Archery is the art, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is called an archer or a bowman, a person, fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite; the bow and arrow seems to have been invented in the Paleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest signs of its use in Europe come from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg and dates from the late Paleolithic, about 10,000–9000 BC; the arrows were made of pine and consisted of a main shaft and a 15–20 centimetres long fore shaft with a flint point. There are no definite earlier bows; the oldest bows known so far comes from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Bows replaced the spear-thrower as the predominant means for launching shafted projectiles, on every continent except Australasia, though spear-throwers persisted alongside the bow in parts of the Americas, notably Mexico and among the Inuit.
Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian & neighboring Nubian culture since its respective predynastic & Pre-Kerma origins. In the Levant, artifacts that could be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, onwards; the Khiamian and PPN A shouldered. Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Armenians, Parthians, Koreans and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. Akkadians were the first to use composite bows in war according to the victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti," or "The Land of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers, by the 16th Century BC Egyptians were using the composite bow in warfare; the Bronze Age Aegean Cultures were able to deploy a number of state-owned specialized bow makers for warfare and hunting purposes from the 15th century BC. The Welsh longbow proved its worth for the first time in Continental warfare at the Battle of Crécy. In the Americas archery was widespread at European contact.
Archery was developed in Asia. The Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general. In East Asia, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea was well known for its regiments of exceptionally skilled archers. Central tribesmen of Asia and American Plains Indians became adept at archery on horseback. Armored, but mobile archers were excellently suited to warfare in the Central Asian steppes, they formed a large part of armies that conquered large areas of Eurasia. Shorter bows are more suited to use on horseback, the composite bow enabled mounted archers to use powerful weapons. Empires throughout the Eurasian landmass strongly associated their respective "barbarian" counterparts with the usage of the bow and arrow, to the point where powerful states like the Han Dynasty referred to their neighbors, the Xiong-nu, as "Those Who Draw the Bow". For example, Xiong-nu mounted bowmen made them more than a match for the Han military, their threat was at least responsible for Chinese expansion into the Ordos region, to create a stronger, more powerful buffer zone against them.
It is possible that "barbarian" peoples were responsible for introducing archery or certain types of bows to their "civilized" counterparts—the Xiong-nu and the Han being one example. Short bows seem to have been introduced to Japan by northeast Asian groups; the development of firearms rendered bows obsolete in warfare, although efforts were sometimes made to preserve archery practice. In England and Wales, for example, the government tried to enforce practice with the longbow until the end of the 16th century; this was because it was recognized that the bow had been instrumental to military success during the Hundred Years' War. Despite the high social status, ongoing utility, widespread pleasure of archery in Armenia, Egypt and Wales, India, Korea and elsewhere every culture that gained access to early firearms used them to the neglect of archery. Early firearms were inferior in rate-of-fire, were sensitive to wet weather. However, they had longer effective range and were tactically superior in the common situation of soldiers shooting at each other from behind obstructions.
They required less training to use properly, in particular penetrating steel armor without any need to develop special musculature. Armies equipped with guns could thus provide superior firepower, trained archers became obsolete on the battlefield. However, the bow and arrow is still an effective weapon, archers have seen action in the 21st century. Traditional archery remains in use for sport, for hunting in many areas. Early recreational archery societies included the Finsbury Archers and the Ancient Society of Kilwinning Archers; the latter's annual Papingo event was first recorded in 1483. The Royal Company of Archers was formed in 1676 and is one of the oldest sporting bodies in the world. Archery remained a small and scattered pastime, until the late 18th century when it experienced a fashionable revival among the aristocracy. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, wit
Vaughan is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is located in the Regional Municipality of York, just north of Toronto. Vaughan was the fastest-growing municipality in Canada between 1996 and 2006, achieving a population growth rate of 80.2% according to Statistics Canada and having nearly doubled in population since 1991. It is the fifth-largest city in the Greater Toronto Area, the 17th-largest city in Canada. In the late pre-contact period, the Huron-Wendat people populated; the Skandatut ancestral Wendat village overlooked the east branch of the Humber River and was once home to 2000 Huron in the sixteenth century. The site is close to a Huron ossuary uncovered in Kleinburg in 1970, one kilometre north of the Seed-Barker Huron siteThe first European to pass through Vaughan was the French explorer Étienne Brûlé, who traversed the Humber Trail in 1615. However, it was not until the townships were created in 1792 that Vaughan began to see European settlements, as it was considered to be remote and the lack of roads through the region made travel difficult.
