Negro World Series
The Negro World Series was a post-season baseball tournament, held from 1924 to 1927 and from 1942 to 1948 between the champions of the Negro leagues, matching the mid-western winners against their east-coast counterparts. The series was known as the Colored World Series during the 1920s, as the Negro League World Series, in more recent books, though contemporary black newspapers called it the "World Series", without any modification. After the organization of first Negro National League in 1920 and of the Eastern Colored League in 1923, many Negro league fans hoped that the two leagues would compete in a post-season championship similar to the World Series held by the white leagues. On September 2, 1924, Rube Foster, president of the NNL announced that Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, Commissioner of Baseball for the white major leagues, had been asked to arbitrate the differences between the NNL and the ECL and establish an agreement similar to the one used by the American and National Leagues.
The proposed agreement required the two leagues to respect each other's contracts, made allowances for players who had jumped contracts to stay with their current teams, for a post-season championship between the leagues. The first game of the championship series opened at Philadelphia on October 3, 1924, between the Kansas City Monarchs of the NNL and the Hilldale Club of the ECL. In 1928, the ECL folded, with their teams returning to independent play, the series entered a 15-year hiatus; the first NNL folded after the 1931 season. 1924 Kansas City Monarchs NNL 5-4 Hilldale Club ECL 1925 Hilldale Club ECL 5-1 Kansas City Monarchs NNL 1926 Chicago American Giants NNL 5-3 Bacharach Giants ECL 1927 Chicago American Giants NNL 5-3 Bacharach Giants ECL A second Negro National League was organized in 1933, though this league played predominantly in the East. The Negro American League was organized in 1937 in the West. In 1942, the two leagues agreed to resume playing a championship series between the two leagues.
Hogan, Lawrence D.. Shades of Glory: The Negro Leagues and the Story of African-American Baseball. Washington, D. C.: National Geographic. ISBN 079225306X. Lester, Larry. Baseball's First Colored World Series. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0786426179
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Twelfth grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions it is equivalently referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries students graduate at age 18; some countries have a thirteenth grade. Twelfth grade is the last year of high school. In Australia, the twelfth grade is referred to as Year 12. In New South Wales, students are 16 or 17 years old when they enter Year 12 and 17–18 years during graduation. A majority of students in Year 12 work towards getting an ATAR or OP, which will allow them access to courses at university. In South Australia, this is achieved by completing the SACE. In New South Wales, when completing the, students are required to satisfactorily complete at least 10 units of study in ATAR courses which must include: eight units from Category A courses two units of English three Board Developed courses of two units or greater four subjectsSome Year 12s may receive a Year 12 Jersey. Schools choose the design and writing which are printed or stitched onto the jersey.
Sometimes the last two digits of the year they are graduating are printed on the back along with a personalised nickname. The front may show the school emblem and the student's name, stitched in. Many schools conduct end of year "formals", they are held from any time between graduation in September to November. Australian private schools conduct Year 12 balls in January or February of Year 12 instead of an end of year formal. In Belgium, the 12th grade is called 6de middelbaar or laatste jaar in Dutch, rétho or 6e année in French. In the General Education, this year guides and prepares students for their first year in University by recalling everything learned during the past six years of secondary school. In the Skills Education, this year prepares the students for the professional life with an Intership in the chosen domain. In Brazil, the 12th grade is called terceiro ano do ensino médio informally called terceiro colegial, meaning third grade of high school, it is attended by 17–18 years old students.
During this grade, most students apply to what is called Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio, the Brazilian equivalent of the SATs in the US, vestibular, the individual entrance examination particular to each university. As in many countries, Grade 12 students attend Graduation, which involves a formal official ceremony, a party where students and friends are invited and another party just for the students. In Bulgaria the twelfth grade is the last year of high-school. Twelfth-grade students tend to be 18–19 years old. Students are preparing to take the Matriculation exam in the end of their 2nd semester. In Canada, the twelfth grade is referred to as Grade 12. Students enter their Grade 12 year when they are 16 or 17 years old. If they are 16 years old, they will be turning 17 by December 31 of that year. In many Canadian high schools, student during their year, hold a series of fundraisers, grade-class trips, other social events. Grade 12 Canadian students attend Graduation which involves an official ceremony and a dinner dance.
