Max von Gruber
Max von Gruber was an Austrian scientist. As a bacteriologist he discovered specific agglutination in 1896 with his English colleague Herbert Durham, but his main interests were studying sexual life. Max von Gruber was the son of Ignaz Gruber, a general practitioner and the first specialist in otology in Austria, publisher of a two-volume textbook on medical chemistry, his brother was Franz von Gruber. He graduated from the Schottengymnasium in Vienna and studied medicine at the University of Vienna, receiving his medical doctorate in 1876, he learned chemistry and physiology under Max von Pettenkofer and Karl von Voit in Munich and Karl Ludwig in Leipzig. Working under Pettenkofer was Hans Ernst August Buchner, who encouraged Gruber to concentrate on bacteriology. Unlike some of the great names of the time, among them Carl Wilhelm Nägeli, Theodor Billroth, Ferdinand Cohn, Robert Koch, Gruber recognized that bacteria possess a variability within limits determined by the culture medium; this theory was important for the differentiation of the categories of bacteria and gained significance for Gruber in his examinations of cholera vibrios, enabling him to distinguish them from other vibrios.
In 1882 Gruber was habilitated as a lecturer in Vienna, two years he became associate professor and head of the newly established Institute for Hygiene at the University of Graz. On 23 March 1887 he became ausserordentlicher professor in Vienna, succeeding Josef Nowak, on 10 December 1891 he was appointed to the chair of hygiene established in 1875 at the University of Vienna. Karl Landsteiner became his assistant in 1896. Another of his pupils, Alois Lode, in 1897 became the first professor in the new chair of hygiene at the University of Innsbruck; the working conditions in the Institute of Hygiene were so poor, that Gruber attempted to resign his chair and find employment as head of a laboratory in München or at the Jenner Institute in London, under Joseph Lister. It was while in Vienna, that Gruber, with his English student Herbert Edward Durham, discovered the agglutination which gained him international fame. Gruber left Vienna in 1902, in October that year he succeeded Hans Buchner as director of the Institute for Hygiene in München.
He held the post until his voluntary retirement on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. In Vienna he was succeeded by Arthur Schattenfroh, who held the chair from 1905 to 1923. During his last years, Gruber concentrated on his duties as president of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. With Max Rubner and P. Martin Ficker he published the Handbuch der Hygiene. 6 volumes. As a leading racial hygienist, when he first met the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler he described him as: It was the first time I had seen Hitler close at hand. Face and head of inferior type, cross-breed. Expression not of a man exercising authority in perfect self-command, but of raving excitement. At the end an expression of satisfied egotism. Über die als «Kommabacillen» bezeichneten Vibrionen von Koch und Finkler-Prior. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1885, 35, Nos 9–10: 261–264, 1907–301. Referring to Robert Koch, who established a nonsporulating, comma-shaped bacillus to be the causative agent of cholera. Dittmar Finkler and J.
Prior isolated Vibrio proteus from stools in a case of acute gastro-enteritis. Über active und passive Immunität gegen Cholera und Typhus, sowie über die bacteriologische Diagnose der Cholera und des Typhus. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 1896, 9: Nos 11–12: 183–186, 204–209. 14. Congress für Innere Medizin. Wiesbaden, 1896. Verhandlungen des Kongresses für innere Medizin, 1896: 207–227. Neue Früchte der Ehrlich’schen Toxinlehre. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 1903, 16: 791–793. Hygiene des Geschlechtslebens. Stuttgart, 1903. Wirkungsweise und Ursprung der aktiven Stoffe in den präventiven und antitoxischen Seris. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 1903, 16: 1097–1105. Schulärzte. Munich, 1905. Die Pflicht, gesund zu sein. Stuttgart, 1909. Fortpflanzung, Vererbung und Rassenhygiene. With Ernst Rüdin. Munich, 1911. Einleitung. Handbuch der Hygiene, volume 2, 1. Geschichte der Entdeckung der spezifischen Agglutination. In Rudolf Kraus and Constantin Levaditi, editors: Handbuch der Technik und Methodik der Immunitätsforschung.
