Savoy is a cultural region in Western Europe. It comprises roughly the territory of the Western Alps between Lake Geneva in the north and Dauphiné in the south, the historical land of Savoy emerged as the feudal territory of the House of Savoy during the 11th to 14th centuries. The historical territory is shared between the countries of France and Switzerland. Installed by Rudolph III, King of Burgundy, officially in 1003 and it ruled the County of Savoy to 1416 and the Duchy of Savoy from 1416 to 1860. The territory of Savoy was annexed to France in 1792 under the French First Republic, victor Emmanuels dynasty, the House of Savoy, retained its Italian lands of Piedmont and Liguria and became the ruling dynasty of Italy. In modern France, Savoy is part of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, following its annexation to France in 1860, the territory of Savoy was divided administratively into two separate departments and Haute-Savoie. The traditional capital remains Chambéry, on the rivers Leysse and Albane, hosting the castle of the House of Savoy, the capital of the Duchy remained at the traditional Savoyard capital of Chambéry until 1563, when it was moved to Turin.
The region was occupied by the Allobroges, a Celtic people that in 121 BC were subdued by the Roman Empire, the name Savoy stems from the Late Latin Sapaudia, referring to a fir forest. It is first recorded in Ammianus Marcellinus, to describe the part of Maxima Sequanorum. According to the Gallic Chronicle of 452, it was separated from the rest of Burgundian territories in 443 and this latter territory comprised what would become known as Savoy and Provence. From the 10th to 14th century, parts of what would ultimately become Savoy remained within the Kingdom of Arles. Beginning in the 11th century, the rise to power of the House of Savoy is reflected in the increasing territory of their County of Savoy between 1003 and 1416. The County of Savoy was detached de jure from the Kingdom of Arles by Emperor Charles IV in 1361, on February 19,1416, Holy Roman Emperor, made the County of Savoy an independent duchy, with Amadeus VIII as the first duke. Straddling the Alps, Savoy lay within two competing spheres of influence, a French sphere and a North Italian one, at the time of the Renaissance, Savoy showed only modest development.
Its towns were few and small, Savoy derived its subsistence from agriculture. The geographic location of Savoy was of military importance, during the interminable wars between France and Spain over the control of northern Italy, Savoy was important to France because it provided access to Italy. Savoy was important to Spain because it served as a buffer between France and the Spanish held lands in Italy, in 1563 Emmanuel Philibert moved the capital from Chambéry to Turin, which was less vulnerable to French interference. Vaud was annexed by Bern in 1536, and Savoy officially ceded Vaud to Bern in the Treaty of Lausanne of 30 October 1564
Louis VI of France
Louis VI, called the Fat, was King of the Franks from 1108 until his death. Chronicles called him roi de Saint-Denis, Louis VI managed to reinforce his power considerably and became one of the first strong kings of France since the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843. Louis was a king but by his forties his weight had become so great that it was increasingly difficult for him to lead in the field. Louis was born on 1 December 1081 in Paris, the son of Philip I and his first wife, and. How valiant he was in youth, and with what energy he repelled the king of the English, William Rufus, when he attacked Louis inherited kingdom. Louis married Lucienne de Rochefort, a French crown princess, in 1104, on 3 August 1115 Louis married Adelaide of Maurienne, daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II. Adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens and her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI. During her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king, suger became Louiss adviser before he became king and he succeeded his father at the age of 26 on 29 July 1108.
Louiss half-brother prevented him from reaching Rheims, and so Daimbert, Archbishop of Sens, ralph the Green, Archbishop of Rheims, sent envoys to challenge the validity of the coronation and anointing, but to no avail. When Louis ascended the throne the Kingdom of France was a collection of feudal principalities, beyond the Isle de France the French Kings had little authority over the great Dukes and Counts of the realm but slowly Louis began to change this and assert Capetian rights. This process would take two centuries to complete but began in the reign of Louis VI, the second great challenge facing Louis was to counter the rising power of the Anglo-Normans under their capable new King, Henry I of England. From early in his reign Louis faced the problem of the barons who resisted the Kings authority and engaged in brigandry. In 1108, soon after he ascended the throne, Louis engaged in war with Hugh of Crecy, who was plaguing the countryside and had captured Eudes, Count of Corbeil, Louis besieged that fortress to free Eudes.
