The Hopi are a Native American tribe recognized for populating the North American continent and in particular, Arizona. As of the 2010 census, there are 19,338 Hopi in the United States; the Hopi language is one of 30 in the Uto-Aztecan language family. The majority of Hopi people are enrolled in the Hopi Tribe of Arizona but some are enrolled in the Colorado River Indian Tribes; the Hopi Reservation covers a land area of 2,531.773 sq mi. The Hopi encountered Spaniards in the 16th century, are referred to as Pueblo people, because they lived in villages; the Hopi are descended from the Ancient Pueblo Peoples, who constructed large apartment-house complexes and had an advanced culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado. They lived along the Mogollon Rim from the 12th–14th century, when they disappeared; the name Hopi is a shortened form of Hopituh Shi-nu-mu. The Hopi Dictionary gives the primary meaning of the word "Hopi" as: "behaving one, one, mannered, peaceable, who adheres to the Hopi Way.
In contrast to warring tribes that subsist on plunder."Hopi is a concept rooted in the culture's religion and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to strive toward this concept, which involves a state of total reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these things, to live in accordance with the instructions of Maasaw, the Creator or Caretaker of Earth; the Hopi observe their traditional ceremonies for the benefit of the entire world. Traditionally, Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans; the children are born into the same clan structure as the mother. These clan organizations extend across all villages. Children are named by the women of the father's clan. After the child is introduced to the Sun, the women of the paternal clan gather, name the child in honor of the father's clan. Children can be given over forty names; the village members decide the common name. Current practice is to either use the parent's chosen Hopi name. A person may change the name upon initiation to traditional religious societies, or a major life event.
The Hopi have always viewed their land as sacred. Agriculture is a important part of their culture, their villages are spread out across the northwestern part of Arizona; the Hopi did not have a conception of land being divided. The Hopi people settled on the high mesas both for protection, irrigation in these areas; the Hopi are caretakers of the land. On December 16, 1882, President Chester A. Arthur passed an executive order creating a reservation for the Hopi, it was smaller than the surrounding land, annexed by the Navajo reservation, the largest in the country. On October 24, 1936, the Hopi people ratified a Constitution; that Constitution created a unicameral government. While there is an executive branch and judicial branch, their powers are limited under the Hopi Constitution; the traditional powers and authority of the Hopi Villages were preserved in the 1936 Constitution. Today, the Hopi Reservation is surrounded by the much larger Navajo Reservation; the two nations used to share the Navajo -- Hopi Joint Use Area.
The partition of this area known as Big Mountain, by Acts of Congress in 1974 and 1996, has resulted in long-term controversy. Old Oraibi is one of four original Hopi villages, one of the oldest continuously inhabited villages within the territory of the United States. In the 1540s the village was recorded as having 1,500–3,000 residents; the first recorded European contact with the Hopi was by the Spanish in A. D 1540. Spanish General Francisco Vásquez de Coronado went to North America to explore the land. While at the Zuni villages, he learned of the Hopi tribe. Coronado dispatched other members of their party to find the Hopi villages; the Spanish wrote. They noted that there were about 16,000 Zuni people. A few years the Spanish explorer García López de Cárdenas investigated the Rio Grande and met the Hopi, they warmly directed him on his journey. In 1582–1583 the Hopi were visited by Antonio de Espejo’s expedition, he noted that there were around 12,000 Hopi people. During that period the Spanish explored and colonized the southwestern region of the New World, but never sent many forces or settlers to the Hopi country.
Their visits to the Hopi spread out over many years. Many times the visits were from military explorations; the Spanish colonized near the Rio Grande and, because the Hopi did not live near rivers that gave access to the Rio Grande, the Spanish never left any troops on their land. The Spanish were accompanied by Catholic friars. Beginning in 1629, with the arrival of 30 friars in Hopi country, the Franciscan Period started; the Franciscans had missionaries built a church at Awatovi. Spanish Roman Catholic priests were only marginally successful in converting the Hopi and persecuted them in a draconian manner for adhering to Hopi religious practices; the Spanish occupiers in effect enslaved the Hopi populace, compelling them to endure forced labor and hand over goods and crops. Spanish oppression and attempts to convert the Hopi caused the Hopi over time to become increasing
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System. The name describes the galaxy's appearance from Earth: a hazy band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye; the term Milky Way is a translation of the Latin via lactea, from the Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος. From Earth, the Milky Way appears as a band. Galileo Galilei first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610; until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way contained all the stars in the Universe. Following the 1920 Great Debate between the astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, observations by Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies; the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with a diameter between 200,000 light-years. It is estimated to contain 100 -- more than 100 billion planets; the Solar System is located at a radius of 26,490 light-years from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of the Orion Arm, one of the spiral-shaped concentrations of gas and dust.