Jena, 1914, I: 150–154. Lord Lister und Deutschland. Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1927, 74: 592–593. Dankrede anlässlich der Feier seines 70. Geburtstages. Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 123: 70: 1038–1039. Hygiene of the sexual life Detailed Biography
Abrin is an toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea, Abrus precatorius. It has a median toxic dose of 0.7 micrograms per kilogram of body mass when given to mice intravenously. The median toxic dose for humans ranges from 10 to 1000 micrograms per kilogram when ingested and is 3.3 micrograms per kilogram when inhaled. Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant and pulchellin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the Abrus pulchellus tenuiflorus, it is classed as a "Select Agent" under U. S. law. Abrin is a water-soluble lectin. Abrin in powdered form is yellowish-white, it can withstand extreme environmental conditions. Though it is combustible, it does not polymerize and is not volatile. Abrin is not known to have been weaponised. Abrin occurs in the seeds of the rosary pea, a plant common to tropical regions, employed as an herbal remedy for certain conditions. While the outer shell of the seed protects its contents from the stomachs of most mammals, the seed coats are punctured to make beaded jewelry.
This can lead to poisoning if such jewelry is worn against damaged skin. Abrin has been shown to act as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of cancer in mice. Abrin works by inhibiting cell protein synthesis. By attaching to a carbohydrate chain on the cell surface, the abrin molecule anchors itself to the cell, is subsequently engulfed and enters the inner parts of the cell where it reacts with a ribosomal subunit and interferes with the normal protein synthesis process of the cell. Without these proteins, cells cannot survive; this is harmful to the human body and can be fatal in small exposures. The severity of the effects of abrin poisoning vary on the means of exposure to the substance. Exposure to abrin on the skin can cause an allergic reaction, indicated by blisters, redness and pain; the major symptoms of abrin poisoning depend on the route of exposure and the dose received, though many organs may be affected in severe cases. In general, symptoms can appear anywhere between several hours to several days after exposure.
Initial symptoms of abrin poisoning by inhalation may occur within 8 hours of exposure but a more typical time course is 18–24 hours. Following ingestion of abrin, initial symptoms occur but can take up to 5 days to appear; the signs and symptoms of exposure are caused by abrin's cytotoxic effects, killing cells in the kidney, adrenal glands, central nervous system. Within a few hours of inhaling abrin, common symptoms include fever, airway irritation, chest tightness, pulmonary edema, nausea; this makes breathing difficult, the skin might turn blue in a condition called cyanosis, putting the person in respiratory distress. Excess fluid in the lungs can be diagnosed by listening to the chest with a stethoscope; as the effects of abrin progress, a person can become diaphoretic and fluid can build up further. Their blood pressure may drop keeping oxygen from reaching the brain and other vital organs in a condition called shock, respiratory failure may occur, which can be fatal within 36 to 72 hours.
If an exposure to abrin by inhalation is not fatal, the airway can irritated. Swallowing any amount of abrin can lead to severe symptoms. Early symptoms include nausea, pain in the mouth and esophagus, diarrhea and abdominal cramps and pain; as the symptoms progress and inflammation begins in the gastrointestinal tract. The affected person can vomit up blood, have blood in their feces, which creates a black, tarry stool called melena, more internal bleeding. Loss of blood volume and water from nausea, vomiting and bleeding causes blood pressure to drop and organ damage to begin, which can be seen as the person begins to have somnolence/drowsiness, stupor, convulsions and oliguria; this results in multi-system organ failure, hypovolemic shock, vascular collapse, death. Abrin can be absorbed through broken skin or absorbed through the skin if dissolved in certain solvents, it can be injected in small pellets and absorbed through contact with the eyes. Abrin in the powder or mist form can cause pain in the eyes in small doses.