The township was named after Benjamin Vaughan, a British commissioner who signed a peace treaty with the United States in 1783. Despite the hardships of pioneer life, settlers came to Vaughan in considerable numbers; the population grew from 19 men, 5 women, 30 children in 1800 to 4,300 in 1840. The first people to arrive were Pennsylvania Germans, with a smaller number of families of English descent and a group of French Royalists; this migration from the United States was by 1814 superseded by immigrants from Britain. While many of their predecessors had been agriculturalists, the newer immigrants proved to be skilled tradespeople, which would prove useful for a growing community. Around the facilities established by this group were a number of hamlets, the oldest of, Thornhill, where a saw-mill was erected in 1801, a grist mill in 1815, had a population of 300 by 1836. Other such enclaves included Kleinburg, Rupertville, Richmond Hill, Claireville, Pine Grove, Patterson, Concord, Fisherville, Elder's Mills, Elgin Mills, Nashville, Richvale, Langstaff and Burwick.
In 1846, the Township was agricultural but had a population of 4,300. There were 25 saw mills. By 1935, there were 4,873 residents. However, World War II sparked an influx of immigration, by 1960, the population stood at 15,957; the ethno-cultural composition of the area began to change with the arrival of different groups such as Italians and Eastern Europeans. Incorporated in 1850 as Vaughan Township, a municipal government was established. Vaughan Road was a rural road constructed in 1850 that linked Vaughan Township with Toronto, though this street's current alignment is much shorter and serves only much of the eastern half of the former city of York. In 1971, the new regional government of York Region was established, acquiring policing and welfare services from the communities it served. In 1991, it changed its legal status to City of Vaughan. An F2 tornado tore through the city of Vaughan during the Southern Ontario Tornado Outbreak on August 20, 2009. Premier Dalton McGuinty and Mayor Linda Jackson toured the destruction the next day and reported 200 homes in critical shape and as many as 600 additional homes to be demolished.
The tornado ripped up trees, flipped cars, left thousands of people without power. Vaughan declared a state of emergency because of the widespread damage. One man injured in the storm suffered a heart attack the following morning. North American telephone customers placing calls to Vaughan may not recognize the charge details on their billings. Although Vaughan has been incorporated since 1850 and has existed in its present form since 1971, the local incumbent local exchange carrier, Bell Canada, splits the city into three historical rate centres–Kleinburg and Woodbridge. Part of the Thornhill rate centre extends into Vaughan. Indeed, Vaughan does not appear in the telephone book. Vaughan is governed by a nine-member council comprising a mayor, three regional councillors, five local councillors; the mayor, elected at large, is a representative on York Region Council. The three regional councillors are elected at large, serve on both the city council and York Regional Council. Five local councillors are elected, one from each of Vaughan's five wards, to represent those wards on Vaughan Council.
City councillors meet at the Civic Centre, located in Maple. The City's new City Hall was opened on September 25, 2011; the building is named in memory of late Mayor Lorna Jackson. The new Civic Centre is one of the first in Canada to conform to a LEED Gold Standard, the second highest environmental classification available. Vaughan is the first municipality in Ontario to have a Youth City Councillor; the youth city councillor is appointed as a non-voting member of Council every six months to represent the youth of Vaughan. Vaughan council rejected the proposal of a youth councillor but, after the Vaughan Youth Cabinet amended its proposal, Council accepted the recommendation. After serving as mayor for nine years, Lorna Jackson saw the Town of Vaughan become incorporated as the City of Vaughan. Following the death of Mayor Lorna Jackson in 2002, Michael Di Biase was appointed mayor by Vaughan council by virtue of his position as one of two regional councillors representing Vaughan, Joyce Frustaglio was the other regional councillor.