The stars in the innermost 10,000 light-years form a bulge and one or more bars that radiate from the bulge. The galactic center is an intense radio source known as Sagittarius A*, assumed to be a supermassive black hole of 4.100 million solar masses. Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center orbit at 220 kilometers per second; the constant rotation speed contradicts the laws of Keplerian dynamics and suggests that much of the mass of the Milky Way is invisible to telescopes, neither emitting nor absorbing electromagnetic radiation. This conjectural mass has been termed "dark matter"; the rotational period is about 240 million years at the radius of the Sun. The Milky Way as a whole is moving at a velocity of 600 km per second with respect to extragalactic frames of reference; the oldest stars in the Milky Way are nearly as old as the Universe itself and thus formed shortly after the Dark Ages of the Big Bang. The Milky Way has several satellite galaxies and is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which form part of the Virgo Supercluster, itself a component of the Laniakea Supercluster.
The Milky Way is visible from Earth as a hazy band of white light, some 30° wide, arching across the night sky. In night sky observing, although all the individual naked-eye stars in the entire sky are part of the Milky Way, the term “Milky Way” is limited to this band of light; the light originates from the accumulation of unresolved stars and other material located in the direction of the galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, are areas where interstellar dust blocks light from distant stars; the area of sky that the Milky Way obscures is called the Zone of Avoidance. The Milky Way has a low surface brightness, its visibility can be reduced by background light, such as light pollution or moonlight. The sky needs to be darker than about 20.2 magnitude per square arcsecond in order for the Milky Way to be visible. It should be visible if the limiting magnitude is +5.1 or better and shows a great deal of detail at +6.1. This makes the Milky Way difficult to see from brightly lit urban or suburban areas, but prominent when viewed from rural areas when the Moon is below the horizon.
Maps of artificial night sky brightness show that more than one-third of Earth's population cannot see the Milky Way from their homes due to light pollution. As viewed from Earth, the visible region of the Milky Way's galactic plane occupies an area of the sky that includes 30 constellations; the Galactic Center lies in the direction of Sagittarius. From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass around to the galactic anticenter in Auriga; the band continues the rest of the way around the sky, back to Sagittarius, dividing the sky into two equal hemispheres. The galactic plane is inclined by about 60° to the ecliptic. Relative to the celestial equator, it passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux, indicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic, relative to the galactic plane; the north galactic pole is situated at right ascension 12h 49m, declination +27.4° near β Comae Berenices, the south galactic pole is near α Sculptoris.
Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and year, the arch of the Milky Way may appear low or high in the sky. For observers from latitudes 65° north to 65° south, the Milky Way passes directly overhead twice a day; the Milky Way is the second-largest galaxy in the Local Group, with its stellar disk 100,000 ly in diameter and, on average 1,000 ly thick. The Milky Way is 1.5 trillion times the mass of the Sun. To compare the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if the Solar System out to Neptune were the size of a US quarter, the Milky Way would be the size of the contiguous United States. There is a ring-like filament of stars rippling above and below the flat galactic plane, wrapping around the Milky Way at a diameter of 150,000–180,000 light-years, which may be part of the Milky Way itself. Estimates of the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used; the low end of the estimate range is 5.8×1011 solar masses, somewhat less than that of the Andromeda Galaxy.
