Leonid Anatolievich Levin is a Soviet-American computer scientist. He is known for his work in randomness in computing, algorithmic complexity and intractability, average-case complexity, foundations of mathematics and computer science, algorithmic probability, theory of computation, information theory, he obtained his master's degree at Moscow University in 1970 where he studied under Andrey Kolmogorov and completed the Candidate Degree academic requirements in 1972. He and Stephen Cook independently discovered the existence of NP-complete problems; this NP-completeness theorem called the Cook–Levin theorem, was a basis for one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems declared by the Clay Mathematics Institute with a $1,000,000 prize offered. The Cook–Levin theorem was a breakthrough in computer science and an important step in the development of the theory of computational complexity. Levin was awarded the Knuth Prize in 2012 for his discovery of NP-completeness and the development of average-case complexity.
His life is described in a chapter of the book Out of Their Minds: The Lives and Discoveries of 15 Great Computer Scientists. He obtained his master's degree at Moscow University in 1970 where he studied under Andrey Kolmogorov and completed the Candidate Degree academic requirements in 1972. After researching in algorithmic problems of information theory at the Moscow Institute of Information Transmission of the National Academy of Sciences in 1972-1973, a position as Senior Research Scientist at the Moscow National Research Institute of Integrated Automation for the Oil/Gas Industry in 1973–1977, he emigrated to the U. S. in 1978 and earned a Ph. D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1979. His advisor at MIT was Albert R. Meyer, he is well known for his work in randomness in computing, algorithmic complexity and intractability, average-case complexity, foundations of mathematics and computer science, algorithmic probability, theory of computation, information theory. His life is described in a chapter of the book Out of Their Minds: The Lives and Discoveries of 15 Great Computer Scientists.
Levin and Stephen Cook independently discovered the existence of NP-complete problems. This NP-completeness theorem called the Cook–Levin theorem, was a basis for one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems declared by the Clay Mathematics Institute with a $1,000,000 prize offered; the Cook–Levin theorem was a breakthrough in computer science and an important step in the development of the theory of computational complexity. Levin's journal article on this theorem was published in 1973. Levin was awarded the Knuth Prize in 2012 for his discovery of NP-completeness and the development of average-case complexity, he is a professor of computer science at Boston University, where he began teaching in 1980. "Leonid A. Levin". Mathematics Genealogy Project. Levin's home page at Boston University. 2012 Knuth Prize to Leonid Levin
Serge Daan was a Dutch scientist, known for his significant contributions to the field of Chronobiology. Serge Daan was born in a wind mill, grew up in the Dutch countryside, went to high school in Deventer; the Daan family was interested in biology and undertook enterprises in this field, such as investigating the ecology of reptiles in the Mediterranean area. As a consequence of this interest, Serge studied biology at the University of Amsterdam. In September 1973, Serge received his Ph. D. in Amsterdam with a thesis on hibernation. He was subsequently trained as a postdoc by the two founders of modern chronobiology, Jürgen Aschoff and Colin Pittendrigh; this 4-year episode, at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology in Andechs and Stanford University in California, the lifelong collaboration and friendship with both were crucial for his professional career. In 1975, Daan was appointed associate professor at the University of Groningen in the Animal Ecology group of R. H. Drent. In 1994 he became Extra-ordinarius in Chronobiology, in 1996 Professor of Ethology.
Since 2003 he has occupied the prestigious Niko Tinbergen chair in Behavioral Biology. Serge Daan's research focuses on the temporal organisation of behaviour in humans. In about 250 publications he contributed a number of key concepts and models that have improved understanding of the ‘circadian’ rhythms of rest and activity, the regulation of human sleep, the annual timing of reproduction. Working with Pittendrigh, Daan developed many of the theoretical foundations for understanding the dynamics of circadian oscillators. Many other studies have followed, shifting the focus from behavioural black box models to testable hypotheses about underlying molecular mechanisms. Work on circadian rhythms by others in the field culminated in the notion that a single circadian pacemaker exists to keep track of environmental time, while at the same time controlling downstream oscillations in physiology and behaviour. However, this notion was inconsistent with observations of the timing of sleep in human subjects living in isolation from time cues.