Gino Rosati, a Vaughan local councillor, was subsequently app
King is a township in York Region north of Toronto, within the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. The rolling hills of the Oak Ridges Moraine are the most prominent visible geographical feature of King; the Holland Marsh, considered to be Ontario's "vegetable basket", straddles King Township and Bradford West Gwillimbury. King is known for its horse and cattle farms. Though King is predominantly rural, most of its residents inhabit the communities of King City and Schomberg. Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe named King Township for John King, an English Under-Secretary of State for Home Office from 1794 to 1801 for the Home Department in the Portland administration when Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool was Secretary of State; the township was created as part of the subdivision of York County, itself a subdivision of the Home District. The lands were acquired by the British in an agreement with the Mississaugas, known as the Toronto Purchase. Acquisition of the lands for the townships of Etobicoke, King and York, Upper Canada was completed at a meeting between the Mississaugas and the British at the Credit River on 1 August 1805, where 250,808 acres were exchanged for £1,700.
Simcoe planned Yonge Street, built between 1793 and 1796 by the Queen's Rangers. The first seven land patents were issued in 1797. By 1801, Timothy Rogers, a Loyalist from Vermont, had travelled the road and found an area on its western boundary southwest of Newmarket appealing, he applied for and received a grant for land totalling 40 farms, each of 200 acres, subsequently returned to Vermont to recruit families to operate those farms. By February 1802, he had set out for King Township with the first group of settlers for those forty farms. A second group followed that month; the area would become known in honour of its first settler Amos Armitage. It was the first of King's settlements, now part of Newmarket. Soon after the establishment of Armitage, the communities of Kettleby and Lloydtown were established to the west. More settlers arrived from New York and other Loyalist enclaves over the subsequent years to populate the region, drawn by the abundant, fertile land being apportioned cheaply to newcomers.
A "considerable area of land...in different concessions" of King were patented to the Canada Company after its establishment in 1826. By 1842, the township consisted of 53,240 acres of land, of which 13,818 acres had been cleared and was being cultivated; the principal villages at the time were Lloydtown, Brownsville and Tyrwhitt's Mills. In 1851, the township annexed from West Gwillimbury the portion of land north of its extant and east of the Holland River as a result of the formation of Simcoe County. 86,840 acres of land were administered by the township in 1878, according to the Historical Atlas of York County, but by 1973 this had been reduced to 82,000. The first survey of King Township was conducted in 1800 by Hessian soldier Johann Stegmann. At the time, the area's population was twenty residents. According to a letter by Benjamin Cody to the Newmarket Era published on 7 May 1892, there were church records listing births in the area, the first white child in King may have been Sarah Rogers, born April 1800.
At least four children were born in King by July 1802. By 1809, the township's population had increased sevenfold, to 160, it wasn't until 1820, with the construction of roads into the township, that its population began to grow. By 1842, the population of 2,625 residents was principally Irish, included those of English, Scottish and American descent. Further surveys were conducted in 1836–1838 by Callighan, in 1852 by John Ryan, completed in 1859 by Whelock; the townships population grew to 5574 in 1850, nearly 8000 in 1875, after which it declined to 4588 in 1914. There is some evidence of a large Huron encampment at Hackett Lake. Residents in the area in the 1950s and 1960s discovered arrowheads and other archaeological items indicating a Huron presence; this is consistent with the fact that the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, a major route used in the 17th and 18th centuries, passes through the township. The route was used by explorer Étienne Brûlé, who first travelled along the trail with twelve Huron guides in 1615.