Measurements using the Very Long Baseline Array in 2009 found
A zine is a small-circulation self-published work of original or appropriated texts and images reproduced via photocopier. Zines are either the product of a single person, or of a small group and are popularly photocopied into physical prints for circulation. A fanzine is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon for the pleasure of others who share their interest; the term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and popularized within science fiction fandom, entering the Oxford English Dictionary in 1949. Popularly defined within a circulation of 1,000 or fewer copies, in practice many zines are produced in editions of fewer than 100. Among the various intentions for creation and publication are developing one's identity, sharing a niche-skill or art, or developing a story, as opposed to seeking profit. Zines have served as a significant medium of communication in various subcultures, draw inspiration from a "do-it-yourself" philosophy that disregard the traditional conventions of professional design and publishing houses proposing an alternative and self-aware contribution.
Handwrittenzines, or carbon zines are individually made, emphasizing personal connection between creator and reader, turning imagined communities into embodied ones. Written in a variety of formats from desktop-published text to comics and stories, zines cover broad topics including fanfiction, poetry, art & design, personal journals, social theory, intersectional feminism, single-topic obsession, or sexual content far outside the mainstream enough to be prohibitive of inclusion in more traditional media. Although there are a few eras associated with zine-making, this "wave" narrative proposes a limited view of the vast range of topics and environments zines occupied. Dissidents and members of marginalized groups have published their own opinions in leaflet and pamphlet form for as long as such technology has been available; the concept of zines had an ancestor in the amateur press movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, which would in its turn cross-pollinate with the subculture of science fiction fandom in the 1930s.
The popular graphic-style associated with zines is influenced artistically and politically by the subcultures of Dada, Fluxus and Situationism. Many trace zine's' lineage from as far back as Thomas Paine's exceptionally popular 1775 pamphlet Common Sense, Benjamin Franklin's literary magazine for psychiatric patients at a Pennsylvania hospital and The Dial by Margaret Fuller and Ralph Waldo Emerson. During and after the Great Depression, editors of "pulp" science fiction magazines became frustrated with letters detailing the impossibilities of their science fiction stories. Over time they began to publish these overly-scrutinizing letters, complete with their return addresses. Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses. By 1927 readers young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine; this allowed these fans to begin writing to each other, now complete with a mailing list for their own science fiction fanzines that allowed them to write not only about science fiction but about fandom itself and, in self-proclaimed perzines, about themselves.
Science fiction fanzines vary in content, from short stories to convention reports to fanfiction were one of the earliest incarnations of the zine and influenced subsequent publications. "Zinesters" like Lisa Ben and Jim Kepner honed their talents in the science fiction fandom before tackling gay rights, creating zines such as "Vice Versa" and "ONE" that drew networking and distribution ideas from their SF roots. A number of leading science fiction and fantasy authors rose through the ranks of fandom, creating "pro-zines" such as Frederik Pohl and Isaac Asimov; the first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis; the first version of Superman appeared in the third issue of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction. The first media fanzine was a Star Trek fan publication called Spockanalia, published in September 1967 by members of the Lunarians; some of the earliest examples of academic fandom were written on Star Trek zines K/S slash zines, which displayed a gay relationship between the two.
Author Joanna Russ wrote in her 1985 analysis of K/S zines that slash fandom at the time consisted of around 500 core fans and was 100% female. Russ observed that while SF fans looked down on Star Trek fans, Star Trek fans looked down on K/S writers. Kirk/Spock zines contained fanfiction and poetry created by fans. Zines were sent to fans on a mailing list or sold at conventions. Many had high production values and some were sold at convention auctions for hundreds of dollars."K/S not only speaks to my condition. It is written in Female. I don't mean that of course. What I mean is that I can read it without translating it from the consensual, public world, sexist, unconcerned with women per se, managing to make it make sense to me and my condition." Janus called Aurora, was a science fiction feminist zine created by Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll in 1975. It contained short stories and film reviews. Among its contributors were authors such as Octavia Butler, Jo
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should
The swastika or sauwastika is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon in the cultures of Eurasia. It is used as a symbol of spirituality in Indian religions. In the Western world, it was a symbol of auspiciousness and good luck until the 1930s, when it became a feature of Nazi symbolism as an emblem of Aryan identity and, as a result, was stigmatized by its association with racism and antisemitism; the name swastika comes from Sanskrit meaning'conducive to well being' or'auspicious'. In Hinduism, the symbol with arms pointing clockwise is called swastika, symbolizing surya and good luck, while the counterclockwise symbol is called sauvastika, symbolizing night or tantric aspects of Kali. In Jainism, a swastika is the symbol for Suparshvanatha—the 7th of 24 Tirthankaras, while in Buddhism it symbolizes the auspicious footprints of the Buddha. In several major Indo-European religions, the swastika symbolizes lightning bolts, representing the thunder god and the king of the gods, such as Indra in the religion of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Zeus in the ancient Greek religion, Jupiter in the ancient Roman religion, Thor in the ancient Germanic religion.