Serge Daan, together with Borbély and Beersma, developed a model which convincingly explained the observations. It was called the two-process model of sleep regulation and explained human sleep regulation in terms of two key processes: a circadian pacemaker, a homeostatic drive to sleep that increases during wake and decreases during sleep. Today, the two process model is used as the basis for most predictive models of sleep and performance. Apart from daily alternations in the environment, there are substantial seasonal variations that animals must adapt to across the year. Working with Drent, Daan showed that one strategy used to deal with seasonal changes is to adjust the number and sex of offspring. Serge Daan held many offices in academia, he was member of the board of Earth and Life Sciences of NWO – the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, chairman of the NWO program Evolution and Behaviour. He was president of the Dutch Society for Behavioural Biology. From 2001 to 2004 he was vice-dean for research at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the University of Groningen, together with dean D.
A. Wiersma was responsible for incisive changes such as the tenure track system and the Rosalind Franklin fellowships for women. From 2007 till 2009 he was dean of this Faculty. Serge Daan taught a wide array of courses on all levels of the curriculum of Biology, including the recent tutorial Honours College for talented students, he supervised more than 200 master students during their research projects. Serge Daan took the initiative to set up and coordinate the top-master program in Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. To date, Daan has supervised 43 Ph. D. students. 1986 D. Masman: The annual cycle of the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus. A study in behavioural energetics. 1988 C. Dijkstra: Reproductive tactics in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus. A study in evolutionary biology. 1988 T. Meijer: Reproductive decisions in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus. A study in physiological ecology. 1988 D. J. Dijk: Spectral analysis of the sleep EEG. Experiments inspired by the two-process model of sleep regulation.
1989 J. H. Meijer: Neuropharmacological and photic manipulation of the circadian pacemaker. 1991 M. P. Gerkema: Ultradian and circadian oscillators in the temporal organization of behaviour in voles. 1993 P. C. J. Franken: Sleep homeostasis and brain temperature. Experimental and simulation studies in the rat. 1995 S. Verhulst: Reproductive decisions in the Great Tit: An optimality approach. 1995 M. W. G. Brinkhof: Timing of reproduction. An experimental study in coots. 1996 C. Deerenberg: Parental energy and fitness costs in birds. 1996 T. de Boer: Sleep regulation in the Djungarian hamster. The effects of temperature and daily torpor. 1997 P. M. Meerlo: Behavioural and chronobiological consequences of social stress in rats. 1997 K. C. de Kogel: Long-term effects of brood size on offspring. An experimental study in the Zebrafinch. 1999 A. M. Strijkstra: Periodic euthermy during hibernation in the European ground squirrel: causes and consequences. 1999 P. E. Boon: Daylength and growth: Behaviour, energy balance and protein synthesis.
1999 M. J. H. Kas: Sleep and circadian timekeeping in Octodon degu. 2000 I. R. Pen: Sex allocation in a life history context. 2001 R. A. Hut: Natural entrainment of circadian systems. A study in the diurnal ground squirrel Spermophilus citellus. 2001 K. Jansen: Circadian rhythms in pacemaker an
Manindra Agrawal is a professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and the Deputy Director at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He was the recipient of the first Infosys Prize for Mathematics and the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in Mathematical Sciences in 2003, he has been honored with Padma Shri in 2013. Manindra Agrawal obtained a B. Tech. From IIT Kanpur. and a Ph. D. from the same institute. He co-created the AKS primality test with Neeraj Kayal and Nitin Saxena, for which he and his co-authors won the 2006 Fulkerson Prize, the 2006 Gödel Prize, he was awarded with 2002 Clay Research Award for this work. The test is the first unconditional deterministic algorithm to test an n-digit number for primality in a time, proven to be polynomial in n. In September 2008, Agrawal was chosen for the first Infosys Mathematics Prize for outstanding contributions in the broad field of mathematics, he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in 2003-04. Clay Research Award Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology ICTP Prize IIT Kanpur Distinguished Alumnus Award Fulkerson Prize Gödel Prize G D Birla Award TWAS Prize Padma Shri ACCS-CDAC Foundation Award Homepage Blog report Manindra Agrawal at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
Burkhard Rost is a scientist leading the Department for Computational Biology & Bioinformatics at the Faculty of Informatics of the Technical University of Munich. Rost chairs the Study Section Bioinformatics Munich involving the TUM and the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Munich. From 2007-2014 Rost was President of the International Society for Computational Biology. Rost started his scientific career as theoretical physicist. After studying physics at the University of Giessen and physics, history and psychology at the University of Heidelberg, Rost received his PhD at the University Heidelberg for his work at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in 1994. Following research internships at EMBL and the European Bioinformatics Institute in Cambridge, in 1998, he became assistant professor at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics in the College of Surgeons and Physicians of the CU Medical Center of Columbia University in the City of New York. In 2000, he became associate professor at Columbia University and in 2009 he accepted an appointment to the Chair of Bioinformatics at the Technical University of Munich.
