Ozias Humphry was a leading English painter of portrait miniatures oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King. Humphry is the spelling Ozias himself used in his signature on the backing card of his miniature of Charlotte, Princess Royal; this is the spelling given in the catalogues of the annual exhibitions of the Royal Academy from 1779 to 1795. The different spelling in the far more common form of Humphrey may well be due to a mistake but was in use during his own lifetime, it appears thus in the Royal Academy catalogues for the years 1796 and 1797 as well as in the writings of Horace Walpole and John Thomas Smith. Humphry is the used spelling today. Born and schooled in Honiton, Humphry was attracted by the gallery of casts opened by the Duke of Richmond and came to London to study art at Shipley's school, he studied art in Bath. As a young artist, he found his talent encouraged by Thomas Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds, among others.
His problems with his sight, which led to blindness, began in the early 1770s and forced him to paint larger works in oils and pastel. He traveled to Italy in 1773 with his great friend George Romney, stopping en route at Knole, near Sevenoaks in Kent, where the Duke of Dorset commissioned several works from him, his stay in Italy lasted until 1777. On his return, his numerous subjects included George Stubbs, fellow academician Dominic Serres, the chemist Joseph Priestley, a portrait claimed to be of the teenage Jane Austen, from as early as 1790, known as the "Rice" portrait after a owner, though this has always been a controversial attribution of the sitter; this failed to reach its minimum estimate in a Christie's auction in April 2007, was withdrawn from sale. His pupils included John Opie, he compiled a fifty-page manuscript A Memoir of George Stubbs, based on what Stubbs had related to him. This was edited and published in the 1870s and republished in 2005, he knew William Blake and commissioned copies of some of his illustrated books.
At least one of Blake's letters to him is a significant document for Blake's biographers. From 1785 to 1787, he travelled to India, producing many sketches, he was elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1791. In 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King. Most of his many portraits of the Royal Family are still in the Royal Collection, his sight failed in 1797, he died in 1810 in Hampstead, north London. The bulk of his possessions came into the hands of his natural son, William Upcott, the book collector. From him the British Museum acquired a large number of papers relating to Humphry, he is alluded to in some lines by Hayley. Humphry is said to be the painter of the Rice portrait of Jane Austen, although both the attribution and the identity of the sitter are disputed; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Humphry, Ozias". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. 10 paintings by or after Ozias Humphry at the Art UK site 7 works by Humphry from the National Portrait Gallery Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections
Humphry Repton was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century regarded as the successor to Capability Brown. His first name is incorrectly rendered "Humphrey". In 2018, the bicentenary of Repton's death, several groups held events throughout the United Kingdom to celebrate his work. Repton was born in Bury St Edmunds, the son of a collector of excise, John Repton, Martha. In 1762 his father set up a transport business in Norwich, where Humphry attended Norwich Grammar School. At age twelve he was sent to the Netherlands to prepare for a career as a merchant. However, Repton was befriended by a wealthy Dutch family and the trip may have done more to stimulate his interest in'polite' pursuits such as sketching and gardening. Returning to Norwich, Repton was apprenticed to a textile merchant after marriage to Mary Clarke in 1773, set up in the business himself, he was not successful, when his parents died in 1778 used his modest legacy to move to a small country estate at Sustead, near Aylsham in Norfolk.
Repton tried his hand as a journalist, artist, political agent, as confidential secretary to his neighbour William Windham of Felbrigg Hall during Windham's brief stint as Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Repton joined John Palmer in a venture to reform the mail-coach system, but while the scheme made Palmer's fortune, Repton again lost money. Repton's childhood friend was James Edward Smith, who encouraged him to study gardening, he was given access to the library of Windham to read its works on botany. His capital dwindling, Repton moved to a modest cottage at Hare Street near Romford in Essex. In 1788, aged 36 and with four children and no secure income, he hit on the idea of combining his sketching skills with his limited experience of laying out grounds at Sustead to become a'landscape gardener'. Since the death of Capability Brown in 1783, no one figure dominated English garden design, he was at first an avid defender of Brown's views, contrasted with those of Richard Payne Knight and Uvedale Price, but adopted a moderate position.
His first paid commission was Catton Park, to the north of Norwich, in 1788. That Repton, with no real experience of practical horticulture, became an overnight success, is a tribute to his undeniable talent, but to the unique way he presented his work. To help clients visualise his designs, Repton produced'Red Books' with explanatory text and watercolours with a system of overlays to show'before' and'after' views. In this he differed from Capability Brown, who worked exclusively with plans and illustrated or wrote about his work. Repton's overlays were soon copied by the Philadelphian Bernard M'Mahon in his 1806 American Gardener's Calendar. To understand what was unique about Repton it is useful to examine how he differed from Brown in more detail. Brown worked for many of the wealthiest aristocrats in Britain, carving huge landscape parks out of old formal gardens and agricultural land. While Repton worked for important clients, such as the Dukes of Bedford and Portland, he was fine-tuning earlier work that of Brown himself.
Where Repton got the chance to lay out grounds from scratch it was on a much more modest scale. On these smaller estates, where Brown would have surrounded the park with a continuous perimeter belt, Repton cut vistas through to'borrowed' items such as church towers, making them seem part of the designed landscape, he contrived approach drives and lodges to enhance impressions of size and importance, introduced monogrammed milestones on the roads around some estates, for which he was satirised by Thomas Love Peacock as'Marmaduke Milestone, esquire, a Picturesque Landscape Gardener' in Headlong Hall. Around 1787, Richard Page, landowner of Sudbury, to the west of Wembley decided to convert the Page family home'Wellers' into a country seat and turn the fields around it into a private estate. In 1792 Page employed Humphry Repton, by famous as a landscape architect, to convert the previous farmland into wooded parkland and to make improvements to the house. Repton called the areas he landscaped'parks', so it is to Repton that Wembley Park owes its name.
The original site that Repton so transformed was built on in the construction of the short-lived Watkin's Tower. The area landscaped by Repton was larger than the current Wembley Park, it included the southern slopes of Barn Hill to the north, where Repton planted trees and started building a'prospect house' – a gothic tower offering a view over the parkland. Repton may have designed the thatched lodge that survives on Wembley Hill Road, to the west of Wembley Park, it is in the cottage orné style used by Repton. Regrettably, Repton's Red Book for Wembley Park, which would give a definitive answer, has not survived. Capability Brown was a large-scale contractor, who not only designed, but arranged the realisation of his work. By contrast, Repton acted as a consultant, charging for his Red Books and sometimes staking out the ground, but leaving his client to arrange the actual execution, thus many of Repton's 400 or so designs remained wholly or unexecuted and, while Brown became wealthy, Repton's income was never more than comfortable.
Early in his career, Repton defended Brown's reputation during the'picturesque controversy'. In 1794 R
Victor Humphry Knipe is a sociology and history author, adult film writer and website administrator. He is a co-author of The Dominant Man: The Pecking Order in Human Society, a sociology book, translated into five languages, the sole author of The Nero Prediction, a historic novel about Emperor Nero and astrology, which won the 2006 Independent Publisher Book Award for "Best Historical Fiction." Humphry Knipe was born in Kimberley, South Africa, on 20 September 1941. He graduated Rhodes University majoring in English, he moved to England in the 1960s, where he met erotic photographer Suze Randall. They immigrated to Los Angeles in 1975, wrote about their experiences in Hugh Hefner's Playboy Mansion in the book Suze. In the 1980s, Knipe wrote and directed several Suze Randall produced pornographic films under the nom de porn Victor Nye; the couple now reside in Malibu, where he manages Randall's erotic web sites, administers much of the business of Suze Randall Productions as Haaren Enterprises, Ltd. using his first name, Victor Knipe.