The swastika is an icon, found in both human history and the modern world. In various forms, it is otherwise known as the fylfot, tetraskelion, or cross cramponnée. In China it is named. A swastika takes the form of a cross, the arms of which are of equal length and perpendicular to the adjacent arms, each bent midway at a right angle; the symbol is found in the archeological remains of the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia, as well as in early Byzantine and Christian artwork. The swastika was adopted by several organizations in pre–World War I Europe, by the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany prior to World War II, it was used by the Nazi Party to symbolize German nationalistic pride. To Jews and the enemies of Nazi Germany, it became a symbol of terror. In many Western countries, the swastika is viewed as a symbol of racial supremacism and intimidation because of its association with Nazism. Reverence for the swastika symbol in Asian cultures, in contrast to the West's stigma of the symbol, has led to misinterpretations and misunderstandings.
The word swastika has been used in the Indian subcontinent and the middle east since 500 BC. Its appearance in English dates to the 1870s, replacing gammadion from Greek γαμμάδιον, it is alternatively spelled in contemporary texts as svastika, other spellings were used in the 19th and early 20th century, such as suastika. It was derived from the Sanskrit term, which transliterates to svastika under the used IAST transliteration system, but is pronounced closer to swastika when letters are used with their English values; the first use of the word swastika in a European text is found in 1871 with the publications of Heinrich Schliemann, who discovered more than 1,800 ancient samples of the swastika symbol and its variants while digging the Hisarlik mound near the Aegean Sea coast for the history of Troy. Schliemann linked his findings to the Sanskrit swastika; the word swastika is derived from the Sanskrit root swasti, composed of su and asti. The word swasti occurs in the Vedas as well as in classical literature, meaning'health, success, prosperity', it was used as a greeting.
The final ka is a common suffix with the same meaning as the English adverbial suffix -ly, so swastika means'associated with well-being'. According to Monier-Williams, a majority of scholars consider it a solar symbol; the sign implies something fortunate, lucky, or auspicious, it denotes auspiciousness or well-being. The earliest known use of the word swastika is in Panini's Ashtadhyayi which uses it to explain one of the Sanskrit grammar rules, in the context of a type of identifying mark on a cow's ear. Most scholarship suggests that Panini lived in or before the 4th-century BC in 6th or 5th century BC. Other names for the symbol include: tetragammadion or cross gammadion, as each arm resembles the Greek letter Γ hooked cross, angled cross, or crooked cross cross cramponned, cramponnée, or cramponny in heraldry, as each arm resembles a crampon or angle-iron fylfot, chiefly in heraldry and architecture tetraskelion meaning'four-legged' when composed of four conjoined legs whirling logs: can denote abundance, prosperity and luck All swastikas are bent crosses based on a chiral symmetry—but they appear with different geometric details: as compact crosses with short legs, as crosses with large arms and as motifs in a pattern of unbroken lines.