Ontario had Grade 13, renamed Ontario Academic Credit, before being phased out, leaving Grade 12 as the final year. Grades 12 and 13 were similar to sixth form in England. Quebec is the lone province that does not have Grade 12. Thus, when a student is in Grade 12 in Ontario, for instance, the student in Quebec is in his first year of college. Newfoundland and Labrador did not introduce Grade 12 until 1983. In Denmark, the twelfth grade is the 3rd G, the final year of secondary school. G is equivalent to gymnasium; this is not compulsory. Students are 18-19 or older when they finish secondary school; the age of graduation is caused by the fact that Danish children first start school at 6. The reason that many students will be at the age of 20 when they graduate is because some people choose to have one-year gap between the 9th grade and gymnasium's 1st G, where students go to special art- or sport-oriented boarding schools or become exchange students all over the world; this is optional though. The twelfth grade is the third and last year of High School or secondary school The students graduate from High School the year they turn 19.
The twelfth grade is shorter than the previous ones because the twelfth graders lessons end in February and they go on to take their final exams shortly afterwards. Compulsory education ends after the ninth grade, so the upper grades are optional; the equivalent grade in this country is Terminale, it is the third and last year of lycée, equivalent to High-School, upon completion of which students sit for a test, the Baccalauréat. French-language schools that teach the French government curriculum use the same system of grades as their counterparts in France; this is not compulsory, as education is only
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light. Human eyes perceive orange when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 585 and 620 nanometres. In painting and traditional colour theory, it is a secondary colour of pigments, created by mixing yellow and red, it is named after the fruit of the same name. The orange colour of carrots, sweet potatoes and many other fruits and vegetables comes from carotenes, a type of photosynthetic pigment; these pigments convert the light energy that the plants absorb from the sun into chemical energy for the plants' growth. The hues of autumn leaves are from the same pigment after chlorophyll is removed. In Europe and America, surveys show that orange is the colour most associated with amusement, the unconventional, warmth, energy, danger and aroma, the autumn and Allhallowtide seasons, as well as having long been the national colour of the Netherlands and the House of Orange, it serves as the political colour of Christian democracy political ideology and most Christian democratic political parties.
In Asia it is an important symbolic colour of Hinduism. The colour orange is named after the appearance of the ripe orange fruit; the word comes from the Old French orange, from the old term for the fruit, pomme d'orange. The French word, in turn, comes from the Italian arancia, based on Arabic nāranj, derived from the Sanskrit naranga; the first recorded use of orange as a colour name in English was in 1512, in a will now filed with the Public Record Office. Prior to this word being introduced to the English-speaking world, saffron existed in the English language. Crog referred to the saffron colour, so that orange was referred to as ġeolurēad for reddish orange, or ġeolucrog for yellowish orange. Alternatively, orange things were sometimes described as red such as red deer, red hair, the Red Planet and robin redbreast. In ancient Egypt, artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings, as well as other uses, it was used by Medieval artists for the colouring of manuscripts.
Pigments were made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire and was used as a medicine in China although it contains arsenic and is toxic, it was used as a fly poison and to poison arrows. Because of its yellow-orange colour, it was a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold, in both China and the West. Before the late 15th century, the colour orange without the name. Portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the Sanskrit naranga, which became part of several European languages: "naranja" in Spanish, "laranja" in Portuguese, "orange" in English; the House of Orange-Nassau was one of the most influential royal houses in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. It originated in 1163 the tiny Principality of Orange, a feudal state of 108 square miles north of Avignon in southern France; the Principality of Orange took its name not from the fruit, but from a Roman-Celtic settlement on the site, founded in 36 or 35 BC and was named Arausio, after a Celtic water god.
The family of the Prince of Orange adopted the name and the colour orange in the 1570s. The colour came to be associated with Protestantism, due to participation by the House of Orange on the Protestant side in the French Wars of Religion. One member of the house, William I of Orange, organised the Dutch resistance against Spain, a war that lasted for eighty years, until the Netherlands won its independence; the House's arguably most prominent member, William III of Orange, became King of England in 1689, after the downfall of the Catholic James II. Due to William III, orange became an important political colour in Europe. William was a Protestant, as such he defended the Protestant minority of Ireland against the majority Roman Catholic population; as a result, the Protestants of Ireland were known as Orangemen. Orange became one of the colours of the Irish flag, symbolising the Protestant heritage, his rebel flag became the forerunner of The Netherland's modern flag. When the Dutch settlers of South Africa rebelled against the British in the late 19th century, they organised what they called the Orange Free State.