Early settlements in the area developed around gristmills and sawmills. These were important economic engines in the region during the 19th century, which resulted in the establishment of other communities and businesses nearby. By 1842, there were eight grist mills and 12 saw mills in King; some settlements have since been abandoned, or are no longer communities per se, including Bell's Lake, Davis Corners, King Ridge. In 1971, with the formation of the Regional Municipality of York and dissolution of York County, the township's boundaries were changed, shifting west by one concession from Yonge Street to Bathurst Street, north by one lot from the King-Vaughan town line; the township's boundaries are East: Bathurst Street South: a line north of the King-Vaughan Road West: the Caledon/King Townline, which connects two roads in a straight line North: Highway 9 from the Caledon/King Townline to east of Highway 27 cuts north following branches of the Holland River until it meets Bathurst StreetThe majority of King is located on the Oak Ridges Moraine, the origin for the headwaters of many
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters", its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River, it is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area, although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume, it is the 13th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake's shoreline is 712 miles long.
As the last lake in the Great Lakes' hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean surface elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its maximum width is 53 statute miles; the lake's average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a maximum depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lake's primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, with the St. Lawrence River serving as the outlet; the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles. As with all the Great Lakes, water levels change both among years; these water level fluctuations are an integral part of lake ecology, produce and maintain extensive wetlands. The lake has an important freshwater fishery, although it has been negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution and invasive species. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors near Prince Edward County and the easternmost shores; the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour.
Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presqu'ile Bay, Sodus Bay. The bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park; these sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species, as well as providing important rest areas for migratory birds. Presqu'ile, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is significant in this regard. One unique feature of the lake is the Z-shaped Bay of Quinte which separates Prince Edward County from the Ontario mainland, save for a 2-mile isthmus near Trenton. Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Niagara River, Don River, Humber River, Trent River, Cataraqui River, Genesee River, Oswego River, Black River, Little Salmon River, the Salmon River; the lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had the same orientation as today's basin.
Material, pushed southward by the ice sheet left landforms such as drumlins and moraines, both on the modern land surface and the lake bottom, reorganizing the region's entire drainage system. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet, so the lake surface was at a higher level; this stage is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River, thence to the Hudson River and the Atlantic; the shoreline created during this stage can be recognized by the beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles from the present shoreline. When the ice receded from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, for a short time the lake became a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, in association with the Champlain Sea; the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet of ice, stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice receded from the area last, the most rapid rebound still occurs there.
This means the lake bed is tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores experience shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners; the name Ontario is derived from the Huron word Ontarí'io, which means "great lake". The lake was a border between the Huron people and the Iroquois Confederacy in the pre-Columbian era. In the 1600s, the Iroquois drove out the Huron from southern Ontario and settled the northern shores of Lake Ontario; when the Iroquois withdrew and the Anishnabeg / Ojibwa / Mississaugas moved in from the north to southern Ontario, they retained the Iroquois name. It is believed the first European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615; as was their practice, the French explorers introduced other names for the lake. In 1632 and 1656, the lake was referred to as Lac de St. Louis or Lake St. Louis by Samuel de Champlain and cartographer Nicolas Sanson In
Fort Niagara is a fortification built to protect the interests of New France in North America. It is located near Youngstown, New York, on the eastern bank of the Niagara River at its mouth, on Lake Ontario. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle built the first structure, called Fort Conti, in 1678. In 1687, the Governor of New France, the Marquis de Denonville, constructed a new fort at the former site of Fort Conti, he named it Fort Denonville and posted a hundred men under the command of Capt. Pierre de Troyes, Chevalier de Troyes; the winter weather and disease was severe, all but twelve perished by the time a relief force returned from Montreal. It was decided in September 1688 to abandon the post and the stockade was pulled down. Louis-Thomas Chabert de Joncaire was despatched to the Senecas to obtain permission to build a French post on the banks of the river, it was in 1720 that he spoke to several chiefs, explaining that his pleasure was always great when he visited them but that he would do it more spontaneously still if he had a dwelling place.