One distinct representation of a swastika, as a double swastika or swastika made of squares, appears in a Nepalese silver mohar coin of 1685, kingdom of Patan KM# 337. Chirality describes an absence of reflective symmetry, with the existence of two versions that are mirror images of each other; the mirror-image forms are described as: left-facing and right-facing. The left-facing version is distinguished in some traditions and languages as a distinct symbol from the right-facing and is called the "sauwastika"; the compact swastika can be seen
The Books of Chilam Balam are handwritten, chiefly 17th and 18th-centuries Maya miscellanies, named after the small Yucatec towns where they were kept, preserving important traditional knowledge in which indigenous Maya and early Spanish traditions have coalesced. Written in the Yucatec Maya language and using the Latin alphabet, the manuscripts are attributed to a legendary author called Chilam Balam, a chilam being a priest who gives prophecies and balam a common surname meaning ʼJaguarʼ; some of the texts contain prophecies about the coming of the Spaniards to Yucatán while mentioning a chilam Balam as their first author. Nine Books of Chilam Balam are known, most those from Chumayel and Tizimin, but more have existed. Both language and content show that parts of the books date back to the time of the Spanish conquest of the Yucatec kingdoms. In some cases, where the language is terse, the books appear to render hieroglyphic script, thus to hark back to the pre-conquest period. Taken together, the Books of Chilam Balam give the fullness of 18th-century Yucatec-Maya spiritual life.
Whereas the medical texts and chronicles are quite matter-of-fact, the riddles and prognostications make abundant use of traditional Mayan metaphors. This holds more true of the mythological and ritualistic texts, cast in abstruse language, plainly belong to esoteric lore; the historical texts derive part of their importance from the fact that they have been cast in the framework of the native Maya calendar adapted to the European calendrical system. Reconstructing Postclassic Yucatec history from these data has proven to be an arduous task; the following is an overview of the sorts of texts—partly of Mesoamerican, of Spanish derivation—found in the Chilam Balam books. 1. History Histories, cast in the mold of the indigenous calendar: migration legends. Prognostication, cast in the framework of the succession of haabs, kʼatuns. Prophecy, ascribed to famous early 16th-century oracular priests.2. Formularies with Metaphors Collections of riddles, used for the confirmation of local lords into their offices.3.
Myth and Mysticism Myth the destruction and re-creation of the world as connected to the start of kʼatun 11 Ahau. Ritualistic mysticism concerning the creation of the twenty named days. Practical Calendars and Classifications Classifications according to the twenty named days. Treatises on astrology and the Catholic liturgical calendar; the astrology includes the European zodiac. Agricultural almanacs.5. Medical Recipes Herbal medicine: The Chilam Balam books contain the sort of medical prescriptions that derive from Greek and Arab traditions, rather than the Mayan'incantation approach', as represented by the Ritual of the Bacabs.6. Spanish Traditions Roman Catholic instruction: feast days of the saints and prayers. Spanish romance, such as the tale of the'Maiden Theodora'. Since many texts recur in various books of Chilam Balam, establishing a concordance and studying substitution patterns is fundamental to scholarship; the archaic Yucatec idiom and the allusive, metaphorical nature of many texts present a formidable challenge to translators.
The outcome of the translation process is sometimes influenced by external assumptions about the texts' purpose. As a result of these factors, the quality of existing translations varies greatly; the Spanish-language synoptic translation of Barrera Vásquez and Rendón is still useful. To date, complete English translations are available for the following Books of Chilam Balam: Chumayel Mani Tizimin Na Kaua An excellent overview and discussion of the syncretism involved is to be found in the introduction to the Bricker and Miram edition of the Book of Chilam Balam of Kaua. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the main mythological and ritualistic texts with a view to their syncretic origins is given by Knowlton; the Books of Chilam Balam are referenced in The Falling Woman by Pat Murphy as source material for the description of sacrifices at Chichén Itzá. Index of Mexico-related articles Maya civilization Cultural significance of the jaguar in Central and North America Songs of Dzitbalche Full text of "The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel" at www.mayaweb.nl Antje Gunsenheimer: Geschichtstradierung in den yukatekischen Chilam Balam-Büchern
Zelia Maria Magdalena Nuttall was an American archaeologist and anthropologist specialised in pre-Aztec Mexican cultures and pre-Columbian manuscripts. She discovered two forgotten manuscripts of this type in private collections, one of them being the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, she was one of the first to recognise artefacts dating back to the pre-Aztec period. Nuttall was born in San Francisco in 1857 to Irish father Dr. Robert Kennedy Nuttall and Mexican-American mother Magdalena Parrott, she married the French anthropologist Alphonse Louis Pinart in 1867 and had a child, but they divorced in 1888. She was educated in France and Italy, at Bedford College, London. During Nuttall’s first trip to Mexico in 1884 with her family, she worked for the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City as an Honorary Professor of Archaeology. While visiting Teotihuacan that year, she collected terracotta heads from San Juan Teotihuacan; the pieces had been studied before but they had not been properly understood.