In the United States, the flag of the City of New York has an orange stripe, to remember the Dutch colonists who founded the city. William of Orange is remembered as the founder of the College of William & Mary, Nassau County in New York is named after the House of Orange-Nassau. In the 18th century orange was sometimes used to depict the robes of Pomona, the goddess of fruitful abundance. Oranges themselves became more common in northern Europe, thanks to the 17th century invention of the heated greenhouse, a building type which became known as an orangerie; the French artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard depicted an allegorical figure of "inspiration" dressed in orange. In 1797 a French scientist Louis Vauquelin discovered the mineral crocoite, or lead chromate, which led in 1809 to the invention of the synthetic pigment chrome orange. Other synthetic pigments, cobalt red, cobalt yellow, cobalt orange, the last made from cadmium sulfide plus cadmium selenide, soon followed; these new pigments, plus the invention of the
Humboldt is a city in Allen County, United States. It is situated along the Neosho River; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,953. Humboldt, named after Baron von Humboldt, was founded in 1857. Germans migrating from Hartford, began organizing a colony during the winter of 1856–57, they arrived in Lawrence, Kansas, in March 1857, at the townsite on May 10, 1857. Orlin Thurston, a young attorney, moved to Humboldt during the summer of 1857 and put up a steam sawmill; the first frame building was erected by J. A. Coffey. C. O'Brien opened the first gristmill in the county; the United Brethren Denomination erected the first church in 1859. In 1861 Humboldt was attacked by a collection of border ruffians and Osages led by John Mathews out of Oswego, Kansas who took several freed African-Americans back into captivity; the Humboldt Home Guard joined with the Kansas 6th Cavalry under James G. Blunt to counter-attack. In a battle on September. 18, 1861 Mathews was killed at Kansas. The city was organized as a village in 1866 and incorporated as a city of the second class by the act of February 28, 1870.
In October 1870 the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston railway was run through Humboldt. Humboldt was the Allen county seat for seven years, from 1858 until 1865. Humboldt won two contentious legislative elections to become the seat in 1858 and 1860, but another election in 1865 at the end of the American Civil War resulted in the re-location of the county seat to Iola; the legitimacy of this election was questioned by Humboldt residents due to low turnout arising from soldiers fighting the War. Some residents claim that the county seat was "stolen". Iola secured the seat by donating 100 lots to the county to aid in the construction of public buildings and subsequently raising funds to build a courthouse. However, Humboldt was guilty of shady practices. Lieut. Col. Charles W. Blair, the commander of Fort Scott, temporarily replaced the commander of the post at Humboldt, Maj. Henry C. Haas, to keep the soldiers there from illegally voting in the county seat election. Blair claimed; the Humboldt newspaper, denied the troops had been involved in any wrongdoing.
County seat wars of this sort were common in the American West. Humboldt was much involved in the American Civil War; the town was raided September 1, 1861, by Confederate raiders, who took much property and kidnapped eight free blacks, who may have been placed into slavery. Several persons may have been wounded by gunfire. Many of the raiders were hunted down and one of the leaders, Col. John Mathews, was killed. Actions were taken to prevent Humboldt coming under further attack. Two home guard companies were organized in the Humboldt area; these militia units sought to protect the town and to scout as far south as the Kansas-Indian Territory border to prevent Confederates from coming too close to town. Some of the militia were involved with the pursuit of the September raiders. Two Humboldt area structures, O'Brien's Mill and W. W. Curdy dry goods store, were fortified. Amazingly, Humboldt fell victim to another raid on October 14, 1861, 1 1/2 months after the first raid; the second raid caught the town off guard and the 100 home guards surrendered when they discovered they could not protect the town from the 330 raiders.
O'Brien's Mill and most of the town was burned. The W. W. Curdy store was spared, but it played no further role in Humboldt's defenses, it was said the second raid was at least in part revenge for the killing of Mathews and for the actions of U. S. Senator James H. Lane and his brigade's destruction of Osceola, Missouri. After the second raid the threats to Humboldt's safety were taken seriously. At times the town had local militia units operating and most of the rest of the Civil War the town had Army troops stationed there. Sometimes the military post there was called Post Humboldt. A blockhouse was constructed at 514 S. 3rd Street. This was used as a recruiting office. Other points in town were used by the military; the German settlers in town built a church in the east part of town. This was run by a sergeant. On the west side of town, a number of cabins were built on the east side of the Neosho River; this was sometimes called Log Town, but was more known as Camp Hunter. When the ranks swelled beyond the capacity of the cabins, tents were pitched at the camp.
