A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
A Coruña is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country; the city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean, it provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region. In English, use of the Spanish or Galician forms now predominates. However, the traditional English form Corunna can persist in reference to the Battle of Corunna in the Peninsular War. Archaically, English-speakers knew the city as "The Groyne" from French La Corogne. In Spain, the only official form of the name is now the Galician one: "A Coruña". Nonetheless, use of the Spanish form, La Coruña, remains widespread, it is the traditional name in Spanish recommended by the Real Academia Española for texts in Spanish.
Certain groups of people have advocated elevating the reintegrationist spelling "Corunha" to official status, pointing to the provisions of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and claiming that it is unconstitutional to stipulate use of the Real Academia Galega spelling, but they have not been successful as of 2018. There is no clear evidence as to, it seems to be from Crunia, of unknown meaning. At the time of Ferdinand II of León the name Crunia was documented for the first time; as usual in Galician-Portuguese, the cluster ni evolved into the sound, written n, nn or nh in old Galician orthography, nn in Spanish, nh in Portuguese and alternative Galician spelling. "A" is the Galician article equivalent to English the. One proposed etymology derives Crunia from the town in France. During its height the Cluniac religious movement became prominent in Europe. There is another town named Coruña in Burgos Province. Another possibility is that the name means "The Crown"; the Galician word for "crown" is coroa.
It is possible it came about through changes to the French La Couronne meaning "the Crown". It seems less that it traces back to the Galician clunia. A folk etymology incorrectly derives Tower of Hercules. A Coruña is located on a peninsula, its isthmus was at times formed only by a small strip of sand. Erosion and sea currents caused a progressive accumulation of sand, enlarging it to its present dimensions. A Coruña has five parishes or "parroquias": A Coruña Elviña Oza San Cristovo das Viñas Visma A Coruña has a warm-summer mediterranean climate in the Köppen climate classification moderated by the Atlantic Ocean. Autumn and winter are unsettled and unpredictable, with strong winds and abundant rainfall coming from Atlantic depressions, it is overcast; the ocean keeps temperatures mild, frost and snow are rare. Summers are sunny, with only occasional rainfall. Spring is cool and calm; the warmest month on record was subdued, being August 2003 with an average high temperature of 25 °C. Temperatures above 25 °C occur many days in the summer, while temperatures above 30 °C are infrequent.
A Coruña spread onto the mainland. The oldest part, known popularly in Galician as Cidade Vella, Cidade Alta or the Cidade, is built on an ancient Celtic castro, it was inhabited by the Brigantes and Artabrians, the Celtic tribes of the area. The Romans came to the region in the 2nd century BC, the colonisers made the most of the strategic position and soon the city became quite important in maritime trade. In 62 BC Julius Caesar came to the city in pursuit of the metal trade, establishing commerce with what are now France and Portugal; the town began growing during the 1st and 2nd centuries, but declined after the 4th century and with the incursions of the Normans, which forced the population to flee towards the interior of the Estuary of O Burgo. After the fall of the Roman Empire, A Coruña still had a commercial port connected to foreign countries, but contacts with the Mediterranean were replaced by a more Atlantic-oriented focus; the process of deurbanisation that followed the fall of the Roman Empire affected A Coruña.