This was the foundation of the publication which would lead her into prominence, the "Terra Cotta Heads of Teotihuacan" for the American Journal of Archaeology. Because of the success of this article, she was appointed Special Assistant of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard. Frederic Putnam, leading American anthropologist and curator of Peabody from 1875 to 1909, German-American anthropologist Franz Boas saw her as an excellent mediator between Americanist circles in different countries because of her education and cosmopolitan relations. In his 1886 annual report for the museum, Putnam praised Nuttall as “familiar with the Nahuatl language, having intimate and influential friends among the Mexicans, with an exceptional talent for linguistics and archaeology.” Her family background made of her a ideal partner for relations with Mexico. This would play an important role in the creation of the institution of international cooperation Escuela Internacional de Arqueología y Etnología Americanas.
From 1886 to 1899 she followed her family to Europe and lived in Dresden. In 1902 she moved to Mexico City in an eighteenth-century house called Quinta Rosalía, her main residence until her death, her home, which she renamed Casa de Alvarado, became a meeting place for foreign Americanists and intellectuals. The large land she owned allowed her to develop her passion for gardening, she studied Mexican garden art, medicinal herbs, undertook a collection of unknown local seeds in the United States, which she intended to introduce. She participated in the introduction of taro cultivation in the state of Orizaba. Nuttall had seen many archaeological artefacts in museums and visited several sites, but it was in 1910 that she made, with the agreement of the Mexican authorities, her first important excavations on Isla de Sacrificios, where she discovered the ruins of a site of human sacrifice. During this expedition, her supervisor, Salvador Batres, claimed the discovery himself, she resigned from her position at the National Museum of Anthropology and wrote "The Island of Sacrificios", published in 1910 in American Anthropologist.
It was a detailed account of the site's discovery and excavation which prompted the Mexican government to have Batres replaced. Nuttal was a member of several academic institutions, including the Harvard Peabody Museum and the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City and she carried out most of her activities without pay and on a fee-for-service basis, she did, have some patrons, including Phoebe Hearst, mother of William Hearst, founder of the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology in Berkeley, to which Nuttall donated many pieces. Nuttall was the basis for D. H. Lawrence's character Mrs. Norris in his novel The Plumed Serpent. Nuttall investigated Mexico’s past to give recognition and pride to its present at a time where Western archaeology favoured salacious narratives of ancient Mesoamericans. In 1897, Nuttall published Ancient Mexican Superstitions in The Journal of American Folklore. In it, she criticised the representation of ancient Mexicans as “bloodthirsty savages, having nothing in common with civilised humanity”.
“Such a hold upon the imagination that it effaces all other knowledge about the ancient civilisation of Mexico”, she wrote. She hoped her work would “lead to a growing recognition of the bonds of universal brotherhood which unite the present inhabitants of this great and ancient continent to their not unworthy predecessors.” Outside of her work in anthropology and archaeology, partnered with Phoebe Hearst, worked to educate and preserve the heritage of indigenous Mexicans. One of her students was Manuel Gamio, who would become one of Mexico's most famous archaeologists. Near the end of her life, Nuttall advocated for the revival of Mexican traditions, eradicated by Spanish conquest. In 1928, she called for a renewed national celebration of the indigenous New Year, traditionally observed twice annually by numerous Mesoamerican cultures; that year, Mexico City celebrated the Aztec New Year for the first time since 1519. Nuttall was known for her ability to find lost or forgotten manuscripts and bring them to the attention of scholars.
She traced the Zapotecan manuscript, now known as the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, in the library of its owner, Baron Zouche of Haryngworth. A facsimile with an introduction by Nuttall was published in 1902 by the Peabody Museum. In 1890, she identified in the National Central Library of Florence the Codex Magliabecchiano, which she published in 1903 through the University of California under the title The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans. On that occasion, she entered into conflict w