Umberto II of Italy
Umberto II was the last King of Italy. He reigned for 34 days, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946, although he had been de facto head of state since 1944, was nicknamed the May King. Umberto was the only son among the five children of King Victor Emmanuel Queen Elena. In an effort to repair the monarchy's image after the fall of Benito Mussolini's regime, Victor Emmanuel transferred his powers to Umberto in 1944 while retaining the title of king; as a referendum was in preparation on the abolition of the monarchy in 1946, Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in favour of Umberto in the hope that his exit might bolster the monarchy. But the referendum passed, Italy was declared a republic, Umberto lived out the rest of his life in exile in Cascais, on the Portuguese Riviera. Umberto was born at the Castle of Racconigi in Piedmont, he was the third child, the only son, of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife, Elena of Montenegro. As such, he became heir apparent upon his birth, since the Italian throne was limited to male descendants.
Umberto was given the standard military education of a Savoyard prince. During the crisis of May 1915, when Victor Emmanuel III decided to break the terms of the Triple Alliance by declaring war on the Austrian empire, he found himself in a quandary as the Italian Parliament was against declaring war; the British historian Denis Mack Smith wrote that it is not clear why Victor Emmanuel was prepared to sacrifice his 10-year-old son's right to succeed to the throne in favor of the Duke of Aosta. Umberto was brought up in an authoritarian and militaristic household and expected to "show an exaggerated deference to his father". Like the other Savoyard princes before him, Umberto received a military education, notably short on politics. Umberto was the first cousin of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, he was accorded the title Prince of Piedmont, formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September. In a 1959 interview, Umberto told the Italian newspaper La Settimana Incom Illustrata that in 1922 his father had felt that appointing Benito Mussolini prime minister was a "justifiable risk".
As Prince of Piedmont, Umberto visited South America, between July and September 1924. With his preceptor, Bonaldi, he went to Brazil, Uruguay and Chile; this trip was part of the political plan of Fascism to link the Italian people living outside of Italy with their mother country and the interests of the regime. As a young man, Umberto was noted for his pursuit of handsome young officers. One of his lovers, Enrico Montanari, remembered as a lieutenant in 1927 Turin that the prince gave him a silver cigarette lighter with the inscription reading "Dimmi di si!". Montanari recalled. In a break with the traditions of the House of Savoy, Umberto was an intense Catholic, described by his biographer Domenico Bartoli as "almost to the point of fanaticism", but he was unable to resist what he called his "satanic" homosexual urges. Umberto was described as a "sensuous" man who craved sex, but he always felt guilty and tormented afterward for violating the Catholic teaching that homosexuality is a cardinal sin.
To make up for what he called the "devastating burden" of his life, Umberto spent much time praying for divine forgiveness for his homosexuality. One biographer wrote of Umberto that he was "forever rushing between chapel and brothel and steam bath." He had a fondness for officers from well-off families. According to the film director and aristocrat Luchino Visconti's autobiography, he and Umberto had a homosexual relationship during their youth in the 1920s. Umberto was educated for a military career and in time became the commander-in-chief of the Northern Armies, the Southern ones; this role was formal, the de facto command belonging to his father, King Victor Emmanuel III, who jealously guarded his power of supreme command from Il Duce, Benito Mussolini. By mutual agreement and Mussolini always kept a distance. In 1926, Mussolini passed a law allowing the Fascist Grand Council to decide the succession, though in practice he admitted the prince would succeed his father. An attempted assassination took place in Brussels on 24 October 1929, the day of the announcement of his betrothal to Princess Marie José.
Umberto was about to lay a wreath on the Tomb of the Belgian Unknown Soldier at the foot of the Colonne du Congrès when, with a cry of'Down with Mussolini!', Fernando de Rosa fired a single shot that missed him. De Rosa was arrested and, under interrogation, claimed to be a member of the Second International who had fled Italy to avoid arrest for his political views, his trial was a major political event, although he was found guilty of attempted murder, he was given a light sentence of five years in prison. This sentence caused a political uproar in Italy and a brief rift in Belgian-Italian relations, but in March 1932 Umberto asked for a pardon for de Rosa, released after having served less than half his sentence and killed in the Spanish Civil War. In 1928, after the colonial authorities in Italian Somaliland built the Mogadi
Humbert I, Count of Savoy
Humbert I, better known as Humbert the White-Handed or Humbert Whitehand was the founder of the House of Savoy. Of obscure origins, his service to the German emperors Henry II and Conrad II was rewarded with the counties of Maurienne and Aosta and lands in Valais, all at the expense of local bishops and archbishops. Humbert was the son of Amadeus, who may not have preceded him as count of Maurienne, his brother was Bishop Otto of Belley. Humbert is the progenitor of the dynasty known as the House of Savoy; the origins of this dynasty are unknown, but Humbert's ancestors are variously said to have come from Saxony, Burgundy or Provence. Given Humbert's close connections with Rudolf III of Burgundy, it is that his family were Burgundian, were descended either from the dukes of Vienne, or from a Burgundian aristocratic family, it is likely that Humbert was related to Ermengarde of Burgundy, second wife of Rudolf III. Humbert held lands around Belley and in the county of Sermorens, before gaining lands in Aosta and Valais.