In early 1109, Louis besieged his half-brother, the son of Bertrade de Montfort, philips plots included the lords of Montfort-lAmaury. Amaury III of Montfort held many castles which, when linked together, in 1108-1109 a seigneur named Aymon Vaire-Vache seized the lordship of Bourbon from his nephew, Archambaud, a minor. Louis demanded the boy be restored to his rights but Aymon refused the summons, Louis raised his army and besieged Aymon at his castle at Germigny-sur-lAubois, forcing its surrender and enforcing the rights of Archambaud. In 1122, Bishop of Clermont, appealed to Louis after William VI, Count of Auvergne, had driven him from his episcopal town. When William refused Louis summons, Louis raised an army at Bourges, and marched into Auvergne, supported by some of his vassals, such as the Counts of Anjou, Brittany. Louis seized the fortress of Pont-du-Chateau on the Allier, attacked Clermont, four years William rebelled again and Louis, though his increasing weight made campaigning difficult, marched again
William I, Count of Burgundy
William I, called the Great, was Count of Burgundy from 1057 to 1087 and Mâcon from 1078 to 1087. He was a son of Renaud I and Alice of Normandy, daughter of Richard II, william was the father of several notable children, including Pope Callixtus II. In 1057, he succeeded his father and reigned over a larger than that of the Franche-Comté itself. In 1087, he died in Besançon, Prince-Archbishopric of Besançon and he was buried in Besançons Cathedral of St John. William married a woman named Stephanie and she married secondly Godfrey I, Count of Leuven and was possibly the mother of Joscelin of Louvain
Umberto II of Italy
Umberto II or Humbert II, was the last King of Italy, reigning for slightly over a month, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946. However, he was de facto head of state from 1944 to 1946 and he was nicknamed the May King. Umberto was the son of the five children of King Victor Emmanuel III. In an effort to repair the image after the fall of Benito Mussolinis regime. As a referendum was in preparation on the abolition of the monarchy in 1946, the referendum passed, Italy was declared a republic, and Umberto lived out the rest of his life in exile in Cascais, Portugal. Umberto was born at the Castle of Racconigi in Piedmont and he was the third child, and the only son, of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Queen Elena of Montenegro. As such, he became heir apparent upon his birth as the Italian throne was limited to male-line descendants only and he was the first cousin of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. He was accorded with the title of Prince of Piedmont, which was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September, Umberto was married in Rome on 8 January 1930 to Marie José of Belgium, daughter of King Albert I of Belgium.
They had four children, Maria Pia Vittorio Emanuele Maria Gabriella Maria Beatrice As Prince of Piedmont, Umberto visited South America, with his preceptor, Bonaldi, he went to Brazil, Uruguay and Chile. This trip was part of the plan of Fascism to link the Italian people living outside of Italy with their mother country. The Prince of Piedmont was educated for a career and in time became the commander in chief of the Northern Armies. However, his role was merely formal, the de facto belonging to Benito Mussolini. By mutual agreement and Mussolini always kept a distance, an attempted assassination of the prince took place in Brussels on 24 October 1929, the day of the announcement of his betrothal to Princess Marie José. The Prince was about to lay a wreath on the Tomb of the Belgian Unknown Soldier at the foot of the Colonne du Congrès, with a cry of Down with Mussolini. The culprit, Fernando de Rosa, fired a shot that missed the Prince of Piedmont. De Rosa was arrested and under interrogation claimed to be a member of the Second International and his trial became a major political event, and although he was found guilty of attempted murder, he was given a light sentence of five years in prison.
This sentence caused an uproar in Italy and a brief rift in Belgian-Italian relations. Following the Savoyards tradition, he kept apart from politics until he was finally named Lieutenant General of the Realm
Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy
Amadeus VII, known as the Red Count, was Count of Savoy from 1383 to 1391. Amadeus was the son of Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, Amadeus VII was known for his hospitality, for he would entertain people of all stations and never turned a person from his table without a meal. He married Bonne of Berry, daughter of John, Duke of Berry, upon his death at age 29 from tetanus, controversy arose because of his will. It took three months of negotiations to restore peace in the family, New Jersey, Princeton University Press. A Distant Mirror, The Calamitous 14th Century, philip the Bold, The Formation of the Burgundian State
Aymon, Count of Savoy
Aymon, nicknamed the Peaceful, was Count of Savoy from 1329 to 1343. His father was Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, and he was the brother of Edward. In 1321, Aymon oversaw the siege engines at the siege of Corbières, on the death of Amadeus V in 1323, Aymon was lord of Bresse under Edward. As a younger son of a family, Aymon had planned on a life in the church. When Edward died in 1329, Aymon was in Avignon at the court of Pope John XXII, in 1329, shortly after becoming count, Aymon established a committee to settle the territorial disputes with his cousin, Amadeus III of Geneva. These disputes had been a feud between the families for generations, but they were able to resolve them through years of negotiations without resorting back to war. This was how Aymon earned his nickname of The Peaceful and he contested the title Count of Savoy with his niece, Joan of Savoy since Savoy operated under Salic law and had never had a female ruler. Joan with the support of her husband, John III, Duke of Brittany defended Joans claim and Joan had no issue.
Eventually a settlement was reached whereby Aymon obtained the Countship in return for providing a payment to Joan. He spent much of his first few years as count at war with the Dauphin, Guigues VIII of Viennois, continuing a feud which went back for generations in their families. After Guigues was killed besieging La Perrière in 1333, Philip VI of France was able to broker a truce between Aymon and the new Dauphin, Humbert II of Viennois, brother of Guigues. In August 1334, in the buildup to the Hundred Years War, Aymon declined to commit, as he held lands both in England and in Normandy, so was technically a subject of both kings. In April 1337, Philip sent similar messages on the other side, Aymon replied that he could not go abroad to fight as he still had territorial disputes with the Dauphiné. Philip quickly settled a more lasting peace, as Humbert was trying to sell the Dauphiné, Aymon led his forces as part of the French war effort from 1339 to 1342. He often fought alongside Amadeus III of Geneva, in 1330, Aymon established a chancellors office to manage official documents.