He is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences and has been President of ISCB, the International Society for Computational Biology from 2007-2014. As of 2011, Rost has authored or co-authored over 200 scientific publications with an Google-Scholar h-index of 79. Rost research has focused on combining Machine Learning and evolutionary information to predict aspects of critical importance to advance our understanding of evolution, protein structure and protein function. Examples of research carried out in his lab includes the prediction of enzymatic activity, interaction partners, subcellular localization, functional effects of point mutations/SNPs, disordered regions, membrane spanning segments, secondary structure, solvent accessibility, internal residue-residue contacts and the clustering of proteins into families; the his current focus is on predicting the effects of individual mutations on the level of non-synonymous changes in coding regions, i.e. single nucleotide changes Alexander von Humboldt Award
Walter Gilbert is an American biochemist, molecular biology pioneer, Nobel laureate. Walter Gilbert was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on March 21, 1932, the son of Emma, a child psychologist, Richard V. Gilbert, an economist; when Gilbert was seven-years-old, the family moved to the Washington D. C. area so his father could work under Harry Hopkins on the New Deal brain trust. While living in Washington the family became friends with the family of I. F. Stone and Wally met stone's oldest daughter, when they were both 8, they married at age 21. He was educated at the Sidwell Friends School, attended Harvard University for undergraduate and graduate studies, earning a baccalaureate in chemistry and physics in 1953 and a master's degree in physics in 1954, he studied for his doctorate at the University of Cambridge, where he earned a Ph. D. in physics supervised by the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam in 1957. Gilbert returned to Harvard in 1956 and was appointed assistant professor of physics in 1959. Gilbert's wife Celia worked for James Watson, leading Gilbert to become interested in molecular biology.
Watson and Gilbert ran their laboratory jointly through most of the 1960s, until Watson left for Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. In 1964 he was promoted to associate professor of biophysics and promoted again in 1968 to professor of biochemistry, he is a co-founder of the biotech start-up companies Biogen and Myriad Genetics, was the first chairman on their respective boards of directors. Gilbert left his position at Harvard to run Biogen as CEO, but was asked to resign by the company's board of directors, he is a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute. Gilbert has served as the chairman of the Harvard Society of Fellows. In 1996, Gilbert and Stuart B. Levy founded Paratek Pharmaceuticals. Gilbert served as Chairman until 2014. Gilbert was an early proponent of sequencing the human genome. At a March 1986 meeting in Santa Fe New Mexico he proclaimed "The total human sequence is the grail of human genetics". In 1987, he proposed starting a company called Genome Corporation to sequence the genome and sell access to the information.
In an opinion piece in Nature in 1991, he envisioned completion of the human genome sequence transforming biology into a field in which computer databases would be as essential as laboratory reagentsGilbert returned to Harvard in 1985. Gilbert was an outspoken critic of David Baltimore in the handling of the scientific fraud accusations against Thereza Imanishi-Kari. Gilbert joined the early controversy over the cause of AIDS. In 1962, Gilbert's Ph. D. student in physics Gerald Guralnik extended Gilbert's work on massless particles. With his Ph. D. student Benno Müller-Hill, Gilbert was the first to purify the lac repressor, just beating out Mark Ptashne for purifying the first gene regulatory protein. Together with Allan Maxam, Gilbert developed a new DNA sequencing method, Maxam–Gilbert sequencing, using chemical methods developed by Andrei Mirzabekov, his approach to the first synthesis of insulin via recombinant DNA lost out to Genentech's approach which used genes built up from the nucleotides rather than from natural sources.
Gilbert's effort was hampered by a temporary moratorium on recombinant DNA work in Cambridge, forcing his group to move their work to an English biological weapons site. Gilbert first proposed the existence of introns and exons and explained the evolution of introns in a seminal 1978 "News and Views" paper published in Nature. In 1986, Gilbert proposed the RNA world hypothesis for the origin of life, based on a concept first proposed by Carl Woese in 1967. In 1969, Gilbert was awarded Harvard's Ledlie Prize. In 1972 he was named American Cancer Society Professor of Molecular Biology. In 1979, Gilbert was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Frederick Sanger; that year he was awarded the Gairdner Prize and the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. Gilbert was awarded the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, shared with Paul Berg. Gilbert and Sanger were recognized for their pioneering work in devising methods for determining the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid.
Gilbert has been honored by the National Academy of Sciences. Gilbert was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1987. In 2002, he received the Biotechnology Heritage Award, from the Biotechnology Industry Organization and the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert's 1977 paper "A new method for sequencing DNA" was honored by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society for 2017, it was presented to the Department of Harvard University. Gilbert has two children. After retiring from Harvard in 2001, Gilbert has launched an artistic career centered on digital photography
John M. Opitz
John M. Opitz is a German-American medical geneticist and professor at the University of Utah School of Medicine, he is best known for rediscovering the concept of the developmental field in humans and for his detection and delineation of many genetic syndromes, several now known as the "Opitz syndromes" including Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Bohring-Opitz syndrome, other autosomal and X-linked conditions. He is founder of the Wisconsin Clinical Genetics Center, the American Journal of Medical Genetics, the American College and American Board of Medical Genetics. John M. Opitz was born in Germany, on August 15, 1935 to a middle-class family, his father died of tuberculosis while Opitz was still young, a disease which he contracted and, caused him to spend 14 months in a sanatorium. After seven years of separation, he rejoined his mother in 1947 in Nuremberg where she worked as an interpreter for the US occupation forces during the war-crimes trials.
They immigrated to the United States in 1950 settling in Iowa City where Opitz' uncle, Hans Koelbel, was Professor of Cello and Chamber Music at the University of Iowa. It was at the age of 15 that his uncle introduced him to Emil Witschi, an internationally acclaimed embryologist and zoologist at the University of Iowa, who fanned Opitz' interest in embryology and evolution. After completing high school, Opitz' studied Zoology at the University of Iowa under Witschi's tutelage, receiving his bachelor's degree in 1956. With the approach of Witschi's retirement from the University of Iowa just previous to his graduation, Opitz wondered where he would go next as his previous plan had been to complete a PhD under Witschi. However, with some prodding from his mother, he was reluctantly persuaded to attend medical school at the University of Iowa, his initial lack of interest dissipated. He continued his work with Witschi while in medical school, completing a joint review on the biology of sex determination and sex differentiation in animals.
While attending medical school, Opitz was engaged in a variety of other research projects including: glucose metabolism, prostate cancer, hereditary hematuria. Others who influenced Opitz while in medical school include Jacqueline A. Noonan, he completed his medical degree in 1959 at the University of Iowa a rotating internship and his first year of pediatric residency. After completion of residency, Opitz searched for fellowship opportunities, he had followed the work of Patau and Smith in Madison on human aneuploidy and so, after application and acceptance, July 1, 1961 saw Opitz at the University of Wisconsin where he completed residency, the last 6 months as pediatric chief resident. He completed his fellowship in Medical Genetics under Klaus Patau, David W. Smith. Smith introduced him to the University of Wisconsin Children's Hospital where he began his work on the physical and biological manifestations of syndromes, he gained experience in the evaluation of normal developmental variability by examining the newborn infants at St. Mary's Hospital in Madison for Smith's study of minor anomalies.
It was during the 60's that Opitz set the groundwork on the scientific advances for which he would be best known- the discovery and definition of multiple congenital anomalies syndromes through the recognition of links between pediatric anomalies and heredity. After completion of his fellowship, Opitz was appointed Assistant Professor of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics at the University of Wisconsin, he spent 18 years at UW-Madison where he was able to establish the Wisconsin Clinical Genetics Center in 1974 as well as a fetal/pediatric pathology and developmental pathology program in association with Dr. Enid Gilbert-Barness. In 1979, at the invitation of Philip D. Pallister, Opitz left the University of Wisconsin to become the Director of the Shodair-Montana Regional Genetic Service Program in Helena, Montana; this program included such services as fetal genetic pathology. He served as chair of the Department of Medical Genetics at Shodair Children's Hospital and as an adjunct professor in Biology and Philosophy, Veterinary Science at Montana State University.
In 1994 he was appointed Professor of Medical Humanities. In Montana, Opitz continued research in genetic syndromes collaborating with Phil D. Pallister, leading to the discovery of several syndromes including the Pallister-Hall, KBG, Pallister-Killian syndromes; this collaboration led to the discovery of the first human X-autosome translocation which, according to McKusick, was a jumping off point for the era of chromosome mapping. Prior to leaving Montana, Opitz traveled to Germany to become the first visiting professor of the Hanseatic University Foundation of the University of Lübeck, Department of Genetics. In 1997, Opitz joined the faculty at the University of Utah School of Medicine as a Professor of Pediatrics in the division of Medical Genetics and as a member of the clinical staff at the Children's Medical Center, he holds adjunct appointments in the Departments of Human Genetics and Obstetrics and Gynecology. He was an active participant in the fetal genetic pathology program in the Division of Pediatric Pathology at Primary Children's Medical Center until 2015.