Small doses absorbed through the eyes can cause tearing. Higher doses can cause tissue damage, severe bleeding at the back of the eye, vision impairment or blindness. A large enough dose can lead to systemic toxicity; because no antidote exists for abrin, the most important factor is avoiding abrin exposure in the first place. If exposure cannot be avoided, the most important factor is getting the abrin off or out of the body as as possible. Abrin exposure can be prevented when it is present in large quantities by wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Abrin poisoning is treated with supportive care to minimize the effects of the poisoning; this care varies based on the time since exposure. For recent ingestion, administration of activated charcoal and gastric lavage are both options. Using an emetic is not a useful treatment. In cases of eye exposure, flush
Baron Kitasato Shibasaburō was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the infectious agent of bubonic plague in Hong Kong in 1894 simultaneously with Alexandre Yersin. Kitasato was nominated for the first annual Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901. Kitasato and Emil von Behring, working together in Berlin in 1890, announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum. Von Behring was awarded the 1901 Nobel Prize because of this work. Kitasato was born in Higo Province, he was educated at Tokyo Imperial University. He studied under Dr. Robert Koch in the University of Berlin from 1885 to 1891. In 1889, he became the first person to grow the tetanus bacillus in pure culture, in 1890 cooperated with Emil von Behring in developing a serum therapy for tetanus using this pure culture, he worked on antitoxins for diphtheria and anthrax. Kitasato and Behring demonstrated the value of antitoxin in preventing disease by causing passive immunity to tetanus in an animal that received graded injections of blood serum from another animal infected with the disease.
After returning to Japan in 1891, he founded the Institute for Study of Infectious Diseases with the assistance of Fukuzawa Yukichi. One of his early assistants was August von Wassermann. Kitasato demonstrated, he studied the mode of infection in tuberculosis. He traveled to Hong Kong in 1894 at the request of the Japanese government during an outbreak of the bubonic plague, identified a bacterium that he concluded was causing the disease. Yersin, working separately, found the same organism several days later; because Kitasato's initial reports were vague and somewhat contradictory, some scientific historians give Yersin sole credit for the discovery. However, a thorough analysis of the morphology of the organism discovered by Kitasato by microbiologists determined that although his samples became contaminated leading to the conflicting reports from his laboratory, there is "little doubt that Kitasato did isolate and reasonably characterize the plague bacillus" in Hong Kong and "should not be denied this credit".
Four years Kitasato and his student Shiga Kiyoshi were able to isolate and describe the organism that caused dysentery. When the Institute for Infectious Diseases was incorporated into Tokyo Imperial University in 1914, he resigned in protest and founded the Kitasato Institute, which he headed for the rest of his life. In September 1921, Kitasato founded, together with several medical scientists, the Sekisen Ken-onki Corporation, with the intention of manufacturing the most reliable clinical thermometer possible; the company was renamed Terumo Corporation. Kitasato was the first dean of medicine at Keio University, first president of the Japan Medical Association, served on the House of Peers, he was ennobled with the title of danshaku in the kazoku peerage system in February 1924. Kitasato died of an intracranial hemorrhage at his home in Azabu, Tokyo, on June 13, 1931, his grave is at the Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo. Kitasato flask, laboratory glassware named in his honor Kitasatospora, an Actinobacteria genus named after Kitasato Shibasaburō Satoshi Ōmura Sri Kantha, S.
A Centennial review. Keio Journal of Medicine, March 1991, 40: 35-39. Sri Kantha, S; the legacy of von Behring and Kitasato. Immunology Today, Sept.1992, 13: 374. Kyle, Robert A. Shibasaburo Kitasato-Japanese bacteriologist. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1999 Orent, Wendy. Plague: The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World's Most Dangerous Disease. Free Press 2004, ISBN 0-7432-3685-8 Porter, Roy. Blood and Guts: A Short History of Medicine. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32569-5 Kitasato University homepage Portraits of Modern Japanese Historical Figures
Paul Ehrlich was a Nobel prize-winning German-Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology and antimicrobial chemotherapy. He is credited with finding a cure for syphilis in 1909, he invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases, his laboratory discovered arsphenamine, the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis, thereby initiating and naming the concept of chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularized the concept of a magic bullet, he made a decisive contribution to the development of an antiserum to combat diphtheria and conceived a method for standardizing therapeutic serums. In 1908, he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his contributions to immunology, he was the founder and first director of. Born 14 March 1854 in Strehlen in Silesia in what is now south-west Poland. Paul Ehrlich was the second child of Ismar Ehrlich.