Of the places used by the military, home guards and militia, today only the German church stands and it was converted into a private residence in the 1950s. The geographic coordinates of the various points are: O'Brien's Mill – 37.8290°N 95.4605°W / 37.8290. The Confederate raiders were commanded by Maj. Gen. Sterling Price and most of the troops and militia went to meet the threat further east. In the same time period Maj. Haas, in command of the troops, Maj. Watson Stewart, in command of the militia had differences of opinion as to the extent of the jurisdiction of Haas. Haas wanted control of Stewart contested this; the militia maintained its independence, but
Kansas City Monarchs
The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseball's Negro Leagues. Operating in Kansas City and owned by J. L. Wilkinson, they were charter members of the Negro National League from 1920 to 1930. J. L. Wilkinson was the first Caucasian owner at the time of the establishment of the team. In 1930, the Monarchs became the first professional baseball team to use a portable lighting system, transported from game to game in trucks to play games at night, five years before any major league team did; the Monarchs won ten league championships before integration, triumphed in the first Negro League World Series in 1924. The Monarchs had only one season. After sending more players to the major leagues than any other Negro League franchise, the team was disbanded in 1965; the Monarchs were formed in 1920 from two sources. Owner J. L. Wilkinson drew players from his All Nations barnstorming team, inactive during World War I, the 25th Infantry Wreckers, an all-black team recruited into the U.
S. Army exclusively for their playing talent, he put together a formidable collection of talent, including pitcher/outfielder Bullet Rogan, an eventual Hall of Famer who established himself as one of the most popular stars of the new league. Immediate contenders, the Monarchs became bitter rivals to black baseball's reigning power, Rube Foster's Chicago American Giants. After three years of failing to break the Giants' hold on the pennant, Wilkinson fired manager Sam Crawford in mid-1923, replacing him with veteran Cuban star José Méndez, who sparked the Monarchs to the league championship. Repeating in 1924, the Monarchs participated in the first Negro League World Series, defeating the Eastern Colored League champion Hilldale team from Darby, Pennsylvania, in a thrilling ten-game series. In this series, Méndez had an ERA of 1.42 in four of the games and was responsible for a shutout in the one game he was the starting pitcher in. Motivated by the Monarchs' runaway pennant victory, NNL president Rube Foster changed the league schedule to a split-season format for 1925.
Kansas City took the league title again in 1925, but lost the World Series to Hilldale when Rogan was injured just before the series began and won one game and lost five to Hilldale. Though Méndez was the manager, it was still possible to see him on the mound during the few years he held the position. Among the team's regulars during these years were the brilliant-fielding second baseman/shortstop Newt Allen who in the 1924 series alone had an average of.282 and seven doubles and Frank Duncan, one of the best-regarded defensive catchers in Negro League history. Newt Joseph played third base for the Monarchs from 1922 through their NNL years, hitting a composite.284 during that time. In 1926 manager Méndez returned to Cuba, Rogan took over as player/manager, he kept up the Monarchs' tradition of fine pitching, as the team's staff over the next few years featured such Negro League greats as Chet Brewer, William Bell, lefty Andy Cooper. The club traded for legendary Cuban outfielder Cristóbal Torriente, but permanently lost the services of star shortstop Dobie Moore, whose career ended that year due to a severe off-the-field injury.
After winning the first-half pennant, the Monarchs dropped a best of nine playoff to the Chicago American Giants when Rogan lost both games of a series-closing doubleheader to the young Bill Foster. In 1928 the Monarchs narrowly missed a second-half title, they made up for this by copping another NNL title in 1929, winning both halves with the best overall single-season record compiled by a Negro League team. By this time, the pitcher Andy Cooper who had made a name for himself by playing for seven years with the Detroit Stars had joined the Monarchs and aided them winning the 1929 pennant. No World Series was played that year between the Monarchs and the Baltimore Black Sox, champions of the eastern American Negro League. Following the death of the original league, the Monarchs spent several years as an independent team barnstorming through the Midwest and western Canada, they toured with the House of David baseball team. Hall of Famers Hilton Smith, a pitcher, Willard Brown, a slugging shortstop/outfielder with a consistent batting average of over.300, became Monarch mainstays during this time.
During the 1940s, Willard Brown became the go-to home run hitter for the Monarchs. With Andy Cooper now at the helm, the Monarchs became charter members of the Negro American League in 1937, winning the first league title. Andy Cooper was responsible for leading the Monarchs to bring home the pennant in 1939 and 1940; the Kansas City Monarchs won the next two league championships and won winning the renewed Negro League World Series in 1942 in four straight games against the Homestead Grays. At the start of this run the Monarchs acquired their most famous player, Hall of Fame pitcher Satchel Paige, who had since his rookie season in 1927 built a reputation as the best hurler in black baseball for the Birmingham Black Barons, Pittsburgh Crawfords, several other teams. Suffering from an arm injury and thought to be done, Paige joined the Monarchs' B team in 1939. Paige was the subject of a lot of stories, both true and folklore, became a legend to people who don’t follow baseball. For example, he was known to have known the outfielders to sit on the g