aligned with secularism, today humanism refers to a nontheistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world; the word "humanism" is derived from the Latin concept humanitas.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning. In the second century AD, a Latin grammarian, Aulus Gellius, complained: Those who have spoken Latin and have used the language do not give to the word humanitas the meaning which it is thought to have, what the Greeks call φιλανθρωπία, signifying a kind of friendly spirit and good-feeling towards all men without distinction; those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most humanized. For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity". Gellius says that in his day humanitas is used as a synonym for philanthropy – or kindness and benevolence toward one's fellow human beings.
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us, he himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius. "By assigning pride of place to Paideia in his comment on the etymology of humanitas, Gellius implies that the trained mind is best equipped to handle the problems troubling society."Gellius's writings fell into obscurity during the Middle Ages, but during the Italian Renaissance, Gellius became a favorite author.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". Modern scholars, point out that Cicero, most responsible for defining and popularizing the term humanitas, in fact used the word in both senses, as did his near contemporaries. For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, allied to reason, could enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law, thus humanitas included two meanings from the outset and these continue in the modern derivative, which today can refer to both humanitarian benevolence and to a method of study and debate involving an accepted group of authors and a careful and accurate use of language. During the French Revolution, soon after, in Germany, humanism began to refer to an ethical philosophy centered on humankind, without attention to the transcendent or supernatural; the designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantism, although centered on human needs and abilities rather than the supernatural. In the Anglophone world, such modern, organized forms of humanism, which are rooted in the 18th-century Enlightenment, have to a considerable extent more or less detached themselves from the historic connection of humanism with classical learning and the liberal arts; the first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933. Signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, they identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason and social and economic justice, they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making. In 1808 Bavarian educational commissioner Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer coined the term Humanismus to describe the new classical curriculum he planned to offer in German secondary schools, by 1836 the word "humanism" had been absorbed into the English language in this sense; the coinage gained universal acceptance in 1856, when
In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes. Sans-serif fonts tend to have less line width variation than serif fonts. In most print, they are used for headings rather than for body text, they are used to convey simplicity and modernity or minimalism. Sans-serif fonts have become the most prevalent for display of text on computer screens. On lower-resolution digital displays, fine details like serifs may appear too large; the term comes from the French word sans, meaning "without" and "serif" of uncertain origin from the Dutch word schreef meaning "line" or pen-stroke. Before the term "sans-serif" became common in English typography, a number of other terms had been used. One of these outmoded terms for sans serif was gothic, still used in East Asian typography and sometimes seen in font names like News Gothic, Highway Gothic, or Trade Gothic. Sans-serif fonts are sometimes in older documents, used as a device for emphasis, due to their blacker type color.
For the purposes of type classification, sans-serif designs are divided into three or four major groups, the fourth being the result of splitting the grotesque category into grotesque and neo-grotesque. This group features most of the early sans-serif designs. Influenced by Didone serif fonts of the period and signpainting traditions, these were quite solid, bold designs suitable for headlines and advertisements; the early sans-serif typefaces did not feature a lower case or italics, since they were not needed for such uses. They were sometimes released by width, with a range of widths from extended to normal to condensed, with each style different, meaning to modern eyes they can look quite irregular and eccentric. Grotesque fonts have limited variation of stroke width; the terminals of curves are horizontal, many have a spurred "G" and an "R" with a curled leg. Capitals tend to be of uniform width. Cap height and ascender height are the same to create a more regular effect in texts such as titles with many capital letters, descenders are short for tighter linespacing.
Most avoid having a true italic in favour of a more restrained oblique or sloped design, although at least sans-serif true italics were offered. Examples of grotesque fonts include Akzidenz Grotesk, News Gothic, Franklin Gothic and Monotype Grotesque. Akzidenz Grotesk Old Face, Grotesque No. 9 and Monotype Grotesque are examples of digital fonts that retain more of eccentricities of some of the early sans-serif types. The term realist has been applied to these designs due to their practicality and simplicity; as the name implies, these modern designs consist of a direct evolution of grotesque types. They are straightforward in appearance with limited width variation. Unlike earlier grotesque designs, many were issued in large and versatile families from the time of release, making them easier to use for body text. Similar to grotesque typefaces, neogrotesques feature capitals of uniform width and a quite'folded-up' design, in which strokes are curved all the way round to end on a perfect horizontal or vertical.