After Rudolf III’s death, Humbert I swore fealty to Emperor Conrad II. He supported Conrad II in his campaigns against Odo II, Count of Blois, Aribert, Archbishop of Milan. In return, Conrad II appointed Humbert count of Savoy and granted him Maurienne and Tarentaise; these imperial grants to a loyal supporter secured key passes through the Alps, controlling trade between Italy and Western Europe, which would be the core of Savoy power for centuries. Humbert married Ancelie, she may have been Ancilla of Aoste, the daughter of vir illustris Anselme of Aoste or Ancilla of Lenzburg, the daughter of the master of ceremonies of Burgundy. Alternatively, Ancilla may have been a daughter of Anselm and Aldiud, thus a member of a northern Italian dynasty known as the Anselmids. With his wife, Humbert had at least four sons: Amadeus I, Count of Savoy, successor Aymon, Bishop of Sion Burchard, Archbishop of Lyon Otto, Count of Savoy, successor of his brotherSome authors believe that he had additional sons.
Humbert is said to have died c.1047/8 at Hermillon, a town in the Maurienne region of present-day Savoie, France. More it has been suggested that he died by 1042. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. C. W. Previté-Orton, The Early History of the House of Savoy, accessible online at: archive.org S. Hellmann, Die Grafen von Savoyen und das Reich: bis zum Ende der staufischen Periode, accessible online at: Genealogie Mittelalter Die Urkunden der burgundischen Rudolfinger, ed. T. Schieffer, MGH DD Burg, accessible online at: Monumenta Germaniae Historia C. Ducourthial, ‘Géographie du pouvoir en pays de Savoie au tournant de l’an Mil,’ in C. Guilleré, J- M. Poisson, L. Ripart and C. Ducourthial, eds. Le royaume de Bourgogne autour de l’an mil, pp. 207–246. Laurent Ripart, Les fondements idéologiques du pouvoir des comtes de la maison de Savoie (de la fin du Xe siècle au début du XIIIe siècle. History of House of Savoy Humbert Weißhand, Graf von Savoyen Humbert Biancamano, Conte di Savoia
Marie Georges Humbert
Marie Georges Humbert was a French mathematician who worked on Kummer surfaces and the Appell–Humbert theorem and introduced Humbert surfaces. His son was the mathematician Pierre Humbert, he won the Poncelet Prize of the Académie des Sciences in 1891. He studied at the École Polytechnique, he was the brother-in-law of Charles Mangin. Application de la théorie des fonctions fuchsiennes à l'étude des courbes algébriques, Journal de mathematiques pure et appliquées, 4th Series, Vol. 2, 1886, pp. 239-328, pdf Pierre Humbert, Gaston Julia: Georges Humbert- Oeuvres, Gauthier-Villars 1929 Cours d'Analyse, 2 volumes, Gauthier-Villars 1902, 1904 O'Connor, John J.. Marie Georges Humbert at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
Agnès Humbert was an art historian, ethnographer and a member of the French Resistance during World War II. She has become well known through the publication of a translation of the diary of her experiences during the War in France and in German prisons at the time of the Nazi occupation. Agnès Dorothée Humbert, known as Agnès Humbert, was born on 12 October 1894 in Dieppe, daughter of French senator Charles Humbert and English writer Mabel Wells Annie Rooke, she spent her childhood in Paris, where she studied design. She was a pupil of Maurice Denis alongside Georges Hanna Sabbagh, whom she married in January 1916, she continued to paint, using the pseudonym Agnès Sabbert. They had two sons: Jean Sabbagh, a submariner and advisor to General Charles de Gaulle, television director and producer Pierre Sabbagh. However, Agnès and Georges divorced in 1934. From 1929 Humbert studied the history of art at the Sorbonne and at the Louvre school, took postgraduate courses in philosophy and ethnography.