He financed the expansion of a chapel at the Hautecombe Abbey which was constructed from 1331 to 1342. In 1340, he set up judges to handle appeals at a level between the castellans and himself, to ease his workload in such cases. Prior to his marriage, Aymon fathered illegitimate children
Humbert III, Count of Savoy
Umberto III, surnamed the Blessed, was Count of Savoy from 1148 to 1188. His parents were Amadeus III of Savoy and Mathilde dAlbon the daughter of Guigues III of Albon and he ceded rights and benefits to monasteries and played a decisive role in the organization of Hautecombe Abbey. It is said that he would rather have been monk than a sovereign, on the death of his third wife he retired to Hautecombe, but changed his mind and, by his fourth wife finally had son, Thomas. He sided with the Guelph party of Pope Alexander III against the Ghibelline Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and he died at Chambéry in 1189. He was the first prince buried at Hautecombe and his memorial day is March 4. Umberto III, Count of Savoy, beatified in the Catholic Church, was born around 1136 in the castle of Avigliana, near Turin, to Count Amadeus III and Mathilde dAlbon, Countess of Albon and Vienne. He is an important figure in society, as attested in the history of House of Savoy. In his efforts he was supported by Frederick I Barbarossa, like his father, Umberto II, who died young when he was still a minor, Amadeus III entrusted the education of his son, Umberto III to St.
To better achieve his lofty goals, he frequently withdrew Hautecombe Abbey, on the banks of Lake Bourget in Savoy and he always left the abbey with regret, every time the family and the Savoyard nobility called him back for occupy himself with political matters. Amadeus III was a pilgrim in the Holy Land in 1122, although still at an early age, in 1151 Umberto was bethrothed to Faidiva, daughter of Alphonse Jourdain, Count of Toulouse. She would soon die without issue and he married Gertrude, daughter of Thierry, Count of Flanders and Sibylla of Anjou. This second marriage was annulled by reason of infertility, in 1164, Umberto married Clementia of Zähringen, by whom he had two daughters and Sofia. She died in 1173, and he decided to retire to Hautecombe, in 1177, the nobility in 1177 convinced him marry for the fourth time. As wife, he took Beatrice of Mâcon, daughter Géraud I of Mâcon, at last he had a male heir, Thomas, to continue the dynasty. Beatrice bore him a daughter who died at the age of seven and it lasted forty years, and was characterized by struggles with the Holy Roman Emperor, various lords and count-bishops.
The main reason for conflict consisted in the patronage of the Bishop of Turin by Frederick Barbarossa and this led to a gradual reduction of the possessions and authority of Umberto III on the Italian side, leaving him with the rump territories of the valleys of Susa and Aosta. In 1187, he was banished from the Holy Roman Empire by Henry VI and he did not retire, as has been said, to his Alpine domains, devoting himself in particular to the practice of personal virtues and fraternal charity. Also he promoted the foundation of Precettoria of St. Anthony of Ranverso at Buttigliera Alta, not far from the town of Avigliana, entrusting it to Antoniani from Vienne, France
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy
Amadeus VIII was an Savoyard nobleman, the son of Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy and Bonne of Berry. After the death of his father in 1391, his mother acted as a regent, born at Chambéry, he was the Count of Savoy from 1391 to 1416 and was elevated by Emperor Sigismund to Duke of Savoy in 1416. Amadeus increased his dominions and encouraged several attempts to negotiate an end to the Hundred Years War, after the death of his wife, he founded the Order of Saint Maurice with six other knights. They lived alone in the castle of Ripaille, near Geneva, Amadeus was elected at Basel as pope Felix V in opposition to Pope Eugene IV, by the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence and reigned from November 1439 to April 1449. He resigned as duke in favour of his son in 1440 and he stepped down to accept a Cardinals hat. He is now regarded as an antipope, Amadeus image in history is marred by the account of him as a pontiff concerned with money, to avoid disadvantaging his heirs, found in the Commentaries of Pius II.
Nor is there evidence that he intrigued to obtain the papal office and he married Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and granddaughter of John II of France. They had nine children, Margaret of Savoy, marie of Savoy, married Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan. Amadeus of Savoy, Prince of Piemonte, Philip of Savoy, Count of Genève. Margaret of Savoy, married firstly Louis III, titular king of Naples, secondly Louis IV, Count Palatine of the Rhine and thirdly Ulrich V, Count of Württemberg. According to James H. Guill, Margarida de Sabuya, the wife of Willem van der Hagen, was the daughter of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy. Der letzte Gegenpapst, Felix V. Studien zu Herrschaftspraxis und Legitimationsstrategien, Papsttum im mittelalterlichen Europa,3, Köln, guillaume Huin dEstaing Louis Aleman Catholic Encyclopedia entry Felix V. in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. In, Salvador Miranda, The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, online at fiu.
edu, Website of Florida International University, retrieved 5 November 2011