His father was an innkeeper and distiller of liqueurs and the royal lottery collector in Strehelen, a town of some 5,000 inhabitants in the province of Lower Silesia, now in Poland. His grandfather, Heymann Ehrlich, had been a successful distiller and tavern manager. Ismar Ehrlich was the leader of the local Jewish community. After elementary school, Paul attended the time-honored secondary school Maria-Magdalenen-Gymnasium in Breslau, where he met Albert Neisser, who became a professional colleague; as a schoolboy, he became fascinated by the process of staining microscopic tissue substances. He retained that interest during his subsequent medical studies at the universities of Breslau, Freiburg im Breisgau and Leipzig. After obtaining his doctorate in 1882, he worked at the Charité in Berlin as an assistant medical director under Theodor Frerichs, the founder of experimental clinical medicine, focusing on histology and color chemistry, he married Hedwig Pinkus in 1883. The couple had two daughters and Marianne.
After completing his clinical education and habilitation at the prominent Charité medical school and teaching hospital in Berlin in 1886, Ehrlich traveled to Egypt and other countries in 1888 and 1889, in part to cure a case of tuberculosis which he had contracted in the laboratory. Upon his return he established a private medical practice and small laboratory in Berlin-Steglitz. In 1891, Robert Koch invited Ehrlich to join the staff at his Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases, where in 1896 a new branch, the Institute for Serum Research and Testing, was established for Ehrlich's specialization. Ehrlich was named its founding director. In 1899 his institute moved to Frankfurt am Main and was renamed the Institute of Experimental Therapy. One of his important collaborators there was Max Neisser. In 1904, Ehrlich received a full position of honorary professor from the University of Göttingen. In 1906 Ehrlich became the director of the Georg Speyer House in Frankfurt, a private research foundation affiliated with his institute.
Here he discovered in 1909 the first drug to be targeted against a specific pathogen: Salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis, at that time one of the most lethal and infectious diseases in Europe. Among the foreign guest scientists working with Ehrlich were two Nobel Prize winners, Henry Hallett Dale and Paul Karrer; the institute was renamed Paul Ehrlich Institute in Ehrlich's honour in 1947. In 1914 Ehrlich signed the controversial Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, a defense of Germany's World War I politics and militarism. On 17 August 1915 Ehrlich died on 20 August in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe. Wilhelm II the German emperor, wrote in a telegram of condolence, “I, along with the entire civilized world, mourn the death of this meritorious researcher for his great service to medical science and suffering humanity. Paul Ehrlich was buried at Frankfurt. In the early 1870s, Ehrlich's cousin Karl Weigert was the first person to stain bacteria with dyes and to introduce aniline pigments for histological studies and bacterial diagnostics.
During his studies in Strassburg under the anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer, Ehrlich continued the research started by his cousin in pigments and staining tissues for microscopic study. He spent his eighth university semester in Freiburg im Breisgau investigating the red dye dahlia, giving rise to his first publication. In 1878 he followed his dissertation supervisor Julius Friedrich Cohnheim to Leipzig, that year obtained a doctorate with a dissertation entitled "Contributions to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining". One of the most outstanding results of his dissertation investigations was the discovery of a new cell type. Ehrlich discovered in the protoplasm of supposed plasma cells a granulate which could be made visible with the help of an alkaline dye, he thought this granulate was a sign of good nourishment, accordingly named these cells mast cells. This focus on chemistry was unusual for a medical dissertation. In it, Ehrlich presented the entire spectrum of known staining techniques and the chemistry of the pigments employed
Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet was a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist. The bacterial genus Bordetella is named after him; the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to him in 1919 for his discoveries relating to immunity. Bordet was born at Belgium, he graduated as Doctor of Medicine from the Free University of Brussels in 1892 and began his work at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in 1894, in the laboratory of Elie Metchnikoff, who had just discovered phagocytosis of bacteria by white blood cells, an expression of cellular immunity. In 1895 Bordet made his discovery that the bacteriolytic effect of acquired specific antibody is enhanced in vivo by the presence of innate serum components which he termed alexine. Four years in 1899, he described a similar destructive process involving complement, "hemolysis", in which foreign red blood cells are ruptured or "lysed" following exposure to immune serum. In 1900, he left Paris to found the Pasteur Institute in Brussels but continued to work extensively on the mechanisms involved in the action of complement.