They have three children, including daughter Holly Randall, an erotic photographer who assists in the business. The Dominant Man: The Pecking Order in Human Society, with George Maclay, 1972, ISBN 0-285-62028-2 Suze, with Suze Randall, 1977, ISBN 0-900735-42-2 The Nero Prediction, 2005, ISBN 0-9760822-2-5 Star Virgin Kiss and Tell aka KOCK-FM 69 Miss Passion Love Bites Too Naughty to Say No Sky Foxes Erotic Eye aka Suze Randall's Erotic Eye The Nero Prediction Author's website dedicated to the book. Humphry Knipe on IMDb Victor Nye on IMDb Amazon.com Profile and Blog Includes short autobiography
Humphry Marshall was an American botanist and plant dealer. Humphry Marshall was born at Derbydown Homestead in the village of Marshallton, Pennsylvania on October 10, 1722, he was the cousin of botanists John William Bartram. Like many early American botanists, he was a Quaker. Marshall received the rudiments of an English education, was apprenticed to the business of a stonemason, which trade he subsequently followed. Soon after his marriage in 1748 to Sarah Pennock he took charge of his father's farm, about that time began to devote his attention to astronomy and natural history, building a small observatory in one corner of his residence, he specialized early after gaining his enthusiasm for botany from John Bartram. In 1767 he came into the possession of the family estate, in 1773 he created a botanical garden at Marshallton with both native and exotic plants; this was the second in the United States. As late as 1849, many of the plants still survived, although neglect had turned the garden into a mere wilderness.
In 1785, Marshall published "Arbustrum Americanum: The American Grove, an Alphabetical Catalogue of Forest Trees and Shrubs, Natives of the American United States". For many years, he was trustee of the public loan office. In 1768, he was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society, he was a member of other scientific societies. Marshall's first wife died in 1786, he had no children by either wife. In his years, he was blinded by cataracts. Marshall died on November 5, 1801. In 1848 the Borough of West Chester named the public square the Marshall Square in his honor. Marshall has been called the "Father of American Dendrology". A genus of plants, was named in honor of Humphry Marshall and his nephew Moses Marshall a botanist. Marshall Square Park in the Borough of West Chester, Pennsylvania, is four miles east of Marshallton where Humphry Marshall was born. On June 27, 2007 — proclaimed Humphry Marshall Day by Borough Mayor, Dick Yoder — a long-overdue marker honoring the Park's namesake was unveiled.
American Philosophical Society: Humphry Marshall USDA: Papers of Humphry Marshall Humphry Marshall Page at the Wayback Machine —accessed 25 May 2006 Marshall Square Park Historical Marker database HMdb - Humphry Marshall
Derek Humphry is a British-born American journalist and author notable as a proponent of legal assisted suicide and the right to die philosophy. In 1980, he co-founded the Hemlock Society and, in 2004, after that organization dissolved, he co-founded the Final Exit Network. From 1988 to 1990, he was president of the World Federation of Right to Die Societies and is the current president of the Euthanasia Research & Guidance Organization, he is the author several related books, including Jean's Way, The Right to Die: Understanding Euthanasia, Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide for the Dying. Since 1978, Derek Humphry has lived in the United States. Born to a British father and an Irish mother, he was raised in Somerset, his education was slender because of a broken home followed by World War II, when many English schools were in chaos leaving at the age of 15, when he became a messenger boy for the Yorkshire Post. In a 30-year journalistic career Humphry worked and wrote for the Bristol Evening World, the Manchester Evening News, the Daily Mail, the Sunday Times and, the Los Angeles Times.
His first wife, Jean Humphry, ended her life on 29 March 1975, in The Cotswolds with her husband at her side, with an intentional overdose of medication. He told that story from his perspective in the best-selling Jean's Way. Derek and Jean Humphry had the youngest one an adoptee. Humphry wrote the 1991 suicide handbook, Final Exit. From 1993 onwards Humphry has been president of the Euthanasia Research & Guidance Organization, chairs the advisory board of the new Final Exit Network, his marriage to his next wife, Ann Wickett, an American and a co-founder of the Hemlock Society, ended in 1989 when she filed for divorce. Ann Wickett committed suicide, at the age of 49 on 2 October 1991, during a recurrence of depression and Borderline Personality Disorder, she had been battling breast cancer, but the cancer was in remission and she was not considered "terminally ill". In her suicide note, she claimed that Humphry was a "killer" and that his first wife, had died of suffocation, he denied these allegations as groundless.
In early 1990 Humphry married Gretchen Crocker, youngest daughter of an Oregon farming family. Humphry is an advisor to the World Federation of Right to Die Societies by virtue of his past presidency and in appreciation of his 26 years of involvement with that organization. Since it was founded in 2004, Humphry has been an adviser to the Final Exit Network. After four members of the organization were accused in Georgia of assisting a suicide he launched the Final Exit Liberty Fund which paid most of their legal costs. In 2014 Derek Humphry was given the World Federation of Right To Die Societies "Lifetime Achievement Award" for'contributing so much, so long and so courageously to our right to a peaceful death; the award was presented by world president Faye Girsh at the 20th international conference in Chicago on 9/19/2014. It is the first time. Humphry was newsletter editor for the World Federation of Right to Die Societies for a number of years; as of 2016, the paperback Final Exit was in print in English and Italian.
It has sold more than one million copies in twelve languages since 1991. In April 2007 the editors and book critics of USA Today selected Final Exit as one of the most memorable 25 books of the last quarter century. In 2017 he published his life story, Good Life, Good Death: The Memoir of a Right To Die Pioneer Because They're Black, ISBN 978-0140216240. By John Sutherland/ Arrow Books 2008. NOTE: For a full and independent biography of Derek Humphry, see Current Biography, Volume 56, Number 3, March 1995 Good Life, Good Death Assisted Suicide.org website Bowker Biography on Derek Humphry Amazon Bibliography for Derek Humphry In Search of Gentle Death on YouTube
Humphry John Moule Bowen was a British botanist and chemist. Bowen was born in son of the chemist Edmund Bowen, he attended the Dragon School, gaining a scholarship to Rugby School and a demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. He won the Gibbs Prize in 1949 and completed a DPhil in chemistry at Oxford University in 1953 before starting his professional career as a chemist. Bowen was a proficient amateur actor in his early years, appearing with a young Ronnie Barker at Oxford, his first post was with the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, working at the Wantage Research Laboratory in Berkshire. His early work started an interest in radioisotopes and trace elements that he maintained throughout his working life. While at AERE, he spent several months in 1956 attending the British nuclear tests at Maralinga in Australia to study the environmental effects of radiation. Bowen realised that the calibration of different instruments intended to measure trace elements was an important issue that needed addressing.
His solution was to produce a good supply of a material which become known as Bowen's Kale. With Peter Cawse, he grew a large amount of the plant kale dried and crushed it into a homogeneous and stable substance that he freely distributed to researchers around the world for years to come; this was the first successful example of such a standard. In 1964, he was appointed as a lecturer in the chemistry department at the University of Reading, he was promoted to Reader in analytical chemistry in 1974. At Reading, Bowen undertook consultancy for Dunlop; when the Torrey Canyon oil disaster occurred in 1967, he realised that it might be possible to use foam booms to block the oil from spreading in the English Channel. His original experiments were conducted in a small bucket in his laboratory. Although not successful in reality at the time due to the rough seas, this lateral thinking combined his interest in chemistry with his love of nature and has since been deployed to protect ports and harbours against encroaching oil slicks.
Bowen wrote a number of professional books in the field of chemistry, including two editions of Trace elements in Biochemistry. From 1951 onwards, Bowen was a long-serving member of the Botanical Society of the British Isles, he was meetings secretary for a period and the official recorder of plants for the counties of Berkshire and Dorset, producing Floras for both counties. He retired to Winterborne Kingston in Dorset at the end of his life, he was one of the leading contributors of botanical data for the Flora of Oxfordshire. He acted as an expert botanical guide on tours around Europe Greece. Humphry Bowen donated a large collection of lichens from Berkshire and Oxfordshire to the Museum of Reading in the 1970s, he established the Bowen Cup at the University of Reading in 1988, an annual prize for the student in the Department of Chemistry at the University who achieves the top marks in Part II Analytical Chemistry. Bowen's Jonathan Bowen, a computer scientist. George Claridge Druce, the Victorian botanist who wrote floras for more than one county.
Tottles. H. J. M. Bowen, Trace Elements in Biochemistry. Academic Press, 1966. H. J. M. Bowen, Properties of Solids and their Structures. McGraw-Hill, 1967. H. J. M. Bowen, Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. Academic Press, 1979. ISBN 0-12-120450-2. Media related to Humphry Bowen at Wikimedia Commons
Masculinity is a set of attributes and roles associated with boys and men. As a social construct, it is distinct from the definition of the male biological sex. Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across historical periods. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior. Traits traditionally viewed as masculine in Eastern and Western society include strength, independence, leadership and assertiveness. Machismo is a form of masculinity that emphasizes power and is associated with a disregard for consequences and responsibility. Virility is similar to masculinity, but emphasizes strength and sex drive. Masculine qualities and roles are considered typical of, appropriate for, expected of boys and men; the concept of masculinity varies and culturally. Masculine norms, as described in Ronald F. Levant's Masculinity Reconstructed, are "avoidance of femininity; these norms reinforce gender roles by associating characteristics with one gender. The academic study of masculinity received increased attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the number of courses on the subject in the United States rising from 30 to over 300.
This has sparked investigation of the intersection of masculinity with other axes of social discrimination and concepts from other fields, such as the social construction of gender difference. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior; those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification. Since what constitutes masculinity has varied by time and place, according to Raewyn Connell, it is more appropriate to discuss "masculinities" than a single overarching concept. Study of the history of masculinity emerged during the 1980s, aided by the fields of women's and gender history. Before women's history was examined, there was a "strict gendering of the public/private divide". Although women's historical role was negated, despite the writing of history by men, a significant portion of the male experience was missing; this void was questioned during the late 1970s, when women's history began to analyze gender and women to deepen the female experience.
Joan Scott's seminal article, calling for gender studies as an analytical concept to explore society and discourse, laid the foundation for this field. According to Scott, gender should be used in two ways: productive and produced. Productive gender examined its role in creating power relationships, produced gender explored the use and change of gender throughout history; this has influenced the field of masculinity, as seen in Pierre Bourdieu's definition of masculinity: produced by society and culture, reproduced in daily life. A flurry of work in women's history led to a call for study of the male role in society and emotional and interpersonal life. Connell wrote that these initial works were marked by a "high level of generality" in "broad surveys of cultural norms"; the scholarship was aware of contemporary societal changes aiming to understand and evolve the male role in response to feminism. John Tosh calls for a return to this aim for the history of masculinity to be useful, academically and in the public sphere.
Ancient literature dates back to about 3000 BC, with explicit expectations for men in the form of laws and implied masculine ideals in myths of gods and heroes. In the Hebrew Bible of 1000 BC, King David of Israel told his son, "I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, shew thyself a man. Throughout history, men have met exacting cultural standards. Kate Cooper wrote about ancient concepts of femininity, "Wherever a woman is mentioned a man's character is being judged – and along with it what he stands for." According to the Code of Hammurabi: Rule 3: "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death." Rule 128: "If a man takes a woman to wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him."Scholars cite integrity and equality as masculine values in male-male relationships and virility in male-female relationships. Legends of ancient heroes include the Epic of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The stories demonstrate qualities in the hero which inspire respect, such as wisdom and courage: knowing things other men do not know and taking risks other men would not dare. Jeffrey Richards describes a European "medieval masculinity, Christian and chivalric". Courage, respect for women of all classes and generosity characterize the portrayal of men in literary history; the Anglo-Saxons Hengest and Horsa and Beowulf are examples of medieval masculine ideals. According to David Rosen, the traditional view of scholars that Beowulf is a tale of medieval heroism overlooks the similarities between Beowulf and the monster Grendel; the masculinity exemplified by Beowulf "cut men off from women, other men and the household". During the Victorian era, masculinity underwent a transformation from tradition