Opitz' research and interests, in addition to clinical genetics, have covered a wide spectrum of genetic anomalies with focuses on sex determination and sex differentiation, skeletal dysplasias, mental retardation, human malformations and syn
Matthias H. Tschöp is a German physician and scientist, he is the Chief Executive Officer and Scientific Director at Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Center for Environmental Health. He is Alexander-von-Humboldt Professor and Chair of Metabolic Diseases at Technical University of Munich and serves as founding Director of Biomedicine at the Helmholtz Pioneer Campus and is an adjunct Professor at Yale University. Matthias Tschöp obtained an M. D. from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich where he worked as a clinician in neuroendocrinology before accepting a research fellowship at the Eli Lilly Discovery Research Laboratories and leading a research team at the German Institute of Human Nutrition. He served as a Professor of Endocrinology and Diabetes at the Metabolic Diseases Institute of the University of Cincinnati, before being named the Arthur Russell Morgan Endowed Chair of Medicine, Research Director of the Metabolism Center of Excellence for Diabetes and Obesity at the University of Cincinnati.
He was Research Director of the Helmholtz Diabetes Center and Director of the Institute for Diabetes and Obesity at Helmholtz Zentrum München. Early in his career, Tschöp reported on the orexigenic and metabolic effects of ghrelin and its secretory control by nutrients, which has had a major influence on human obesity and diabetes research, his corresponding publication in Nature is among today's most cited metabolism research papers. It added a fundamental pathway to the current model of body weight and glucose control and established novel drug targets for metabolic diseases. Tschöp went on to further dissect gut-brain communication pathways, based on GI-hormone signaling and lessons from unraveling the molecular underpinnings of gastric bypass surgery. Together with his close collaborator Richard DiMarchi he discovered and validated novel gut hormone co-agonist peptides, which target several neuroendocrine receptors and efficiently reduce body weight and improve glucose tolerance. Several of these compounds are now in clinical trials for the treatment of obesity.
Tschöp and DiMarchi more went on to discover and validate another class of drug candidates by engineering peptide to deliver steroid/small molecules to selected cell populations. 2018: Carus Prize, City of Schweinfurt 2018: Ordinary member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities 2017: Carus Medal, Academy of Sciences Leopoldina 2017: Charles H. Best Lectureship and Award, University of Toronto 2017: Hansen Family Award, Bayer Foundations 2017: Honorary doctorate degree, University of Leipzig 2017: Rolf Sammet Professorship, Frankfurt University 2017: Outstanding Innovation Award, Endocrine Society 2017: Geoffrey Harris Prize 2016: The Victor Mutt Award 2016: European Medal of the Society for Endocrinology 2016: Elected Member, Academia Europaea 2016: ERC Advanced Grant 2014: Erwin Schrödinger Prize, Stifterverband Science Award - Erwin Schrödinger Prize 2014: Paul Martini Prize, Paul Martini Foundation 2014: Linda and Jack Gill Distinguished Scientist Award and Jack Gill Center for Biomolecular Science at Indiana University 2013: Elected Member, German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina 2012: Werner-Creutzfeld-Award, German Diabetes Society 2012: Alexander von Humboldt Professorship, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation 2011: Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award, American Diabetes Association 2010: NIH/NIDDK 60th Anniversary Scholar Award 2010: André Mayer Award, Int.
Association for the Study of Obesity, IASO 2009: Elected Member, The American Society for Clinical Investigation, ASCI 2007: Scientific Achievement Award, The Obesity Society, TOS/NAASO 2007: Christina Barz Award of the German Society for Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine 2002: Young Investigator Award, European Neuroendocrine Association, ENEA 2001: Schoeller-Junkmann Award of the German Endocrine Society, DGE 2000: Lilly Research Laboratories President's Award 2000: Eli Lilly Endocrine Research Award for Science Prof. Matthias Tschöp. Medicine: Prof. Matthias Tschöp. Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Prof. Matthias Tschöp, Chair of Metabolic Diseases, TUM School of Medicine