These studies became the basis for complement-fixation testing methods that enabled the development of serological tests for syphilis. The same technique is used today in serologic testing for countless other diseases. With Octave Gengou, he isolated Bordetella pertussis in pure culture in 1906 and posited it as the cause of whooping cough, he became Professor of Bacteriology at the Université Libre de Bruxelles in 1907. In March 1916, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society and in 1930, delivered their Croonian Lecture. In this lecture, Bordet concluded that bacteriophages, the bacteria-killing "invisible viruses" discovered by Felix d'Herelle did not exist and that bacteria destroyed themselves using a process of autolysis; this theory collapsed in 1941 with the publication by Ruska of the first electron microscope pictures of bacteriophages. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to him in 1919 for his discoveries relating to immunity. Bordet was interred in the Ixelles Cemetery in Brussels.
1919: Member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. The Bordet railway station in Brussels is named after him. Jules Bordet Studies in Immunity, John Wiley & Sons, link from Internet Archive. Works by or about Jules Bordet at Internet Archive a longer Biography page at Jules Bordet Institute The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919 Jules Bordet Institute Jules Bordet at Find a Grave
B cells known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Additionally, B cells present secrete cytokines. In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, at the core of most bones. In birds, B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ.. B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and natural killer cells, express B cell receptors on their cell membrane. BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a specific antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response. B cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells. HSCs first differentiate into multipotent progenitor cells common lymphoid progenitor cells. From here, their development into B cells occurs in several stages, each marked by various gene expression patterns and immunoglobulin H chain and L chain gene loci arrangements, the latter due to B cells undergoing VJ recombination as they develop.
B cells undergo two types of selection while developing in the bone marrow to ensure proper development. Positive selection occurs through antigen-independent signaling involving both the pre-BCR and the BCR. If these receptors do not bind to their ligand, B cells do not receive the proper signals and cease to develop. Negative selection occurs through the binding of self-antigen with the BCR; this negative selection process leads to a state of central tolerance, in which the mature B cells don't bind with self antigens present in the bone marrow. To complete development, immature B cells migrate from the bone marrow into the spleen as transitional B cells, passing through two transitional stages: T1 and T2. Throughout their migration to the spleen and after spleen entry, they are considered T1 B cells. Within the spleen, T1 B cells transition to T2 B cells. T2 B cells differentiate into either follicular B cells or marginal zone B cells depending on signals received through the BCR and other receptors.
Once differentiated, they are now considered naive B cells. B cell activation occurs in the secondary lymphoid organs, such as the lymph nodes. After B cells mature in the bone marrow, they migrate through the blood to SLOs, which receive a constant supply of antigen through circulating lymph. At the SLO, B cell activation begins when the B cell binds to an antigen via its BCR. Although the events taking place after activation have yet to be determined, it is believed that B cells are activated in accordance with the kinetic segregation model determined in T lymphocytes; this model denotes that before antigen stimulation, receptors diffuse through the membrane coming into contact with Lck and CD45 in equal frequency, rendering a net equilibrium of phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation. It is only when the cell comes in contact with an antigen presenting cell that the larger CD45 is displaced due to the close distance between the two membranes; this allows for net phosphorylation of the BCR and the initiation of the signal transduction pathway.
Of the three B cell subsets, FO B cells preferentially undergo T cell-dependent activation while MZ B cells and B1 B cells preferentially undergo T cell-independent activation. B cell activation is enhanced through the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81; when a BCR binds an antigen tagged with a fragment of the C3 complement protein, CD21 binds the C3 fragment, co-ligates with the bound BCR, signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. It has been shown that CD20 is directly required for BCR signalling in B cells, therapeutically used anti-CD20 antibodies such rituximab eliminate the B cells that have a high potential for activation of the BCR signalling pathway, it has been described that BCR signalling and B cell activation is inhibited by p53 stabilization during DNA damage response. Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent antigens and include foreign proteins.
They are named as such because they are unable to induce a humoral response in organisms that lack T cells. B cell response to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more functionally versatile than those generated from T cell-independent activation. Once a BCR binds a TD antigen, the antigen is taken up into the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and presented to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane. T helper cells follicular T helper cells, that were activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor. Following TCR-MHC-II-peptide binding, T cells express the surface protein CD40L as well as cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-21. CD40L serves as a necessary co-stimulatory factor for B cell activation by binding the B cell surface receptor CD40, which promotes B cell proliferation, immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation as well as sustains T cell growth and differentiation.
T cell-derived cytokines bound
Emil von Behring
Emil von Behring, born as Emil Adolf Behring, was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. He was known as a "saviour of children," as diphtheria used to be a major cause of child death, he was honored with Prussian nobility in 1901, henceforth being known by the surname "von Behring." Behring was born in Kreis Rosenberg, Province of Prussia. His father was a schoolmaster. Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Akademie in Berlin, an academy for military doctors, since his family could not afford the university; as a military doctor, he studied the action of iodoform. In 1888, he became an assistant at the institute of Robert Koch in Berlin. In 1890 he published an article with Kitasato Shibasaburō reporting that they had developed "antitoxins" against both diphtheria and tetanus, they had injected diphtheria and tetanus toxins into guinea-pigs and horses. These antitoxins could cure the diseases in non-immunized animals.
In 1892 he started the first human trials of the diphtheria antitoxin. Successful treatment started in 1894, after the production and quantification of antitoxin had been optimized. In 1895 he became Professor of Hygienics within the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Marburg, a position he would hold for the rest of his life, he and the pharmacologist Hans Horst Meyer had their laboratories in the same building, Behring stimulated Meyer's interest in the mode of action of tetanus toxin. Behring won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901 for the development of serum therapies against diphtheria, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1902. In 1904 he founded the Behringwerke in a company to produced antitoxins and vaccines. At the International Tuberculosis Congress in 1905 he announced that he had discovered "a substance proceeding from the virus of tuberculosis." This substance, which he designated "T C," plays the important part in the immunizing action of his "bovivaccine", which prevents bovine tuberculosis.
He tried unsuccessfully to obtain a therapeutic agents for humans. Behring died at Marburg, Hessen-Nassau, on 31 March 1917, his name survived in the Dade Behring organisation, in CSL Behring, a manufacturer of plasma-derived biotherapies, in Novartis Behring and in the Emil von Behring Prize of the University of Marburg, the highest endowed medicine award in Germany. His Nobel Prize medal is now kept on display at the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum in Geneva. Von Behring is believed to have cheated Paul Ehrlich out of recognition and financial reward in relation to collaborative research in diphtheria; the two men developed a diphtheria serum by injecting the deadly toxin into a horse. The serum was used during an epidemic in Germany. A chemical company preparing to undertake commercial production and marketing of the diphtheria serum offered a contract to both men, but von Behring maneuvered to claim all the considerable financial rewards for himself. To add insult to injury, only Behring received the first Nobel Prize in Medicine, in 1901, for his contributions.
In December, 29th, 1896, Behring married the twenty-year-old Else Spinola, a daughter of Bernhard Spinola, the director of the Charité hospital in Berlin, a Jewish-born mother - Elise Spinola, born Bendix - who had converted to Christianity upon her marriage. They had six sons, they held their honeymoon at villa "Behring" on Capri 1897. In 1909–1911, the Russian writer Maxim Gorky lived at this villa. Die Blutserumtherapie Die Geschichte der Diphtherie Bekämpfung der Infektionskrankheiten Beiträge zur experimentellen Therapie E. v. Behring's Gesammelte Abhandlungen Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf German inventors and discoverers Kornelia Grundmann. "Emil von Behring: The founder of serum therapy". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-07-21; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Ulrike Enke: Salvatore dell'Infanzia Behring and Capri Christoph Hans Gerhard: Trias deutschen Forschergeistes Emil von Behring Pflaum-Verlag / Munich Naturheilpraxis 71.
Jahrgang January, 2018 www.uni-marburg.de/behring-digital Newspaper clippings about Emil von Behring in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics