John III of Sweden
John III was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. He was the son of his second wife Margaret Leijonhufvud, he was quite autonomously, the ruler of Finland, as Duke John from 1556 to 1563. In 1581 he assumed the title Grand Prince of Finland, he attained the Swedish throne after a rebellion against his half-brother Eric XIV. He is remembered for his attempts to close the gap between the newly established Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Catholic church, his first wife was Catherine Jagellonica of the Polish-Lithuanian ruling family, their son Sigismund ascended both the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish thrones. He was the second son of Gustav Vasa, his mother was a Swedish noblewoman. As a Duke of Finland, he opposed his half-brother Eric XIV of Sweden and was imprisoned in 1563. After his release from prison because of his brother's insanity, John again joined the opposition, deposed Eric and made himself the king, his important ally was his maternal uncle Sten Leijonhufvud, who at deathbed was made Count of Raseborg.
Shortly after this John executed his brother's most trusted counsellor, Jöran Persson, whom he held responsible for his harsh treatment while in prison. John further initiated peace talks with Denmark and Lübeck to end the Scandinavian Seven Years' War, but rejected the resulting Treaties of Roskilde where his envoys had accepted far-reaching Danish demands. After two more years of fighting, this war was concluded without many Swedish concessions in the Treaty of Stettin. During the following years he fought Russia in the Livonian War, concluded by the Treaty of Plussa in 1583, a war that meant a Swedish reconquest of Narva; as a whole his foreign policy was affected by his connection to Poland of which country his son Sigismund III Vasa was made king in 1587. In domestic politics John showed clear Catholic sympathies, inspired by his Polish queen, a fact that created frictions to the Swedish clergy and nobility, he sought to enlist the help of the papacy in gaining release of his wife's family assets, which were frozen in Naples.
He allowed Jesuits to secretly staff the Royal Theological College in Stockholm. However, John himself was a learned follower of the mediating theologian George Cassander, he sought reconciliation between Rome and Wittenberg on the basis of the consensus of the first five centuries of Christianity. John approved the publication of the Lutheran Swedish Church Order of Archbishop Laurentius Petri in 1571 but got the church to approve an addendum to the church order in 1575, Nova ordinantia ecclesiastica that displayed a return to patristic sources; this set the stage for his promulgation of the Swedish-Latin Red Book, which reintroduced several Catholic customs and resulted in the Liturgical Struggle, not to end for twenty years. In 1575, he gave his permission for the remaining Catholic convents in Sweden to start receiving novices again. From time to time he was at odds theologically with his younger brother Duke Charles of Sudermannia, who had Calvinist sympathies, did not promote King John's Liturgy in his duchy.
John III was an eager patron of architecture. In January 1569, John was recognized as king by the same riksdag that forced Eric XIV off the throne, but this recognition was not without influence from John. The nobilities' power and rights were extended and their responsibilities lessened. John was still concerned about his position as king as long; the fear of a possible liberation of the locked up king worried him to the point that in 1571 he ordered the guards to, in any suspicion of liberation attempt, murder the captured king. It is possible this is how his life ended in 1577. John III was reported like his father in propaganda, with repeated claims to have "liberated Sweden" from the "bloodhound" Christian II, as well as rescuing the population from the "tyrant" Eric XIV. John married his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland, house of Jagiello, in Vilnius on 4 October 1562. In Sweden, she is known as Katarina Jagellonica, she was the sister of king Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. Their children were: Isabella Sigismund, King of Sweden, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania Anna He married his second wife Gunilla Bielke on 21 February 1584.
The young duke married his first cousin Maria Elisabet, daughter of Charles IX of Sweden With his mistress Karin Hansdotter he had at least four illegitimate children: Sofia Gyllenhielm, who married Pontus De la Gardie Augustus Gyllenhielm Julius Gyllenhielm Lucretia Gyllenhielm John cared for Karin and their children after he married Catherine Jagellonica, in 1562. He got Karin a husband who would care for her and the children: in 1561, she married nobleman Klas Andersson, a friend and servant of John, they had a daughter named Brita. He continued supporting Karin and his illegitimate children as king, from 1568. In 1572 Karin married again, as her first husband was executed for treason by Eric XIV in 1563, to a Lars Henrikson, whom John ennobled in 1576 to care for his issue with Karin; the same year, he made his daughter Sofia a lady in the castle, as a servant to his sist
Roslagsbanan is a narrow gauge urban railway system in Roslagen, Stockholm County, Sweden. Its combined route length is 65 kilometres and there are 38 stations, it is built to the Swedish three foot gauge. The line starts in Stockholm at Stockholm East Station, it goes north and splits into three branch lines at the junction stations Djursholms Ösby and Roslags Näsby. It is double track between Rydbo and Åkersberga; the rest is single track, but the line to Vallentuna was being doubled in 2012 and Rydbo-Åkers Runö in 2013. There are passing loops at some stations on the single track sections: at Altorp, Hägernäs, Österskär, Visinge, Täby kyrkby, Lindholmen and Kårsta. Following a 2017 agreement between the Swedish state, Stockholm County, the affected municipalities, the line will be extended to the centrally located underground hub T-Centralen, with construction to begin in 2022; the railway, owned by the Stockholm County Council through the public transport company Storstockholms Lokaltrafik, is not part of the nationally owned network.