She worked as an art historian at the Musée national des Arts et Traditions Populaires becoming a close associate of the museum's director Georges-Henri Rivière. Her first publication was a book on the painter Louis David, published in 1936, she broadcast on art on Radio Paris at the start of 1936. From the fall of Paris until her arrest and interrogation by the Gestapo in April 1941, Humbert kept a written diary. Apart from a few scribbled notes, she only resumed writing her diary after her liberation from prison four years in April 1945. A few days after the fall of Paris on 14 June 1940, having fled Paris to be with her mother at the house of her cousin Daisy Drew at Vicq-sur-Breuilh, by chance she heard an appeal by General de Gaulle on the BBC's Radio France encouraging the people of France to continue the struggle against the occupying Germans and the Vichy government, it was offensive to her when books were removed from her library by the Germans, German authors added. On 6 August a notice was fixed on the gateway of the Palais de Chaillot, ordering free entry to German soldiers, she wrote in her diary that she told her colleague Jean Cassou "I feel I will go mad if I don't do something!".
So, with Boris Vildé, Anatole Lewitsky, Jean Cassou and Yvonne Oddon she formed the Groupe du musée de l'Homme out of members of the Museum, the first resistance movement in occupied France. In a few months these pioneers built a diffuse underground network, their action spread with the creation of a clandestine newsletter, Résistance, which had only five issues, between 15 December 1940 and the end of March 1941, with editorials holding no illusions on Pétain and the Vichy government. This group went on to feed information to the British; the leaders of the resistance cell were betrayed and arrested in April 1941. Humbert recruited Pierre Brossolette to continue with the last number of Résistance before being arrested herself; the Museum group were sent to the harsh Cherche-Midi prison and Fresnes Prison in Paris where they were tried by the Wehrmacht and in February 1942, along with seven members of the group, sentenced to death. However she was transferred to the Prison de la Santé where conditions were better and she was visited by her son Pierre and her mother, but she learnt that the men had been put to death by firing squad.
The women deported to Anrath prison in Germany. Humbert was made to work in appalling conditions at the Phrix rayon factory in Krefeld: there workers died, went blind, developed horrible skin conditions. After four years, in June 1945 she was liberated by the Third United States Army and her diary records how she took part in the "Nazi Hunt" at Wanfried in 1945, she set up soup kitchens for refugees and expressly stated that everyone was to get a share the German civilians. She helped to start the denazification process. After the war, Humbert refused to return to work at the Museum, but instead joined Jean Cassou at the new National Museum of Modern Art. Though her health had been affected by her experiences, she continued to write books on art, she published her diary under the title Notre Guerre in 1946. This was reissued and translated into English by Barbara Mellor as Résistance, Memoirs of Occupied France. In 1949 she was awarded the Croix de Guerre with silver gilt palm for heroism, she spent her final years living with her son Pierre in the village of Valmondois and is buried in the cemetery there.
Her last work was an introduction to the catalogue of a Maurice Denis exhibition at the Toulouse-Lautrec Museum in Albi in the summer of 1963. She died ten days before the end of the exhibition. Agnès Humbert, Louis David, peintre et conventionnel: essai de critique marxiste, Editions sociales internationales, 1936. Agnès Humbert, Louis David, collection des Maîtres, 60 illustrations, Braun, 1940. Agnès Humbert, L. Chevojon, Le Musée National d'Art Moderne: Peinture, Paris, Musée National d'Art Moderne, 1948. Agnès Humbert and Nadeshda Ferber, Die französische Malerei von den Anfängen zum Impressionismus, 30 illustrations, Minerva-Verlag, 1949. Agnès Humbert, Vu et entendu en Yougoslavie, Deux-Rives, 1950. Henri Barbusse, Agnès Humbert and Max Lingner, Max Lingner, 30 reproductions, Academy of Arts, Berlin, 1950. Agnès Humbert, Les Nabis et leur époque 1888–1900, 51 plates, Genève, Pierre Callier, 1954. Agnès Humbert, (in
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Jean-Henri Humbert was a French botanist born in Paris. He studied physics and natural sciences in Rennes and Paris, following a scientific excursion to Madagascar, he worked as a university assistant at the faculty of Clermont-Ferrand. In 1919 he was appointed to the chair of botany, subsequently teaching botany classes at the institute of chemistry and industrial technology. In 1922 he relocated to Algiers. In 1931 he succeeded Henri Lecomte as chair of botany at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris. Humbert was a member of the Académie des sciences d'outre-mer and the Société botanique de France, serving as its president from 1940 to 1944, he was a member of the Institut de France and the Société d’Histoire Naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord. From 1951 to 1957 he was a member of the Académie des Sciences, he has a handful of botanical genera named after him, including Humbertiella from the tribe Hibisceae. He was an editor of the journal "Flore de Madagascar et des Comores". Les Composées de Madagascar, 1923 Végétation du Grand Atlas Marocain oriental.