Between the 7th and 8th centuries, the city was no more than a little village of labourers and sailors. The 11th-century Chronica iriense names Faro do Burgo as one of the dioceses that king Miro granted to the episcopate of Iria Flavia in the year 572: "Mirus Rex Sedi suae Hiriensi contulit Dioceses, scilicet Morratium, Bregantinos, Farum..."""The Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula left no archaeological evidence in the northwest, so it cannot be said whether or not the Muslim invaders reached the city. As Muslim rule in early 8th century Galicia consisted little more than a short-lived overlordship of th
Mario Rodríguez Cobos
Mario Luis Rodríguez Cobos known by the mononym Silo, was an Argentine writer and founder of the Humanist Movement. An active speaker, he wrote books, short stories and studies related to politics, psychology and other topics. Although he described himself as a writer, many see him as a thinker, based on the diversity of issues about which he has written. Silo was born into a middle-class family of Spanish origin in Argentina, his father was winemaker Rafael Rodriguez and his mother Maria Luisa Cobos, a Basque, a music teacher. He was the youngest of three children, with siblings Guillermo, he undertook primary and secondary education with the Maristas Brotherhood achieving excellent grades, while practising gymnastics and specializing in the pommel horse and reaching high positions in the regional rankings. In addition he was involved in various youth organizations and lead a active social and intellectual life, he carried out special studies, in languages including French and Italian, philosophy.
He published articles in cultural magazines. Silo studied law for three years at the University of Buenos Aires and when they opened the Faculty of Political Science in Mendoza, he returned to his home town to continue his studies in this field. At university he began to organize research groups on human beings and their existential and social problems. Silo undertook various jobs. By 1960 – following "a rearrangement of his inner truths" as a newspaper slogan of the time reported – he began to present his proposals, while still forming study groups in Argentina and Chile. With members of these groups he organized a public talk, banned by the military government but was permitted in the mountains, away from the centres of population; the military dictatorships which subsequently beset the country were present throughout the life of Silo with successive arrests and detentions. So, on 4 May 1969, Silo spoke to some two hundred people gathered in Punta de Vacas, in the high Andes mountains near Mount Aconcagua, gave his first public exposition of the ideas, that in time, would form the basis of the Humanist Movement.
In this talk, known as «The Healing of Suffering», he explained themes such as the overcoming of pain and suffering, the meaning of life, violence and pleasure. Silo married Ana Luisa Cremaschi, whom he knew from his youth, had two sons and Federico, with whom he lived in his hometown. In 1972 he published The Inner Look and the initial groups extended to other countries because the military dictatorships provoked the exile of many of the participants. In the early 70's, Silo created the current of thought now known as New Humanism or Universalist Humanism, founded the Humanist Movement an organized group that sought to translate this thought into practice, it can be said that this thinking encompasses the whole of human existence, not only social but personal. Since the eighties, under his orientation, the Humanist Movement began a period of expansion in the world with the creation of organisms and fronts of action: the Humanist Party with a presence in more than 30 countries, The Community for Human Development, Convergence of Cultures, World Without Wars and the World Centre of Humanist Studies.
During 1981 he was invited to express his proposals in various public rallies in European and Asian cities, visiting Madrid, Rome and Mumbai and Colombo, before returning to Paris, San Francisco and Mexico City. He explained with particular force the position of nonviolence, manifested in the overcoming of suffering, the human treatment of others and the attitude of not searching for those to blame. Aspects of these talks relevant to his thought were published in the book “Silo Speaks”. On 6 October 1993 in Moscow Silo was awarded a doctorate honoris causa by the Institute of Latin American Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. In this ceremony, he supported his ideas on «conditions of dialogue», concluding his presentation with these words: «We will see no full dialogue on the fundamental questions of today’s civilization until we, as a society, begin to lose our belief in the innumerable illusions fed by the enticements of the current system. In the meantime, the dialogue will continue to be insubstantial and without any connection to the profound motivations of society.