It is the only narrow gauge railway in Sweden still in use for commercial traffic. Roslagsbanan is part of the Stockholm public transport system, it is operated under contract by Arriva Sverige from 7 January 2013. Arriva Sverige took over from previous contracted company Roslagståg AB, a joint venture by the Danish DSB and Tågkompaniet. Despite its age and limited capacity it is one of the most used railways in Sweden. Since the late 1980s, the railway has but been upgraded to a modern standard with modernised rolling stock, higher platforms and straighter tracks allowing increased speed. There are 15 departures from Stockholm East in the evening rush hour. In 2016, the raliway had a ridership of 48,000 journeys per day; the stations along Roslagsbanan are marked with a J symbol, which stands for the generic term järnvägsstation and is similar to the T symbol used by the Stockholm underground railway stations and the S used for tram stops. Roslagsbanan is now used by Storstockholms lokaltrafik for commuter transport.
The present network comprises most of the southern part of what was once a much bigger network, made up of owned railways all over Roslagen, connecting Stockholm and Uppsala with the countryside and used for passenger and freight trains. For more information on this, see the history section below; the line numbers are not displayed on the trains. In the timetables of Samtrafiken, the lines do not have the numbers as stated above, but the numbers 121 for the line to Kårsta, 122 for the line to Österskär and 123 for the line to Näsbypark; the present train sets were manufactured by ABB Railcar and delivered in 1988–1995. The train sets are maintained and operated by Roslagståg; the trains are made up of three different bogie vehicle types: Motor coach X10p Number of vehicles: 35, Seating capacity: 72, Length: 19.9 metres, Weight: 27.7 tonnes, Power rating: 400 kW, Maximum speed: 80 km/h Driving trailer UBxp Number of vehicles: 34, Seating Capacity: 76, Length: 19.9 metres, Weight: 16.3 tonnes Intermediate trailer UBp Number of vehicles: 32, Seating Capacity: 80, Length: 19.9 metres, Weight: 16 tonnes The trains were refurbished in 2011–2013, where some carriages were rebuilt with low floors, enabling wheelchair and pram access.
The refurbishment included new interiors and exteriors. There are some problems with the rolling stock; the carriages had poor wheelchair accessibility due to narrow doors and stairs. The trains are very noisy considering the railway goes through built up suburban areas; because of this SL began the process of finding a company from which to order modern trains to meet the rising demand for departures on Roslagsbanan in 2010. 22 new trains were ordered from Stadler Rail in 2016 and are scheduled to be delivered in 2020. They are going to be named X15p. Improvements are ongoing to reduce congestion and improve service on the biggest lines serving Täby and Vallentuna. New double track sections are built; the plan is to have double track to Åkersberga and to Vallentuna in 2014. There are plans to upgrade the current maximum speed of 80 to 120 km/h. New trains are needed for the traffic increase which are expected to be delivered in 2014. Along with the new trains, the old X10p in service will be repaired and modified into a more modern look.
A feasibility study into extending the Roslagsbanan to Arlanda Airport was completed in 2010, followed by a public consultation in 2012. The present Roslagsbanan was once just the southern part of a large narrow gauge system throughout Roslagen and eastern Uppland, connecting Stockholm and Uppsala with ports, smaller towns and parts of the countryside and used for both freight and passenger transport. In 1885 the line from Stockholm East Station to Rimbo was opened, today the longest branch of Roslagsbanan, it was built and operated by the private enterprise Stockholm-Rimbo Järnväg. In 1909 SRJ changed its name to Stockholm–Roslagens Järnvägar following the take-over of companies running adjacent lines. Roslagsbanan is one of the oldest electrified railway lines for public transport in Europe; the first Stockholm–Djursholm suburban section, was electrified in 1892, at the time continued in
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Humlegården is a major park in Östermalm in Stockholm. It is the location of the Royal Library and in the centre of the park is a large statue of Carl von Linné, better known as Linnaeus. Humlegården was the Royal Fruit Garden, established by King Johan III in the 16th century; the name humle, meaning hop, indicates. In 1686-87, Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark had a pavilion, built there for herself and her children. In the 17th century, parts of the park were opened to the public. In 1764, the park was opened for public recreation. There were, restrictions on, allowed to be admitted. From 1773 until 1780, the Stenborg Troupe performed in the Rotundan, in the former pavilion of the queen referred to as Humlegårdsteatern. In 1853-1877, the Humlegårdsteatern was again in use; the park was opened to the public in 1869. At Engelbrektsplan next to Humlegården, the Djursholm line of the Roslag Railway ended from 1895–1960 and on the other side of the park, on Lidingövägen, the Lidingö Tram line ended from 1914–1967.
Today the park is a popular recreational area for locals, hosting a small soccer ground, skateboard ramp, children's playground and lawns. Johan Flodmark: Stenborgska skådebanorna: bidrag till Stockholms teaterhistoria, Stockholm, 1893 http://www.stockholm.se/TrafikStadsplanering/Parker-och-gronomraden/Parkhistoria/ Media related to Humlegården at Wikimedia Commons
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Östermalm is a 2.56 km² large district in central Stockholm, Sweden. With 71,802 inhabitants it is one of the most populous districts in Stockholm. It's an expensive area, having the highest housing prices in Sweden. During the reign of the ruler of all of Scandinavia, king Eric of Pomerania in the early 15th century, a royal cowshed/barn was erected on the lands of the village Vädla. Since the town of Stockholm had grown and started to encroach on the borders of that village, there were lots of complaints about animals causing damage in the town. In the 17th century, the inhabitants of Stockholm were allowed to keep their cattle there. In 1639, parts of the allocated land for the cowshed/barn were put up for development. In 1672 the eastern part became a military exercise field. During the following 200 years, it was the home of some higher officers but the majority of the inhabitants were poor. A new town plan presented around 1880 implied a grid of streets and avenues, to become lined with elegant houses, with 4–6 floors.
With this plan implemented it put an end to the rustic appearance of the district. The old official name "Ladugårdslandet" was replaced with "Östermalm". Since the Crown had been the owner of parts of the district for centuries a number of official buildings and higher public educational institutions were located in this area. In the 20th century, a large number of embassies, including those of America, France, Poland, Thailand and Malaysia were established in Östermalm; the Berwaldhallen, home of both the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Swedish Radio Choir, is situated on Dag Hammarskjölds väg, Östermalm. Diplomatstaden Eriksberg Lärkstaden Nedre Östermalm Villastaden Övre Östermalm Karlaplan: metro 13 Stadion: metro 14 Stockholm Östra/Tekniska Högskolan: suburban railway 27, 28, 29 and metro 14 Östermalmstorg: metro 13, 14 Stureparken Geography of Stockholm
Lidingöbanan is a light rail line in Stockholm, between Ropsten and Gåshaga brygga, serving the southern half of Lidingö island. The Lidingöbanan has its origins in the Stockholm-Södra Lidingöns Järnväg, proposed by inventor Gustaf Dalén, opened for traffic 1914, it got ferry-less access to Stockholm when the Lidingö bridge was opened 1925. Public transportation on Lidingöbanan has always been provided using tram cars, but in the past Lidingöbanan carried goods traffic. At its largest, Lidingöbanan extended to Humlegården in Stockholm through Stockholms Spårvägar's tramway network, with access to the Värtabanan freight railway track. There was traffic on a track on the north side of Lidingö island which terminated at Kyrkviken, but that section closed in 1971. Lidingö town centre is now accessible only by bus. Lidingöbanan formally became part of SL's public transportation network in 1972. Lidingöbanan was a railway until 31 March 2009, when it was reclassified by the Swedish railway inspectorate.
Freight train traffic existed 1925–1982. Passenger service has, always been provided by tramcars, which prior to 1967 continued onto the streets of Stockholm, as mentioned above; the electrical infrastructure is of tram type. Until the rolling stock consisted of Type A30/A30B and B30/B30B maneouver trams, all over fifty years old, dating from the period when the Stockholm Metro was only completed and these areas were served by trams, adapted for faster two-way traffic; the line was closed between the summer of 2013 and October 2015 for engineering works and installation of new equipment, with rail replacement buses running during that period. When reopened parts of the single track line had been converted to double track, new Type A36 trams were introduced, along with a new signalling system. Lidingöbanan has a single line with thirteen stations, from Ropsten in northeast Stockholm to Gåshaga brygga in southeastern Lidingö. At Ropsten there is an interchange with the Stockholm Metro Red Line 13, a Waxholmsbolaget archipelago boat terminal at Gåshaga brygga.
There are plans to connect the line with the Spårväg City line in central Stockholm in 2020. Trams in Stockholm Public transport in Stockholm List of tram and light rail transit systems 2012 Map of all SL Rail Lines Storstockholms Lokaltrafik - official site Storstockholms Lokaltrafik - official site Järnväg.net - Lidingöbanan