Exploration botanique de l'Ari Ayachi, 1924. La Disparition des forêts à Madagascar, 1927. France savante
Jean Joseph Amable Humbert
General Jean Joseph Amable Humbert was a French soldier, a participant in the French Revolution, who led a failed invasion of Ireland to assist Irish patriots in 1798. Born in the townland of La Coâre Saint-Nabord, outside Remiremont Vosges, he was a sergeant in the National Guard of Lyon, he advanced through the ranks to become brigadier general on 9 April 1794 and fought in the Western campaigns before being allocated to the Army of the Rhine. In 1794 after serving in the Army of the Coasts of Brest, Humbert served under Hoche in the Army of the Rhin-et-Moselle. Charged to prepare for an expedition against Ireland, he took command of the Légion des Francs under Hoche, sailing in the ill-fated Expédition d'Irlande against Bantry Bay in 1796, was engaged in actions at sea against the Royal Navy. Contrary weather and enemy action forced this expedition to withdraw; the trip home ended in a naval battle, the Action of 13 January 1797, during which Humbert, on the French ship Droits de l'Homme, narrowly escaped death.
As the ship was destroyed and sank, hundreds of men perished, but Humbert was among the last to escape. On his return to France, Humbert served in the Army of the Sambre-et-Meuse, before being appointed to command the troops in another attempt to support a rising in Ireland in 1798, his command chiefly consisted of infantry of the 70th demi-brigade with a few artillerymen and some cavalry of the 3rd Hussars, however by the time he arrived off the Irish coast the United Irish rising had suffered defeat. The expedition was able to land in Ireland at Killala on Thursday 23 August 1798, meeting with initial success in the Battle of Castlebar where he routed the Irish Militia. Humbert subsequently declared a Republic of Connacht, with hopes of taking Dublin. However, Humbert's small force was defeated at the Battle of Ballinamuck by the Royal Irish Army and he was taken as a prisoner of war by the authorities; the British sent the French officers home in two frigates and massacred their Irish supporters.
A monument to General Humbert depicting Mother Ireland stands on Humbert Street, County Mayo, Ireland. Humbert was shortly repatriated in a prisoner exchange and appointed in succession to the Armies of Mayence and Helvetia, with which he served at the Second Battle of Zurich, he embarked for Saint Domingo and participated in several Caribbean campaigns for Napoleon Bonaparte before being accused of plundering by General Brunet. It was rumored that he had engaged in an affair with Pauline Bonaparte, the wife of his commanding officer Charles Leclerc, he was returned to France by order of General Leclerc in October 1802, for "prevarications, liaison relationships with organisers of the inhabitants and with leaders of brigands". A committed Republican, his displeasure at Napoleon's Imperial pretensions led to him being dismissed in 1803 and he retired to Morbihan in Brittany. In 1810, after brief service in the Army of the North, Humbert emigrated to New Orleans, where he made his acquaintance with French pirate Jean Lafitte.
In 1813, Humbert joined the revolutionary Juan Bautista Mariano Picornell y Gomila in an unsuccessful attempt to foment rebellion in Spanish Mexico, but the effort failed. In 1814, Humbert again left New Orleans and joined the rebelling forces of Buenos Aires commanding a corps, before returning home. Humbert last fought the British at the Battle of New Orleans, as a volunteer private soldier in U. S. ranks, in the War of 1812. General Jackson thanked him for his assistance there after the American victory in January 1815, thereafter Humbert lived peacefully as a schoolteacher until his death. In 1989, sculptor Carmel Gallagher unveiled a bust of General Humbert in Killala, Ireland, to mark the upcoming bicentennial of the 1798 Rebellion. Thomas Bartlett, ‘Général Humbert takes his leave’, in'Cathair na Mart, xi 98-104. Marie-Louise Jacotey, Un Volontaire de 1792 Le Général Humbert ou la passion de la Liberté. Sylvie Kleinman, Entry, ` Jean-Joseph Amable Dictionary of Irish Biography. Author and historian Stephen Dunford discusses his book and documentary " In Humbert's Footsteps" at