However, in some latitudes of the world something new has begun to move, something that, beginning in a dialogue of specialists, will begin to move into the public arena.». In early 2002, Silo announced his retirement from the Humanist Movement, after being its driving force for 32 years, he did it by moving the orientation of the Humanist Movement to an assembly composed of the general coordinators of the movement. By August 2007 there were about 400 members in this assembly. In mid-2002 he launched Silo's Message understood as an experience and a path. Among his more recent projects he gave impetus to the construction of complexes known as Parks of Study and Reflection in Argentina, Spain, USA, Italy and Egypt, among other geographical locations; the money to build these parks was gathered from voluntary donations. During the first decade of the 21st century he returned to speak at Punta de Vacas on several occasions with proposals of reconciliation, access to the profound and the sacred of human being, accepting invitations to speak about his Message and going to more humble places, like family homes, or small halls in the same neighbourhood of Men
The Humanist Movement is an international volunteer organisation that promotes nonviolence and non-discrimination. It is not an institution, it takes its inspiration from the current of thought referred to as New or Universal Humanism, developed since 1969 by its founder Mario Rodríguez Cobos, pen name: Silo. New Humanism focuses on the overcoming of pain and suffering at a personal and social level, it defines violence as anything that causes suffering to human beings. In this way violence is seen to have many different aspects, not just the well-known physical form but also; the Humanist Movement's conception is based on the Siloist thought, the major points of which are the following: Prior to thinking about his origin or destiny, the human being finds himself in a determined vital situation, one not of his own choosing. Thus, he is born submerged in a natural and a social world plagued by physical and mental aggression that he experiences as pain and suffering, he mobilizes himself trying to overcome pain and suffering.
In his acting against these painful factors, he produces objects and signs which are incorporated into society and are transmitted historically. And all, produced is loaded with meaning, with an intention and this intention is to surpass pain and suffering; the history of mankind – of its economy, of its politics, of its science, of its art – is the history of the struggle against pain and suffering. And this struggle is the motor of the progress; this struggle is not between mechanical forces. It is not a natural reflection, it is a struggle between human intentions. And this is what enables one to speak of oppressors and oppressed, of just and unjust ones, of heroes and cowards; this is the only thing that enables one to rescue the personal subjectivity and is the only thing that enables one to practice with meaning the social solidarity and the commitment with the liberation of those discriminated against, be these majorities or minorities. At this point, a definition of "human being" is a must.
It will not suffice to say "man is the social animal" or "man is the manufacturer of objects" or "man is the possessor of language", etc. In the Siloist doctrine "Man is the historical being whose mode of social action transforms his own nature." In short, New Humanism is based on two basic points: Solidarity – defined as treating other people the way one would like to be treated and, Coherence – defined as thinking and acting in the same way. The project of the Humanist Movement is nothing less than to eradicate war, hunger and economic exploitation across the planet and develop a new system based on the value of human life as the central value, higher than money, prestige, etc. Siloists call this vision of the future the Universal Human Nation; the methodology used is to work in groups and undertake personal development activities as well as social projects. Once sufficiently experienced, new groups develop according to their interests. New Humanists share the following humanist attitudes: Placing the human being as the central value and concern, in such a way that nothing is above the human being and no human being is above another.
Affirming the equality of all human beings. Recognizing personal and cultural diversity, affirming the characteristics proper to each human group and condemning discrimination, whether motivated by economic, ethnic, gender or cultural differences. Developing knowledge beyond the limitations imposed by prejudices accepted as absolute and immutable truths. Affirming the freedom of ideas and beliefs. Repudiating violence in all its forms. Near the end of the 1960s, Silo organized a group to study the personal and social crisis occurring in the world; the group intends to give a global intellectual response to a world in crises which takes place in the social and personal fields. The personal and social crisis of the'60s demands responses that are not in sight and that requires previous pausing anew in which the intelectual prejudice must be eliminated. Three sectors of research are organised. 1) that of daily and personal existence 2) that of the social activity 3) that of the methodology of the research the group makes its own Kant's declaration: "criticism, to which everything should be submitted, is characteristic of our ephoch: in vain try to escape from it religion for being saint and legislation for being majestic, since they would arise founded suspicions upson trying to impede their thorough examination, rationally carried out.
This group, others like it, organized around his writings and developed into what started life as The School and after many iterations became known as the Humanist Movement. The Humanist Movement is said to have been started May 4, 1969, with the talk "The Healing of Suffering" by Silo at Punta de Vacas, Argentina; because of the military dictatorship in place at that time, this talk was permitted on the condition that it would be held high in the Andes Mountains, far from the nearest town. These initial groups faced repression and disinformation campaigns as they grew and spread throughout Latin America; this growth was reinforced when some of the members or as political exiles, took up residence in various countries in Europe and the Americas. In 1975 one hundred members from different countries met in Corfu, Greece, to agree on proposals, objectives and a rudimentary organisation that would be tested over the next four years. By 1980 the Movement was functioning in forty two countries. In 1981 The Community for Human Development organised a lecture tour around Asia.
The Look Within, The Internal Landscape, the Book of the Community were
Politics of Spain
The politics of Spain takes place under the framework established by the Constitution of 1978. Spain is established as a social and democratic sovereign country wherein the national sovereignty is vested in the people, from which the powers of the state emanate; the form of government in Spain is a parliamentary monarchy, that is, a social representative democratic constitutional monarchy in which the monarch is the head of state, while the prime minister—whose official title is "President of the Government"—is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the Government, integrated by the prime minister, the deputy prime ministers and other ministers, which collectively form the Cabinet, or Council of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Cortes Generales, a bicameral parliament constituted by the Congress of Deputies and the Senate; the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, administering justice on behalf of the King by judges and magistrates. The Supreme Court of Spain is the highest court in the nation, with jurisdiction in all Spanish territories, superior to all in all affairs except constitutional matters, which are the jurisdiction of a separate court, the Constitutional Court.
Spain's political system is a multi-party system, but since the 1990s two parties have been predominant in politics, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party and the People's Party. Regional parties the Basque Nationalist Party, from the Basque Country, Convergence and Union and the Republican Left of Catalonia, from Catalonia, have played key roles in Spanish politics. Members of the Congress of Deputies are selected through proportional representation, the government is formed by the party or coalition that has the confidence of the Congress the party with the largest number of seats. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, there have not been coalition governments. Regional government functions under a system known as the state of autonomies, a decentralized system of administration based on asymmetrical devolution to the "nationalities and regions" that constitute the nation and in which the nation, via the central government, retains full sovereignty. Exercising the right to self-government granted by the constitution, the "nationalities and regions" have been constituted as 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities.
The form of government of each autonomous community and autonomous city is based on a parliamentary system, in which executive power is vested in a "president" and a Council of Ministers, elected by and responsible to a unicameral legislative assembly. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Spain as a "full democracy" in 2016; the Spanish monarch Felipe VI, is the head of the Spanish State, symbol of its unity and permanence, who arbitrates and moderates the regular function of government institutions, assumes the highest representation of Spain in international relations with those who are part of its historical community. His title is King of Spain; the Crown, as a symbol of the nation's unity, has a two-fold function. First, it represents the unity of the State in the organic separation of powers. Secondly, it represents the Spanish State as a whole in relation to the autonomous communities, whose rights he is constitutionally bound to respect; the King is proclaimed by the Cortes Generales — the Parliament — and must take oath to carry out his duties faithfully, to obey the constitution and all laws and to ensure they are obeyed, to respect the rights of the citizens, as well as the rights of the autonomous communities.
According to the Constitution of Spain, it is incumbent upon the King: to sanction and promulgate laws. All ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives are accredited by him, foreign representatives in Spain are accredited to him, he expresses the State's assent to entering into international commitments through treaties. In practical terms, his duties are ceremonial, constitutional provisions are worded in such a way as to make clear the strict neutral and apolitical nature of his role. In fact, the Fathers of the Constitution made careful use of the expressions "it is incumbent upon of the King", deliberately omitting other expressions such as "powers", "faculties" or "competences", thus eliminating any notion of monarchical prerogatives within the parliamentary monarchy. In the same way, the King does not have supreme liberty in the exercise of the aforementioned functions; the king is the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces, but has only symbolic, rather
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia