Pottstown is a borough in Montgomery County, United States about 40 miles northwest of Philadelphia and 20 miles southeast of Reading, on the Schuylkill River. Pottstown was named Pottsgrove in honor of its founder, John Potts; the old name was abandoned at the time of the incorporation as a borough in 1815. In 1888, the limits of the borough were extended. Pottstown is the center of dairying region. Pottstown's iron and steel interests were once extensive. There were large rolling mills, nail works, textile mills, bridge works, agricultural-implement works and machine shops and manufactories of bricks, shirts, etc. In 1900, 13,696 people lived there; the population was 22,377 at the 2010 census. Modern-day Pottstown is on land deeded to William Penn. Germans and English were among the area's first European settlers. After establishment of the first iron forge in 1714, Pottstown's fortunes became tied to the iron industry. Blast furnaces for production of iron and steel opened in the area. Iron and steel production attracted iron masters by trade.
They built a large home just west of the Manatawny Creek. John Potts founded a town in 1761 on part of the 995 acres, it is the home of Pottstown Roller Mill. Over time, Pottsgrove grew, in 1815 it was incorporated under the name Pottstown, becoming the second borough in Pennsylvania, after Norristown; the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad mainline reached Pottstown in 1838. The extension of the railroad to Mount Carbon in 1842 facilitated the movement of raw materials and finished goods that helped Pottstown's economy grow. In a few years after the extension of the railroad, the population grew from 600 to 1,850. Pottstown's metal production grew. In 1944, the borough adopted a city manager form of government. By 1964, the borough saw the need to reorganize the municipal government. At the time, it had one of the largest borough councils in the state, with 20 members; this was reduced to seven members in redrawn wards. The High Street Historic District, Old Pottstown Historic District, Pottsgrove Mansion, Grubb Mansion, Jefferson Elementary School, Pottstown Roller Mill, Reading Railroad Pottstown Station, Henry Antes House are on the National Register of Historic Places.
Pottstown has a city manager form of government with a seven-member borough council. The mayor is Stephanie A. Henrick and the manager is Justin Keller; the borough is part of the Fourth Congressional District, the 26th and 146th State House District and the 24th State Senate District. Pottstown is located at 40°14′59″N 75°38′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 4.9 square miles, of which 4.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Pennsylvania has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Using the freezing mark as a boundary, the climate is hot-summer humid continental; the hardiness zone is 7a bordering on 6b. As of the 2010 census, the borough was 72.1% White, 19.5% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 4.4% were two or more races.
8.0% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of 2006-2008 Census Bureau Estimates, there were 22,018 people living in Pottstown; the racial makeup of the borough was 72.1% White, 19.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 5.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.6% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,859 people, 9,146 households, 5,533 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,526.3 people per square mile. There were 9,973 housing units at an average density of 2,065.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 79.34% White, 15.06% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.89% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.53% of the population. There were 9,146 households, out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families.
33.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.02. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.6% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $35,785, the median income for a family was $45,734. Males had a median income of $34,923 versus $26,229 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,078. About 8.7% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of t
Clinton and Russell
Clinton and Russell was a well-known architectural firm founded in 1894 in New York City, United States. The firm was responsible for scores of notable New York City buildings and throughout the city. Charles W. Clinton was born and raised in New York and received his formal architectural training in the office of Richard Upjohn, he left Upjohn in 1858 to begin a private practice, from through 1894 he conducted his own significant career, the highpoint of, the 1880 Seventh Regiment Armory. William Hamilton Russell was born in New York City as well, he attended the Columbia School of Mines before he joined his great uncle, James Renwick, in his architecture firm in 1878. At Columbia, Russell had been a member of St. Anthony Hall, the secret fraternal college society, within a year of his joining his great uncle's firm, in 1879, Renwick completed the first St. A's Chapter House, at 25 East 28th Street with Russell involved in the design work. In New York City's ambitious building boom circa 1900, Clinton and Russell were responsible for designing the world's largest apartment building, the world's largest office building, a cluster of early downtown skyscrapers along Broadway and Wall Street for banks and insurance companies.
