Enghave Plads is a central public square of the Vesterbro district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located where Istedgade reaches Enghavevej, which separates the square from Enghave Park, Enghave Plads School opened on the square in 1892. Completed in 1900, Christ Church was the church to be built in the rapidly growing Vesterbro neighbourhood. A fountain, Boy with fiasco, designed by Jens Lund, was installed in the centre of the square in 1903, for many years, the square played host to an annual fun fair. The tram line was extended to Frederiksholm in 1915 and again from Frederiksholm to Mozarts Plads in 1937, the area on the other side of Enghavevej remained open land. The Royal Danish Horticultural Society established 478 allotments at the, the square was renovated and pedestrianized in 1995. The 114-year-old chestnut tree, which for decades had dominated the square, was removed in October 2011 to make way for the construction of Enghave Station, after a merger with Mathæusgade School in 2008, Enghave Plads School is now part of Tove Ditlevsens School.
Both buildings were designed by city architect Ludvig Fenger, Christ Church was designed by Valdemar Koch in an Italian style. He designed the two buildings that flank it on both sides. The buildings on the side of the square are from 1898 and were designed by Christian Mandrup-Poulsen. Jens Christian Kofoed contributed to the buildings around the square, a cluster of low buildings that were formerly used by the tram workers have been converted into a kindergarten
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², and has a population of 51,466, the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The name Vesterbro literally translates into English as Western Bridge, Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, which was a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as the Tivoli lake, the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation will end in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a location that makes it a favored place to live. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was originally the name of the country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a no build zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered, until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Even though much of the area was used as grazing land,1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, and the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, and this movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center, the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the area around the street named Vesterbro
Enghaveparken is a public park in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was laid out in the late 1920s to cater for the citizens of the expanding city, the park is designed in the Neoclassical style. It has grassy lawns, flower beds and contains a bandstand, in the late 19th century, the Royal Danish Horticultural Society established 478 allotments in Dronningens Enghave at the site where Enghaveparken lies today. Tredje Natur has won a competition to redesign the park, the slightly rectangular park is divided into six spaces, a water garden, a rose garden, a perennial garden, a sports section, a playground and a meeting place. Along its central axis, in front of the entrance which faces Enghavevej. It is popular with ducks and grey heron which come from a colony on an island in close-by Frederiksberg Park. At the extreme far end of the axis, opposite the main entrance. It was designed by famous Danish Modernist architect and designer Arne Jacobsen who spend his two first years after leaving architecture school working at Poul Holsøes office and it is one of his only Neoclassical works.
A year he opened his own practice and built his first Modernist building, the bandstand is decorated with figure reliefs by Aage Nielsen-Edwin, depicting Apollo and the Nine Muses. In front of the entrance stands the statue Venus med Æblet by Kai Nielsen. The tight budget only allowed for this piece of art at the time of the inauguration. Nielsen was popular with the Danish Neoclassical movement of the time, his work for instance dominates Carl Petersens Faaborg Museum, in 1933, Einar Utzon-Franks statue Ungdom was added. The park is popular with locals for sunbathing or picnicking and it has facilities for skater hockey, football and pétanque. The bandstand is used for open-air concerts. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen Enghaveparken on Google maps Enghavevej
Humulus, hop, is a small genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The hop is native to regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Hops are the flowers of the hop species H. lupulus, as a main flavor ingredient in beer. It is a herbaceous plant which sends up new shoots in early spring. Hop shoots grow very rapidly, and at the peak of growth can grow 20 to 50 centimetres per week, hop bines climb by wrapping clockwise around anything within reach, and individual bines typically grow between 2 to 15 metres depending on what is available to grow on. The leaves are opposite, with a 7 to 12 cm leafstalk and a heart-shaped, fan-lobed blade 12 to 25 cm long and broad, the edges are coarsely toothed. When the hop bines run out of material to climb, horizontal shoots sprout between the leaves of the stem to form a network of stems wound round each other. Male and female flowers of the hop plant develop on separate plants, female plants, which produce the hop flowers used in brewing beer, are often propagated vegetatively and grown in the absence of male plants.
There are three species, one with five varieties, Humulus japonicus, western Asia, North America. Humulus lupulus var. lupulus. Leaves with 3–5 lobes, densely hairy below, brewers hops are specific cultivars, propagated by asexual reproduction, see the article, List of hop varieties. Hops are boiled with the wort in brewing beer and sometimes added post-ferment, they impart a bitterness, flavor, in pharmacy lupulus is the designation of hop. The dried catkins, commonly referred to as hop cones, of the plant of H. lupulus are used to prepare infusion of hop, tincture of hop. The characteristic bitterness imparted by the addition of hops to the process is mainly due to the presence of the bitter acids. These hop acids are acids, with acidic ring enols in conjugation with ring. Plants in the genus Humulus produce terpenophenolic metabolites, Hops contain xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone, and other compounds under preliminary research for their potential health properties. Jeanine S. DeNoma, Humulus Genetic Resources Hops varieties research Plants for a Future, Humulus lupulus Lee W.
Janson, PhD, Brew Chem 101, Storey Publishing, ISBN 0-88266-940-0
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
Johan Thomas Lundbye
Johan Thomas Lundbye was a promising young Danish painter and graphic artist, known for his animal and landscape paintings who died at the age of 29. He became one of his generation’s national romantic painters, along with P. C, skovgaard and Lorenz Frølich, to regularly depict the landscape of Zealand. He was born in Kalundborg to Joachim Theodor Lundbye and wife Catherine Bonnevie and he was sickly as a child. He studied privately under animal painter Christian Holm and at the age of 14 he came into J. L. Lund’s drawing school and the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen, in the years to come he would focus his painting on depicting landscapes. His large Kystparti ved Isefjord was exhibited in 1843 and purchased by the Royal Painting Collection and he illustrated Hans Vilhelm Kaalunds Fabler for børn, a book of poetry for young children published in 1845. He received a grant from the Academy in 1845, which was renewed a year later. He returned to Denmark on 18 July 1846 after a year and he surprised his circle of friends and announced that he was going to live in the country for a year, and took a little farm near Helsingør.
The First War of Schleswig, known in Denmark as the Three Years War, however broke out and he died eight days on 26 April 1848. There is some question as to whether he died from an accidental shot, list of Danish painters KID—Kunst Index Danmark Dansk biografisk Leksikion
Abel Cathrines Stiftelse
Abel Cathrines Stiftelse is a listed building in Abel Cathrines Gade between Vesterbrogade and Istedgade in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Completed in 1886, it was designed by Hermann Baagøe Storck and is an example of the National Romantic style. Presumably the illegitimate daughter of Wolf von der Wisch, a nobleman and she married Hans Hansen Oster who was a bookkeeper at Proviantgården on Slotsholmen in Copenhagen as well as inspector of Queen Sofie Amaliess estates on Lolland and Falster. The almshouses in Dronningens Tværgade were demolished in 1885 and replaced by a new building with residences for indigent women in the emerging Vesterbro district, the building was designed by Hermann Baagøe Storck and inaugurated on 31 October 1886. The building contained 31 residences which generally housed two women each, the north wing of the building contained a chapel. The charity was dissolved in 1949 and the building was ceded to Copenhagen Municipality, the chapel was dismantled in 1969.
Some of its inventory was handed over to the Copenhagen City Museum, the charitys archives are kept in Copenhagen City Archives at Copenhagen City Hall. On 31 October 1981, the building was squatted. The squatters left the building on 14 February 1982 and it was subsequently refurbished, Abel Cathrines Stiftelse is a symmetrical, four-winged building constructed in red brick. In the vestibule inside the entrance are two plaques, one of them reads, Abel Cathrine oprettede som enke efter proviantskriver Hans Hansen ved testamente af 27. December 1675 denne stiftelse til bolig for fattige, syge og sengeliggende mennesker, hendes navn bevares i taknemmelig hukommelse. and the other one reads Abel Cathrines boder var i Dronningens Tværgade fra 1676 -1885. Ved Magistratens omsorg og med kommunens hjælp flyttedes stiftelsen til denne bygning, der tages i brug den 31 oktober 1886, Guds nåde være over dette hus og dem som bor deri
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Hermann Ernst Freund
Hermann Ernst Freund was a German-born Danish sculptor. He is remembered in particular for his figures from Nordic mythology, born near Bremen, Freund was trained as a smith before studying at the Art Academy in Copenhagen where he was awarded all four silver and gold medals. After graduating, he spent 10 years in Rome where he became Bertel Thorvaldsens closest assistant as can be seen in his marble bust of Bernhard Severin Ingemann. On returning to Copenhagen, he organized the decoration of Church of Our Lady, preparing models for the figures of the 12 apostles but in the end Thorvaldsen received the commission. His masterpiece, the Ragnarok Frieze, which occupied him for years, was completed by Herman Wilhelm Bissen after his death but was destroyed by the Christianborg fire in 1884. There is a plaster cast of part of the frieze in Statens Museum for Kunst, the largest collection of his works is to be found at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen. In 1829, Freund became a professor at the Academy, inspired by time he spent in the south of Italy, Freund had his official home, decorated in Pompeiian style.
