Woorabinda is an Aboriginal community in Central Queensland, inland about two hours' west drive of Rockhampton. At the 2006 census, Woorabinda had a population of 851. Woorabinda was first established in 1927, with land gazetted from the County of Waroona, as a replacement for the Taroom Aboriginal Settlement; the land at Taroom was repossessed for the development of proposed Nathan Dam for the Dawson River Irrigation Scheme, never built. Central Queensland had a high level of frontier violence and Aboriginal deaths, such as at Cullin-La-Ringo at nearby Springsure and Hornet Bank along the Dawson River. There was a forcible relocation of dispossessed survivors into government-controlled settlements starting from 1897, with the introduction of the Aboriginals Protection Act—initially at Taroom, Woorabinda. Peoples from at least 17 different language groups were placed within the camp, some from as far as Mornington Island, were under the control of a local Superintendent beneath the state Chief Protector of Aborigines.
The movement of 300 Taroom residents occurred via foot and hired truck over the 250 km. This walk from Taroom to Woorabinda was commemorated by the community with a supported re-enactment in 2014; the Woorabinda community is the only DOGIT Aboriginal community within the Central Queensland region. DOGIT communities have a special type of land tenure which applies only to former Aboriginal reserves; the land title is a system of community level land trusts and administered by the local council. Woorabinda is a township with the seasonal Mimosa Creek nearby a source of local water. During rainy season, the township can be isolated due to road flooding. Access is via the Fitzroy Developmental Road, sealed north towards Duaringa and where it meets the Capricorn Highway to Rockhampton. To the south, it is gravel road to Bauhinia Downs, where it meets the Dawson Highway and access to Gladstone. East is the sealed Baralaba-Woorabinda Road, seasonally cut off by flooding. West has a number of cattle properties until the base of the Blackdown Tablelands, serviced by gravel roads.
There is a sealed airstrip along the north road into town, used by chartered flights and aeromedical retrieval services. No commercial flights operate to the airstrip. In May 1942, during World War II, a Lutheran Aboriginal mission at Cape Bedford on Cape York in far North Queensland was closed to become used as an army camp; the relocation has been attributed to governmental fears of Aboriginal loyalty to the German Lutheran pastor and against non-Aboriginal Australian interests in favour of the Japanese. The 254 Aboriginal residents, of Guugu Yimithirr identity, were forcibly relocated; this trip was poorly provisioned and people arrived at their end destination having been deprived of food and blankets during the winter overland trip. There was tension between the Cape Bedford evacuees and the residents of Woorabinda due to the strong Lutheran Christian beliefs held by those from Cape Bedford. However, the evacuees experienced many cultural experiences unavailable to them because of the strong church presence, such as corroborrees.
During this time, informal Lutheran church services and ministering were maintained by the evacuees to hold onto their Christian beliefs, creating a core strength of spiritual leadership within this group. Choral singing started during this time within the Guugu Yimithirr language from translated hymns as part of their services, which became a core part of their future church identity, they maintained a separate identity to the Woorabinda residents during the seven years they spent within the community. Many died from sickness and exposure due to the poor sanitation and inadequate shelter from the frost and cold winter nights of the inland climate, which the Guugu Yimithirr peoples would not have experienced, as they were from a warm, humid coastal climate; the official number of deaths during this period was 33, but could have been up to 48. There were 13 recorded births during that time. During their time at Woorabinda, the Cape Bedford peoples experienced paid labour and schooling for the first time.
The survivors were allowed to return to Cape Bedford in 1949, after the war, to what is now known as Hopevale. Most returned north, however, a small contingent remained, which maintained a presence and link to the north which remains to this day; the latest figures identify Woorabinda residents as having a mean annual income of $27,924, as compared to the mean Australia-wide income of $42,081 in the same census. Unemployment is at 70%. Woorabinda has been identified as amongst Queensland's most disadvantaged suburbs, the others of which are Indigenous townships. Government service providers are the main source of employment, with local industry in the form of the takeaway cafe and Woorabinda Pastoral Company, owned by the council; the satellite Foleyvale Station is just north of Duaringa, is included in the Woorabinda lands used pastorally. In 2008, the community and council voted for the total ban of alcohol consumption within the town limits to become a "dry" community; the town has had a significant decrease in alcohol-fuelled violence since the Alcohol Management Plan was introduced.
As of 2013, there has been ongoing movement within the community for a reintroduction of alcohol, with a community-led vote majority for its reintroduction. This has been as part of a larger movement within Aboriginal communities of Queensland for Alcohol Management Plan reviews; the town als
St Lawrence, Queensland
St Lawrence is a small town and locality in Queensland, Australia. It is part of the Isaac Region local government area. In the 2011 census, St Lawrence had a population of 396 people. St Lawrence is located 802 kilometres north of 6 kilometres off the Bruce Highway; the town is located south of St Lawrence Creek, which flows into a vast bay known as Broad Sound, a waterway noted for its large tidal range. The North Coast railway line passes through the town, served by St Lawrence railway station; the township of St Lawrence was established to maintain the Customs Office for the Port of St Lawrence. The St Lawrence State School opened on 28 May 1871; the St Lawrence Library opened in 2001. At the 2006 census, St Lawrence and the surrounding area had a population of 195. St Lawrence was the administrative centre of the Shire of Broadsound until 2008, when the shire was amalgamated with the Shire of Belyando and the Shire of Nebo to form the Isaac Region local government area. Moranbah is the administrative centre of the new region but the former Broadsound Shire offices at 36 Macartney Street are still used as the local offices of the Isaac Regional Council.
The building was described in 2004 as "a disarmingly elegant building which seems quite out of place in this otherwise undistinguished town". Once a prosperous port town, exporting cattle from the hinterland, most residents are now railway workers. St Lawrence has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Cannon Street: Christ Church Anglican Church Macartney Street: St Lawrence Police Station Settlement Road: Meatworks and Wharf Site The Isaac Regional Council operates a public library at 22 Railway Parade. St Lawrence State School is in Macartney Street. In 2015, it had an enrolment of 10 students with 2 teachers; the school motto is'Knowledge, Honesty'. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: St Lawrence BOM: Summary statistics: ST LAWRENCE POST OFFICE
Banana is a small town and rural locality in the Shire of Banana, Central Queensland, Australia. In the 2011 census, Banana had a population of 377 people. Banana is located at the intersection of the Dawson and Leichhardt highways, 46 kilometres west of the shire's administrative centre, Biloela; the town was named in the early 1860s. The name derives from an old dun-coloured working bullock, called Banana, used by local stockmen to help them when herding some of the wilder cattle into the yards. At the time of the Canoona rush, gold was found in Banana's Gully and a town of at least 2,000 people sprang up there; the post office at Banana was established on 1 September 1861. Banana Provisional School opened on 18 September 1871 and was upgraded to Banana State School on 16 February 1874; the school closed in 1935, but reopened on 25 January 1960. In 1880, the local government area Banana Division was established with its headquarters in Banana. However, in 1930 the shire headquarters became Rannes and the shire offices were physically relocated from Banana to Rannes.
Since 1946, the shire has its headquarters in Biloela. The mobile library service commenced in 2004; the beef industry is still a mainstay of the area, along with coal and agriculture. Banana State School is a government primary school at 36 Bramston Street. In 2012, there were 37 students enrolled with 3 teachers. There is no secondary school in Banana. Banana has a Uniting Church at 39 Bowen Street at the corner with North Street. Banana Shire Council operate a fortnightly mobile library service to the school; the Banana branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 123 Bramston Street. At the 2006 census, Banana had a population of 627. Perry, Betty. Banana State School. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007
Capella is a small town and locality in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Capella had a population of 1,010 people. Capella is midway between Clermont on the Gregory Highway; the highway passes through Capella from south to north as Capella's main street. Capella is served by the Capella railway station on a railway line from Emerald to Blair Athol; the branch line runs from north to south and is adjacent and to the west of the highway. Capella Creek flows from east to west across the northern part of the locality to the immediate north of the town. Capella Creek is a tributary of the Nogoa River, which in turn is a tributary of the Fitzroy River which enters the Coral Sea. Capella was founded on traditional Wangan land in the 1860s by graziers influenced by the good reports of Ludwig Leichhardt; the town takes its name from Capella Creek, in turn named after the star Capella. The Creek was named by surveyor Charles Frederick Gregory who, following the discovery of copper at Copperfield, about 60 kilometres to the north, surveyed three township sites in the Peak Downs area in 1862.
The town remained a small roadside stopping place halfway between Emerald, to the south, Clermont, to the north, until a railway line was built connecting the two larger towns in 1882. The same year saw the establishment of a Post Office. Capella Provisional School opened the following year, 1883, became Capella State School in 1900. Land resumed from large pastoral runs was made available to small farm selectors in 1883 and small cropping and dairying became early industries; the early 20th century was a time of stable growth and development in the town, although the population only increased from about 250 in 1900 to 300 in 1930. The 1920s saw a great deal of building. Mrs M. J. Walsh opened a café in October 1925 and a bakery opened shortly after. A new Roman Catholic church, St Joseph's, seating 200 people, was dedicated in April 1926; the same year saw a new hall, picture theatre and Country Women's Association clubrooms built. A branch of the Queensland National Bank opened in 1930 and a new Catholic presbytery was built.
The town became the council seat of the Shire of Peak Downs in 1927 and a new Shire Hall was built in 1936. The mid 1930s saw the town's main streets kerbed and channelled and a "bitumen emulsion paved footpath" laid in the main street, Peak Down's Street. A town electricity supply was introduced in December, 1954 although other services had to wait for another decade or more, being introduced between 1962 and 1982. In the 1950s the Queensland British Food Corporation introduced large-scale grain production into the district on land used for grazing. A run of poor seasons led to the project's failure, but introduced new crops such as sunflower and sorghum; the Capella Hotel, on the corner of Peak Downs and Crinum Streets, was built in 1955. This was the site of the former Commercial Hotel, built in 1929, destroyed in a fire in February 1943; the destruction of the Commercial left the town with only one other hotel and the Peak Downs Shire Council, realising the need to provide additional accommodation for visitors to the town, undertook to build the Hotel as a function of local government.
Several local authorities in Queensland built and ran their own licensed premises in the 1950s, including Rockhampton and Winton. The new Capella Hotel was designed by Mr E. A. Hegvold and built by J. J. Booker and Sons, at a cost of ₤33,000; the Hotel was opened on 7 May 1955. The Peak Downs district was part of the Brigalow Development Scheme in the 1960s with large-scale clearing of the brigalow scrub by mechanical means; the large new farming blocks opened up by the clearing of the Brigalow lent itself to the broadland growing of grain and cereal crops sunflower and sorghum. Bulk storage facilities for these new crops was built in 1964 and the population of the district increased with new farming families. Capella saw the opening of a range of new activities and facilities, including a district agricultural show, Girl Guides, a swimming pool, a pre-school centre. Coal was discovered at Tieri, about 36 kilometres east of Capella, in 1982 and a large open-cut mine was developed; the mine boosted the economy of the area and the 1980s saw a number of new developments and buildings in Capella, including the Capella Cultural Centre and a pioneer village.
The Capella School opened a secondary department in 1984, which separated to become the Capella State High School on 23 January 1989. In 2003 the security of Capella's water supply was assured by a pipeline to Tieri. At the 2006 census, the town had a population of 796. In 2008 the Shire of Peak Downs was amalgamated into the Central Highlands Regional Shire, with its seat in Emerald. In the 2011 census, Capella had a population of 926 people. Today, it is a service town catering to the large coal-mining interests in the area as well as pastoralists and farmers; the Peak Downs Shire cemetery is located in Capella. The cemetery has a memorial li
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Gogango is a small town and a locality in the Rockhampton Region, Australia. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 310. Gogango is in Central Queensland; the Capricorn Highway traverses the south of the locality passing through the town. The Central Western railway line traverses the south of the locality parallel and to the immediate north of the highway; the town is serviced by the Gogango railway station. The Fitzroy River flows from west to east through the centre of the locality. Gogango Creek is a tributary of the Fitzroy River; the principal land use is farming grazing cattle. Goganjo Provisional School opened in 1874 but closed circa 1878. In 1888 it renamed under the name Gogango Provisional School becoming Gogango State School on 1 January 1909. On 29 November 1950, the Gogango hall held an Ambulance Ball. People from Westwood, Mt Morgan and Rockhampton attended. In the 2010-11 Queensland floods the Fitzroy River which passes through the area of Gogango rose to 28 meters.
Gogango Creek flooded, stopping traffic on the Capricorn Highway. The Capricorn highway was flooded for more than 12 hours in January 2013. In February 2015, Cyclone Marcia caused heavy rainfall which led to Gogango creek rising over the highway; the site for the proposed Rookwood weir is located on the Fitzroy River in the Gogango area, about 15 km from the township. When completed the $72 million weir will hold over 100 thousand megalitres; the Weir will be built over 2 stages, The first stage will be 17 metres high and the second stage will be 0.5 metre, With a complete height of 17.5 meters, inundating 1,930 hectares. Gogango State School is a primary school for boys and girls operated by the Queensland Government at 10 Wills Street. In 2016, the school had an enrolment of 9 students with 4 non-teaching staff. A bus travels out from Rockhampton to transport high school students back to South Rockhampton High School. Gogango has one public park, it is located at the corner of Wills Street. Barry O'Sullivan, Australian Senator, was born in Gogango Town map of Gogango, 1987
Comet is a town in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. The town is located on the Capricorn Highway, 859 kilometres north west of the state capital, Brisbane. At the 2006 census and the surrounding area had a population of 233. Comet is the oldest town in the Emerald region, established at the confluence of the Comet River with the Nogoa River. Called Cometville, the town takes its name from the river, named by explorer Ludwig Leichhardt who made observations of Comet Wilmot in the area on 29 December 1844. Comet is home to a "dig tree" established by Leichhardt to indicate to others where he had buried food and journals. Comet Post Office opened on 5 September 1877. Today, the area around Comet supports grain production as well as cattle feedlots. Journal of an Overland Expedition in Australia at Project Gutenberg