Many of the firm's important commissions related to real estate investments of the Astor family. The landmark Astor Hotel that served as an anchor for the development of Times Square, the Astor Apartments, the Graham Court Apartments, The Apthorp were among their projects for William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor. Stylistically, much of their work conformed to a conservative Italian Neo-Renaissance style. After the deaths of the principals the firm continued in business, in 1926 it was renamed Clinton Russell Wells Holton & George. For a time the English-born Colonel James Hollis Wells headed the organization; the firm remained in existence until 1940. for Clinton's independent commissions prior to 1894, see Charles W. ClintonFahys Building, 52-54 Maiden Lane, 1894-96 Sampson Building, 63-65 Wall Street, 1898 Hudson Building, 32-34 Broadway, 1896–98 Exchange Court Building, 52-56 Broadway, 1896-98 Woodbridge Building and Platt Streets, NYC, 1898 Curzon House, facade redesign of #4 East 62nd Street, NYC, 1898 the Franklin Building, 9-15 Murray Street, 1898 the Chesebrough Building, 13-19 State Street, Battery Park, NYC, 1899 Graham Court Apartments, 1899-1901 Medbery Hall, Dorm Building for Hobart College, 1900 Broad Exchange Building, #25 Broad Street, New York City, 1900 Coxe Hall and Classroom Building for Hobart College, 1901 American Exchange National Bank Building 128 Broadway, 1901 the 18-story Atlantic Building, aka the Mutual Insurance Building and William Streets, 1901 Astor Apartments, 1901-1905 Wall Street Exchange Building, 43-49 Exchange Place, 1903 Beaver Building, 1904 Hotel Astor, New York City, 1904, expanded 1909-1910 71st Infantry Regiment Armory, Park Avenue and 34th Street, NYC, 1905 The Langham Apartments, one of the towering apartment buildings lining Central Park West between West 73rd and West 74th Streets, 1905-1907 U.
S. Express Company Building, 2 Rector Street, 1905–07 The Apthorp Apartments the largest apartment building in the world, NYC, 1906-1908 Consolidated Stock Exchange Building, 61-69 Broad Street, 1907 Lawyers' Title Insurance & Trust Company, 160 Broadway, NYC, 1908 the 31-story Whitehall Building Annex, 1908-1910 the Hudson Terminal in lower Manhattan, the world's largest office building by floor area when built in 1908, razed in 1962 for the World Trade Center Whyte's Restaurant, Fulton Street, designed as a "half-timbered English village inn", 1910 redesign of Clarence True's 103-104 Riverside Drive, 1910-1911 Otis Elevator Building, 260 Eleventh Avenue, 1911-1912 East River Savings Bank Building, NW corner of Broadway and Reade Streets, 1911 portions of the Elks National Home, Virginia, 1916 The Lenox Hotel, 1917. 250 S. 13th Street Philadelphia, PA Mecca Masonic Temple in collaboration with the architect Harry P. Knowles, now known as New York City Center Lillian Sefton Dodge Estate, Mill Neck, Nassau County, New York, 1923 The Level Club, New York City, 1927 Herald Square Building, 1350 Broadway, New York City, 1928-1930 Cities Service Building called the American International Building, 1932 7 East 67th Street facade
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the game date back to the Middle Ages in Pakistan; the game can be played on grass, water turf, artificial turf or synthetic field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players, including the goalie. Players use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities to hit a round, plastic ball; the length of the stick depends on the player's individual height. Only one face of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies have a different kind of stick, however they can use an ordinary field hockey stick; the specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, this is to give them more surface area to save the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. Today, the game is played globally in parts of Western Europe, South Asia, Southern Africa, New Zealand and parts of the United States.
Known as "hockey" in many territories, the term "field hockey" is used in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular. In Sweden, the term "landhockey" is used and to some degree in Norway where it is governed by Norway's Bandy Association. During play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body, while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. If the ball is touched with the rounded part of the stick, it will result in a penalty. Goal keepers cannot play the ball with the back of their stick. Whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, depending on the competition's format. There are many variations to overtime play that depend on the tournament play. In college play, a seven-aside overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team.
If a tie still remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25-yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds; the play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed or time expires. If the tie still persists extra rounds thereafter until one team has scored; the governing body of field hockey is the International Hockey Federation, with men and women being represented internationally in competitions including the Olympic Games, World Cup, World League, Champions Trophy and Junior World Cup, with many countries running extensive junior and masters club competitions. The FIH is responsible for organizing the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game. A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the primary principles of hockey. Indoor hockey is a 5-a-side variant, with a field, reduced to 40 m × 20 m.
With many of the rules remaining the same, including obstruction and feet, there are several key variations: Players may not raise the ball unless shooting on goal, players may not hit the ball, the sidelines are replaced with solid barriers which the ball will rebound off. In addition, the regulation guidelines for the indoor field hockey stick require a thinner, lighter stick than an outdoor stick. There is a depiction of a field hockey-like game in Ancient Greece, dating to c. 510 BC, when the game may have been called Κερητίζειν because it was played with a horn and a ball. Researchers disagree over, it could have been one-on-one activity. Billiards historians Stein and Rubino believe it was among the games ancestral to lawn-and-field games like hockey and ground billiards, near-identical depictions appear both in the Beni Hasan tomb of Ancient Egyptian administrator Khety of the 11th Dynasty, in European illuminated manuscripts and other works of the 14th through 17th centuries, showing contemporary courtly and clerical life.
In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using a carved wooden stick and ball prior, to 300 BC. In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have for about 1,000 years been playing beikou, a game with some similarities to field hockey. A similar field hockey or ground billiards variant, called suigan, was played in China during the Ming dynasty. A game similar to field hockey was played in the 17th century in Punjab state in India under name khido khundi. In South America, most in Chile, the local natives of the 16th century used to play a game called chueca, which shares common elements with hockey. In Northern Europe, the games of hurling and Knattleikr, both team balls games involving sticks to drive a ball to the opponents' goal, date at least as far back as the Early Middle Ages. By the 12th century, a team ball game called la soule or choule, akin to a chaotic and sometimes long-distance version
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Mercersburg Academy is a selective private, coed college preparatory boarding school of 435 students in grades 9-12, including postgraduates, located in Mercersburg, about 90 miles northwest of Washington, D. C; the school, founded in 1893, is set on 300 acres and is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. On March 31, 1836, the Pennsylvania General Assembly granted a charter to Marshall College to be located in Mercersburg. Dr. Frederick Augustus Rauch came from Switzerland to be the first president of the college under the sponsorship of the Reformed Church in the United States. Dr. Rauch served as president from 1836 until 1841, his successor in the position was John Williamson Nevin who served until 1853, when Marshall College joined with Franklin College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, to become Franklin & Marshall College. At this time, the preparatory department of Marshall College became known as Marshall Academy which changed to Marshall Collegiate Institute.
In 1865, the name was again changed to Mercersburg College, under whose charter the school continues to operate. The historic tie to the church continues through Mercersburg's membership in the Council for Higher Education of the United Church of Christ. On April 27, 1893, the Board of Regents elected Dr. William Mann Irvine, who had joined Franklin & Marshall College as an instructor after receiving his Ph. D. in political science from Princeton University in 1892, to become the headmaster at the age of 28. In July, Dr. Irvine changed the name of the institution to Mercersburg Academy and began his work as the founder of the present-day preparatory school. In the fall of 1893, he opened the school with an enrollment of 40 boys, four instructors and 4 acres of ground. During Dr. Irvine's tenure, three dormitories, a dining hall, infirmary, administration building and the Chapel were built. A new Main Hall and Annex were built after a fire gutted Old Main in 1927. After Dr. Irvine's death on June 11, 1928, Dr. Boyd Edwards was elected headmaster, where he remained until he retired in 1941.
After his retirement, Dr. Charles S. Tippetts'12 resigned from a deanship at the University of Pittsburgh to become headmaster, where he remained for 20 years. During this time, Irvine Hall was completed and the James Buchanan Cabin was moved onto the campus, his successor was William C. Fowle, who came from the Hotchkiss School in Connecticut. Fowle's tenure saw Tippetts Hall completed, Boone Hall Ford Hall constructed. In 1969, Mercersburg again became a coeducational school. In 1972, Walter H. Burgin Jr.'53 was appointed the school's fifth headmaster. Burgin had been a member and the chairman of Mercersburg's mathematics department from 1959 to 1964 and was teaching at Phillips Exeter Academy at the time of his appointment. Burgin oversaw a comprehensive reshaping of the Academy's academic facilities, the building of Lenfest Hall, the integration of technology into community and classroom life. Douglas Hale was appointed head of school in 1997, coming from Baylor School in Chattanooga, where he had been a teacher, assistant headmaster, headmaster since 1973.
During Hale's tenure, Mercersburg's endowment grew from $64 million in 1997 to $251 million in June 2015. Hale was succeeded in 2016 by Katherine Titus, the first female head of school in the Academy's history. Before coming to Mercersburg, Titus spent 11 years at St. George's School in Rhode Island, most as associate head for school life, she had worked as dean of students and assistant head for student life at St. George's, before that, was director of college counseling at Pingree School in Massachusetts. Titus is a graduate of Columbia University; the school now has 106 faculty members. Now set on 300 acres, Mercersburg serves grades postgraduate; as of the 2017 -- 2018 school year, 435 students are enrolled: 46 percent girls. 85 percent of the students are boarding students. From an applicant pool of 728, the Academy enrolled 161 students. All students must live on campus during their senior year. While 44 percent of Mercersburg's students live in the Mid-Atlantic region, students come from around the world, representing 44 nations and 29 American states and the District of Columbia.
International students account for 23 percent of the student body, 20 percent are persons of color. Base tuition for the 2017–2018 school year is $58,325 for boarding students and $39,250 for day students. 49 percent of Academy students receive financial aid. The school's total financial-aid budget is more than $7 million. Mercersburg merit scholarships include the Arce Scholarships, the Guttman Scholarship, the Hale Scholarship, the Legacy Scholarships, the Mercersburg Scholarships, the Regents Scholarships, the Witmer Scholarship, the 1893 Scholarship; the Academy has an endowment of $273.9 million, making it one of the highest endowment-per-student independent schools in the country. On October 10, 2013, Mercersburg alumna Deborah Simon