Young artists such as Georg Hilker, Heinrich Eddelien, Constantin Hansen and Christen Købke completed the work using Freunds designs, Danish sculpture Images of The Ragnarok Freize
Halmtorvet is a public square in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located next to Copenhagen Central Station in front of the Meat District, the oblong square eventually turns into Sønder Boulevard, a broad street with a park strip in its central reserve, which continues to Enghavevej at Enghave station. Copenhagens haymarket was located just inside the Western City Gate where the City Hall Square lies today. It closed on 1 January 1888 and relocated to the area outside the new Livestock Market which had opened at the site in 1879. Market days were Wednesday and Saturday and up to several hundred loads of hay and straw were traded and distributed to cattle and horse stables around the city. Up through the 20th century, with improved infrastructure, livestock moved out of the city and horses lost their role in transportation, the area fell into despair and became associated with prostitution and drug dealing. The site was dominated by through traffic and goods transport. The area underwent gradual gentrification up through the 1990s and Halmtorvet was thoroughly refurbished from 1999 to 2003 as part of a programme for urban renewal in the Vesterbro area.
The first stage was designed by the office of the City Architect, the second and third stages were designed by the Park Office of the City and carried out in 2003. In order to obtain a coherent space in the area a large gas regulator in front of the Brown Meat District was removed, the square has an oblong shape. To make the more attractive to urban life, the new layout introduced one-way traffic which is taken along a single lane on the south side of the square. A roundabout on the corner of the Brown Meat District, distributes traffic south and north of the Central Station, in the centre of the square, in front of Øksnehallen, there is an oval pool surrounded by large open spaces and playgrounds. Other areas have elevated lawns and flower beds with terraced sides, other elements in the refurbishment include new paving and items of street furniture. The north side of the square is lined with buildings from the 1890s. Built in 1961, Borgenhus, at No,20, is the only building in Inner Vesterbro under City Plan West, a municipal plan from 1958 for condemnations and urban renewal in the area.
The south side of the square, from the roundabout up to the beginning of Sønder Boulevard, the section closest to the Central Station is known as the Brown Meat District. It is the part and generally dates from about 1900. Part of the Brown Meat District, Øksnehallen at No,11, a former market building, now serves as an exhibition venue which houses a broad variety of events and flea markets
Vestre Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Vestre Cemetery is located in a large park setting in the Kongens Enghave district of Copenhagen, Denmark. With its 54 hectares it is the largest cemetery in Denmark, beautifully landscaped, it serves as an important open space, popular for people to take a stroll, and look at the old graves and monuments. It is located southwest of the city center, between the Enghave, Sydhavn, Sjælør and Valby train stations on Copenhagens S-train system, the cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen municipality. The other cemeteries are Assistens Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery, the cemetery has a Catholic section, and next to that is a Jewish cemetery. Vestre Kirkegård was opened on 2 November 1870 to accommodate an urgent need for adequate burial places for the population of Copenhagen. Assistens Cemetery, till the cemetery of the city, had long been unable to cope with the increasing number of burials. First a burial place for the poor, Vestre Kirkegaard became the burial place during the 1990s.
The cemetery is noted for its scenery, offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, overgrown tombs, tree-lined avenues, ponds. Many graves have distinctive gravestones, sculptures or large mausoleums and are eclectically placed, the cemeterys grounds boast a huge variety of trees with many rare species and is a heaven to birds and small mammals. Almost all the buildings in the grounds have been designed by Hans Jørgen Holm or Holger Jacobsen who succeeded him as resident architect for the Copenhagen Burial Services, Holm designed both the North Chapel and South Chapel as well as an office building the gate at the main entrance. It is unclear who were responsible for the design of the former inspectors house just inside the main entrance, the East Chapel was inaugurated in 1914 to a design by Holger Jacobsen but only remained in use until 1926. The Crossroads Project, designed by Schønher Landskab, is a project centred on the remains of the West Chapel. The complex is intended to serve a dual purpose both relating to the function as a burial place and as an open space and meeting place in the city.
The complex consists of two intersecting axes with the former Southern Chapel in its centre, the chapel was partly demolished, leaving only the central part as an open pavilion-like domed structure. The building is partly overgrown by ivy, the surrounding garden spaces of the two axes, creating a Greek cross, are confined by tall yew hedges and have a grass surface. Embedded in the lawns of the arms are narrow, rust coloured paths made of oxidized iron plates. At the end of each arm is a 9 metre tall rust coloured iron arch. The design of the project is inspired by Bramantes Tempietto in Rome, the latter is characterized by the garden being contained in the two axes of the garden, instead of the axes being the connecting feature of the surrounding gardens as is normally the case