Helvetica is an example of this. Others such as Univers are less regular. Neo-grotesque type began in the 1950s with the emergence of the International Typographic Style, or Swiss style, its members looked at the clear lines of Akzidenz Grotesk as an inspiration to create rational neutral typefaces. In 1957 the release of Helvetica and Folio, the first typefaces categorized as neo-grotesque, had a strong impact internationally: Helvetica came to be the most used typeface for the following decades. Other neo-grotesques include Unica and Rail Alphabet, in the digital period Acumin, San Francisco and Roboto; as their name suggests, Geometric sans-serif typefaces are based on geometric shapes, like near-perfect circles and squares. Common features are a nearly-exactly circular capital "O" and a "single-story" lowercase letter "a". The'M' is splayed and the capitals of varying width, following the classical model. Of these four categories, geometric fonts tend to be the least useful for body text and used for headings and small passages of text.
The geometric sans originated in Germany in the 1920s. Two early efforts in designing geometric types were made by Herbert Bayer and Jakob Erbar, who worked on Universal Typeface and Erbar. In 1927 Futura, by Paul Renner, was released to great acclaim and popularity. Geometric sans-serif fonts were popular from the 1920s and 1930s due to their clean, modern design, many new geometric designs and revivals have been created since. Notable geometric types of the period include Semplicità, Nobel and Metro. Many geometric sans-serif alphabets of the period, such as those created by the Bauhaus art school and modernist poster artists, were hand-lettered and not cut into metal type at the time. A separate inspiration for many types considered "geometric" in design has been the simplified shapes of letters engraved or stenciled on metal and plastic in industrial use, which follow a simplified structure and are sometimes known as "rectilinear" for their use of straight vertical and horizontal lines. Designs considered geometric in principles but which are less descended from the Futura/Erbar/Kabel tradition include Bank Gothic, DIN 1451, Eurostile and Handel Gothic, along with man
Humanistic is the debut album by Abandoned Pools. It was released in September 2001 through Extasy International. Though two songs were co-written by Pete Pagonis, the album is considered a solo work of Tommy Walter's in which he used new material, as well as several songs he'd worked on beforehand in both Tely and Metromax, to compose and release; the album features a contrast of dark and sometimes aggressive songs such as "The Remedy" and "Blood" and more serene, upbeat tracks like "Start Over" and "Sunny Day." Elements of industrial rock are evident in various ways. Synth effects are utilized in various songs. Four tracks include backing vocals by Angie Hart of Frente!. Hart's harmony style alongside Walter's somewhat androgynous voice creates a unique vocal chemistry; this album was mixed by Chris Lord-Alge and Matt Silva, was mastered by Gavin Lurssen. While Humanistic was released in September 2001, the majority of promotion took place from early to mid-2002. Leah Randi and Bryan Head filled out the ranks of drummer for the album's tour support.
They had several successful tours, going across the country and headlining with acts such as Garbage and Lenny Kravitz. A music video was produced for the lead single, "Mercy Kiss," and saw substantial airplay on MTV2. "The Remedy" and "Monster" were second and third video/single releases. "Start Over" was included on the National Lampoon's Van Wilder soundtrack in March 2002. The group performed "The Remedy" on the June 5, 2002 edition of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and the June 26 edition of The Late Late Show with Craig Kilborn. A large number of songs off Humanistic were featured on the MTV animated series Clone High which debuted in November that year, with "Start Over" being the finale song of the show. However, after the series was dropped by MTV in February 2003, Abandoned Pools stopped touring; the album received overall high praise upon release. Jason Thompson of PopMatters compared Humanistic to Billy Corgan's solo work and noted it as much more successful, he went on to proclaim, "Humanistic is a fantastic album that could be considered a masterpiece of electro-pop...
Walter has a gift for creating dense pop confections that manage to float like a feather with all of their heaviness." Referring to the 31-year-old as a "kid," Thom Jurek of Allmusic described Walter as a "harder-rock version of Tommy Gnosis: vulnerable and wanting to put it all into terms that are rock & roll enough to make him stand out from the crowd." All songs by Tommy Walter except where noted. "The Remedy" – 3:57 "Mercy Kiss" – 3:17 "Start Over" – 4:03 "Monster" – 3:49 "Blood" – 4:13 "Suburban Muse" – 3:50 "Sunny Day" – 4:02 "L. V. B. D." – 3:27 "Ruin Your Life" – 3:45 "Never" – 3:38 "Seed" – 3:30 "Fluorescein" – 4:19 "The Remedy," "Suburban Muse," "Mercy Kiss," "Monster," "L. V. B. D." "Seed," "Fluorescein," "Start Over," "Sunny Day," & "Blood" produced by Paul Q. Kolderie & Sean Slade, co-produced by Tommy Walter "Ruin Your Life" & "Never" produced by Tommy Walter, co-produced by Paul Q. Kolderie & Sean Slade Executive Producer: Yoshiki Hayashi Mixed by Chris Lord-Alge @ Image Recording, Hollywood, CA Assisted by Matt Silva Mastered by Gavin Lurssen @ The Mastering Lab, Hollywood, CA All instruments played by Tommy Walter except: Sean Slade – Bass clarinet on "Sunny Day," piano on "Never," additional guitar on "Seed," organ on "Mercy Kiss," clavinet on "Monster" Paul Q.
Kolderie – Additional guitar on "Sunny Day" & "Ruin Your Life" Josh Freese – Drums Tim Dow – Additional drums on "The Remedy" Backing vocals on: "Sunny Day," "Suburban Muse," "Ruin Your Life," & "Start Over" by Angie Hart Additional engineering on: "The Remedy," "Mercy Kiss," "Start Over," "Monster," "Suburban Muse," "Sunny Day," "L. V. B. D." & "Ruin Your Life" by Justin Smith Programming: Tommy Walter Additional Production by David Young The Remedy – AOL Video Mercy Kiss – AOL Video Monster – MTV.com
Humanist Party India
The Humanist Party of India is a progressive party based on the principles of New or Universalist Humanism. These principles can be summarised as: Putting the value of all human life as the central value and concern, higher than money or institutions. Promoting non-violence as the only way to achieve results. Fighting discrimination in all its forms. Encouraging the continuous development and free distribution of human knowledge. Freedom of beliefs and ideas, it is an ethical political body. Maximum age for Minister, Prime-minister, President to be 60 years Voting age to be 15 years One can be a Minister, Prime-minister, President only once Health-Housing-Education for all Unemployment benefit to all Farmers, Women will get full rights and dignity as human being Disarmament with all neighbors, creating open-borders like India-Nepal No use of Violence to solve disputes with neighboring countries True & participatory co-operatives to be the main mode of economy at all levels Social audit, Open-transparent public life, open access, money as a transaction tool and not a source of power hence, ending corruption The idea of the Humanist Party as a political party was launched on March 8, 1984, as a recommendation from the Department of Social Affairs of The Community for Human Development.
Around the world many Humanist Parties started to emerge and on January 4, 1989, in Florence, the first congress of the Humanist International was held. In this event, the foundational documents were adopted, including the Declaration of Principles, The Thesis, Foundations for political action and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In December 1990, in Chile, Laura Rodríguez became the first elected representative of any Humanist Party in the world after winning a seat as part of the Concertación coalition, after Augusto Pinochet handed over power. In October 1993, the second congress of the Humanist International was held in Moscow, whereupon the Document of the Humanist Movement was incorporated as a foundational document; this document had been circulating as chapter six of the Book Letters to my friends. In 1999, regional coordination bodies of Humanist Parties were formed in South Europe; the regional bodies of Africa and Asia are expected to be formed in 2006. In addition to the Humanist Party, the Community for Human Development recommended the formation of a party based on a New Humanist approach to Ecology.
The subsequent formation of a party called The Greens, caused much confusion in Europe where both The Greens and the Green Party were sometimes fighting elections against one another. This led to a great deal of bad feeling from the Green Party; the Environmental policies of the Greens were incorporated within the Humanist Party which resulted in their merger. The official documents of the Humanist Party can be found in the Book of the Humanist International. Non-violent Campaign Against Nuclear Tests and Nuclear Weaponisation, co-ordinated by hundreds of organisations, June 1995 India can be different if we are not indefferent campaign, May 1999 to May 2000 Campaign for Law of political accountability Lokhsabha Election 2009, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu U. P. State Assembly elections 2007 Delhi MCD elections, 2007 General elections - India, Maharashtra, 1999 General Elections 1998 in Kerala, Maharashtra Assembly elections 1987 Humanist Party - India Humanist International
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries. The term humanism is contemporary to that period, while Renaissance humanism is a retronym used to distinguish it from humanist developments. Renaissance humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions; this was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities: grammar, history and moral philosophy. According to one scholar of the movement, Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages, not provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name, but increased its actual scope and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production.
The studia humanitatis excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history and moral philosophy, but made poetry, once a sequel of grammar and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group. Humanism was a pervasive cultural mode and not the program of a small elite, a program to revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, moral philosophy of classical antiquity. There were important centres of humanism in Florence, Rome, Genoa, Mantua and Urbino; some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Coluccio Salutati, Poggio Bracciolini. Of the four, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of his devotion or loyalty to Greek and Roman scrolls. Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orders, like Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence.
In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-15th century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations in addition to traditional scholasticist ones. Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries; such was Cardinal Basilios Bessarion, a convert to the Catholic Church from Greek Orthodoxy, considered for the papacy, was one of the most learned scholars of his time. There were several 15th-century and early 16th-century humanist Popes one of whom, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, was a prolific author and wrote a treatise on The Education of Boys; these subjects came to be known as the humanities, the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism. The migration waves of Byzantine Greek scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 assisted the revival of Greek and Roman literature and science via their greater familiarity with ancient languages and works.
They included Gemistus Pletho, George of Trebizond, Theodorus Gaza, John Argyropoulos. Italian humanism spread northward to France, the Low Countries, England with the adoption of large-scale printing after the end of the era of incunabula, it became associated with the Reformation. In France, pre-eminent humanist Guillaume Budé applied the philological methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code. Budé was a royal absolutist, active in civic life, serving as a diplomat for François I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux. Meanwhile, Marguerite de Navarre, the sister of François I, was a poet and religious mystic who gathered around her and protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including Clément Marot, Pierre de Ronsard, François Rabelais. Many humanists were churchmen, most notably Pope Pius II, Sixtus IV, Leo X, there was patronage of humanists by senior church figures. Much humanist effort went into improving the understanding and translations of Biblical and early Christian texts, both before and after the Reformation, influenced by the work of non-Italian, Northern European figures such as Erasmus, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, William Grocyn, Swedish Catholic Archbishop in exile Olaus Magnus.
The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy describes the rationalism of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on Renaissance scholars: Here, one felt no weight of the supernatural pressing on the human mind, demanding homage and allegiance. Humanity—with all its distinct capabilities, worries, possibilities—was the center of interest, it has been said that medieval thinkers philosophised on their knees, bolstered by the new studies, they dared to stand up and to rise to full stature. The rediscovery of classical philosophy and science would challenge traditional religious beliefs. In 1417, for example, Poggio Bracciolini discovered the manuscript of Lucretius, De rerum natura, lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrine, though at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar and syntax. Only in 1564 did French commentator Denys Lambin an
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more contrasted with natural, sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training; the humanities use methods that are critical, or speculative, have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, philosophy, human geography, politics and art. Scholars in the humanities are humanists; the term "humanist" describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were called humanists; some secondary schools offer humanities classes consisting of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history and cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead use the comparative method and comparative research. Anthropology is a science of the totality of human existence; the discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have been institutionally divided into three broad domains; the natural sciences seek to derive general laws through verifiable experiments. The humanities study local traditions, through their history, literature and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras; the social sciences have attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology does not fit into one of these categories, different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, cultural anthropology, it is an area, offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos is from the Greek for "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanistic of the sciences"; the goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of human nature. This means that, though anthropologists specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies, or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist", to discuss humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard, it is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology is the study of human activity through the analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities, it has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history. Classics, in the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquity, namely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, societies and any to