Considering that he was of the tribe since his turbulent captivity and his "adoption", the chiefs agreed that he had the right to build a dwelling where it pleased. Joncaire and eight men dispatched from Fort Frontenac built on the right bank of the river a trading post, called Magasin Royal or Maison de la Paix; the trading post was called the "House of Peace", emphasizing the French peaceful intents. In 1726, a two-story "Maison a Machicoulis" or "Machicolated House" was constructed on the same site by French engineer Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry; the fort was expanded to its present size in 1755 due to increased tensions between French and British colonial interests. The name used today, "The French Castle" was not used until the 19th Century; the fort played a significant part in the French and Indian War, fell to the British in a nineteen-day siege in July 1759, called the Battle of Fort Niagara. The French relief force sent for the besieged garrison was ambushed at the Battle of La Belle-Famille, the commander of the post, Francois Pouchot, surrendered the fort to the British commander, Sir William Johnson, who led the New York Militia.
The Irish-born Johnson was not the original commander of the expedition, but became its leader when General John Prideaux lost his head, stepping in front of a mortar being test-fired during the siege. The fort remained in British hands for the next thirty-seven years. Fort Niagara served as the Loyalist base in New York during the American Revolutionary War for Colonel John Butler and his Butler's Rangers, a Tory militia in the command of the British Army. Lt. Col. William Stacy, a high-ranking officer of the Continental Army, was captured at the attack on Cherry Valley, New York by Butler's Rangers, he was held captive at Fort Niagara during the summer of 1779. Niagara became notorious for drinking, brawling and cheating. Crude taverns and bordellos sprouted on "the Bottom", the riverside flat below the fort. Though Fort Niagara was ceded to the United States after the Treaty of Paris ended the American War of Independence in 1783, the region remained under British control for thirteen years.
Only after signing of the Jay Treaty did American forces occupy the fort in 1796. In the interim, United Empire Loyalists fleeing persecution in the new USA were given land grants 200 acres per inhabitant in Upper Canada, some were sustained in the early years by aid from the military stores of the fort. During the War of 1812 the fort's guns sank the Provincial Marine schooner Seneca on 21 November 1812. British forces captured the fort on the night of 19 December 1813 in retaliation for the burning of Newark nine days earlier; the British held the fort for the remainder of the war until they relinquished it under the terms of the Treaty of Ghent. It has remained in US custody since. Nine active battalions of the Regular Army are derived from American units that were at Fort Niagara during the War of 1812. 52 Battery Royal Artillery, Royal Scots and a number of other British units that fought at the Capture of Fort Niagara still exist today. A number of other units that served in the Fort in the War of 1812 endure.
The name "Old Fort Niagara", associated with the fort today does not refer to its age but to distinguish the colonial-era fortress from its more modern namesake. The post-Civil War era saw the building of "New Fort Niagara" outside the original walls of the fort. Following the Civil War, the military abandoned the use of masonry forts, for the style of military camp we now know; the newer Fort Niagara contained a thousand-yard rifle range, access to rail lines, access to the industrial areas of Niagara Falls and Buffalo. Fort Niagara trained troops for the Spanish–American War and World War I, during World War II served as an induction center and a POW camp for 1,200 German soldiers captured in North Africa. After WW II, the fort provided temporary housing for returning veterans. During the Korean War, the fort was a headquarters for anti-aircraft artillery and Nike missiles; the Niagara Falls Defense Area formed the northern half of the U. S. Army Anti-Aircraft Command defenses in western New York State.
After the amalgamation of the Niagara Falls and B
John Graves Simcoe
John Graves Simcoe was a British Army general and the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada from 1791 until 1796 in southern Ontario and the watersheds of Georgian Bay and Lake Superior. He founded York and was instrumental in introducing institutions such as courts of law, trial by jury, English common law, freehold land tenure, in the abolition of slavery in Canada, his long-term goal was the development of Upper Canada as a model community built on aristocratic and conservative principles, designed to demonstrate the superiority of those principles to the Republicanism and democracy of the United States. His energetic efforts were only successful in establishing a local gentry, a thriving Church of England, an anti-American coalition with select Indigenous nations, he is seen by many Canadians as a founding figure in Canadian history by those in Southern Ontario. He is commemorated in Toronto with Simcoe Day. Simcoe was the only surviving son of Katherine Simcoe, his parents had four children.
His father was a captain in the Royal Navy who commanded the 60-gun HMS Pembroke during the Siege of Louisbourg, with James Cook as his sailing master. He died of pneumonia on 15 May 1759 on board his ship in the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, a few months prior to the siege of Quebec; the family moved to his mother's parental home in Exeter. His paternal grandparents were Mary Simcoe, he was educated at Exeter Grammar Eton College. He spent a year at Oxford, he was initiated into Freemasonry in Union Lodge, Exeter on 2 November 1773. In 1770, Simcoe entered the British Army as an ensign in the 35th Regiment of Foot, his unit was dispatched to the Thirteen Colonies, he saw action in the American Revolutionary War during the Siege of Boston. During the siege in July 1776, he was promoted captain in the 40th Regiment of Foot, he saw action with the grenadier company of the 40th Foot in the New York and New Jersey campaign and the Philadelphia campaign. Simcoe commanded the 40th at the Battle of Brandywine on 11 September 1777.
Legend has it that Simcoe ordered his men at Brandywine not to fire upon three fleeing rebels, among whom was George Washington. In 1777, Simcoe sought to form a Loyalist regiment of free blacks from Boston but instead was offered the command of the Queen's Rangers on 15 October 1777, it was a well-trained light infantry unit comprising 11 companies of 30 men, 1 grenadier, 1 hussar, the rest light infantry. The Queen's Rangers saw extensive action during the Philadelphia campaign, including a successful surprise attack at the Battle of Crooked Billet. In 1778, Simcoe led an attack on Judge William Hancock's house during a foraging expedition opposed by Patriot militia; the attack wounded five others. William Hancock was killed, although he was not with the Americans; the attack took place with bayonets. On 28 June of that year and his Queen's Rangers took part in the Battle of Monmouth, in and near Freehold, New Jersey. On August 31, 1778, Lieut. Col. Simcoe led a massacre of forty Native Americans, allied with the Continental Army, in what is today the Bronx, NY.
This place is known as Indian Field in Van Cortlandt Park, Bronx. NY. During October 1779, Simcoe and 80 men launched an attack on central New Jersey from southern Staten Island known as Simcoe's Raid, from what is known today as the Conference House, resulting in the burning of Patriot supplies inside a Dutch Reformed Church in Finderne, including hay and grain. Simcoe rejoined his unit in Virginia, he participated in the Raid on Richmond with Benedict Arnold in January, 1781 and was involved in a skirmish near Williamsburg and was at the Siege of Yorktown. He was invalided back to England in December of that year as a Lieutenant-Colonel, having been promoted in March 1782. Simcoe wrote a book on his experiences with the Queen's Rangers, titled A Journal of the Operations of the Queen's Rangers from the end of the year 1777 to the conclusion of the late American War, published in 1787. Simcoe convalesced at the Devon home of Admiral Samuel Graves. In 1782, Simcoe married his godfather's ward.
Elizabeth was a wealthy heiress, who acquired a 5,000-acre estate at Honiton in Devon and built Wolford Lodge. Wolford was the Simcoe family seat until 1923; the Simcoes had five daughters before their posting in Canada. Son Francis was born in 1791, their Canadian-born daughter, died in infancy in York. She is buried in the Victoria Square Memorial Park on Toronto. Francis returned with his father to England when his tenure joined the army, he was killed in an infantry charge during the Peninsular War in 1812. Simcoe entered politics in 1790, he was elected Member of Parliament as a supporter of the government. As MP, he proposed raising a militia force like the Queen's Rangers, he proposed to lead an invasion of Spain. But instead he was to be made lieutenant governor of the new loyalist province of Upper Canada, he resigned from Parliament in 1792 on taking up his new post. The Constitutional Act 1791 divided C
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans