Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014

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Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014
Hungary
← 2010 6 April 2014 (2014-04-06) 2018 →

All 199 seats in the Országgyűlés
100 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 61.73%
  First party Second party
  OrbanViktor 2011-01-07.jpg Mesterházy Attila 2009-12-14.JPG
Leader Viktor Orbán Attila Mesterházy
Party Fidesz Unity
Leader since 17 May 2003 14 January 2014
Last election 263 seats, 52.73% 59 seats, 19.30%
(MSZP only)
Seats won Fidesz 117, KDNP 16 MSZP 29, Others 9
Popular vote 2,264,780 1,290,806
Percentage 44.87% 25.57%
Swing Decrease 7.86% Increase 6.27%

  Third party Fourth party
  Vona Gabor.jpg SchifferAndras.jpg
Leader Gábor Vona András Schiffer
Party Jobbik LMP
Leader since 25 November 2006 24 March 2013
Last election 47 seats, 16.67% 16 seats, 7.48%
Seats won
Popular vote 1,020,476 269,414
Percentage 20.22% 5.34%
Swing Increase 3.55% Decrease 2.14%

2014 egyéni eredmények.png
Map showing winning parties
  seats won by Fidesz (96)
  seats won by Unity (10)

Prime Minister before election

Viktor Orbán
Fidesz

Elected Prime Minister

Viktor Orbán
Fidesz

The 2014 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014.[1] This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election. The result was a victory for the FideszKDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority, with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister.[2] It was the first election under the new Constitution of Hungary which came into force on 1 January 2012. The new electoral law also entered into force that day. For the first time since Hungary's transition to democracy, the election had a single round. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of the previous 386 lawmakers.[3][4]

Background[edit]

After the 2010 parliamentary election, Fidesz won a landslide victory, with Viktor Orbán being elected as Prime Minister. As a result of this election, his government was able to alter the National Constitution, as he garnered a two thirds majority.[5] The government was able to write a constitutional article that favored traditional marriages, as well as one that lowered the number of MPs elected from 386 to 199.[6]

Orbán and his government remained relatively popular in the months leading to the election. This was largely because of high GDP growth, increased industrial output, and a growth in the tourism sector.[7]

New constitution and electoral law[edit]

In 2010, a new government led by Fidesz initiated a drafting process for a new constitution.[8][9] On 18 April 2011, parliament approved the constitution on a 262–44 vote, with Fidesz and their Christian Democrat coalition partners in favor and Jobbik opposed. The Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and Politics Can Be Different (LMP), citing the ruling party's unwillingness to compromise on issues and their inability to change the outcome, boycotted both the drafting process and the vote.[10][11] On 25 April, President Pál Schmitt signed the document into law, and it entered into force on the first day of 2012.[12] The enactment came halfway through Hungary's six-month Presidency of the Council of the European Union.[13]

A new electoral law was also passed on 23 December 2011. The Fidesz and its coalition partner Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP) unilaterally approved the new bill, using their two-thirds majority, ignoring the left-wing opposition's (MSZP and LMP) protests, while Jobbik voted against it. The NGO Political Capital noted in its analysis that the newly-adopted law "shifts the election system towards the majoritarian principle", which may be the cause of possible future "disproportional" outcomes in favour of individual parliamentary seats, resulting an emergance of voting method like first-past-the-post voting (FPTP). Nevertheless, Political Capital also emphasized that this tendency "however [can] not be interpreted as an injury to democracy."[14]

Voter registration plan[edit]

On 26 November 2012, Fidesz used its supermajority to pass legislation revising eligibility for voting. Accordingly, the citizens, who had to right to vote, should have been involved in a pre-registration process no later than 15 days before polling day "in order to spare politically indifferent citizens from the election campaign", as Fidesz officials said. According to critics, this process would have make it harder to vote the party out of power, while also threatened free suffrage with the determination of the time limit.[15] Four members of the Democratic Coalition (DK), including its leader, former Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány, had participated in a week-long hunger strike, protesting against the proposed voter registration plan, while President János Áder, who took the office after the resignation of Schmitt and himself was also a Fidesz member, sent the bill to the Constitutional Court.[16]

On 3 January 2013, the Court ruled that the law curtailed voting rights to an "unjustifiable degree", due to the fact that the requirement for voters to register prior to going to the polls applies to every voter. The court also argued the limitation of campaign advertisings into the public broadcasting (Magyar Televízió and its partners), the proposed bans of political advertisements on cinemas during the campaign as well as prohibition of opinion polls in the last six days of the campaign "threatens" the freedom of speech in Hungary, in addition to its unconstitutional nature.[17] After the court's decision the head of the Fidesz parliamentary group, Antal Rogán, announced his party "would drop the proposal" and they will not introduce it for the 2014 parliamentary election, despite the fact that some party members had considered just before the court's ruling that is possible that constitutional amendments can take place in order to pass the bill.[18]

Party splits after 2010 election[edit]

Party affiliation in the National Assembly
Affiliation Members
14 May 2010 5 May 2014
Fidesz 227 223
MSZP 59 47
Jobbik 47 43
KDNP 36 34
LMP 16 7
DK 10
PM 8
  Independent
1 9
Total number of seats
386 381

After the 2010 local elections, held on 3 October, Katalin Szili, former Speaker of the National Assembly founded the Social Union party and became its first chairperson. As a result, she quit the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and the party's parliamentary group, continuing her work as a formally independent MP.[19] In October 2011, a group of members of the MSZP around former Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány left the party and founded the Democratic Coalition (DK) after one year of tension and disagreement. Ten members of the parliament, including Gyurcsány, also left the MSZP parliamentary group and became independent MPs. Gyurcsány said the cause of secession was that the MSZP "had failed in its efforts to transform itself". His former Socialist colleagues strongly condemned his step, as Gyurcsány signed a statement not to quit the party, sworing allegiance to the new party leadership just one week before leaving. At the introduction of his new movement, Gyurcsány called the new constitution as "illegitimate", and charged that all branches of power such as the Constitutional Court, Chief Prosecutor Péter Polt and other units of the judicial system "exclusively serve Viktor Orbán".[20]

Since its establishment and 2010 national election, LMP was kept under pressure (for instance, on the occasion of by-elections) by the Hungarian Socialist Party to achieve some kind of electoral compromise and cooperation against Viktor Orbán's controversial government. The leadership of the LMP positioned the party to the centre, and, as a newcomer, rejected both Fidesz and MSZP's politics. Prominent party member András Schiffer also criticized the previous Socialist cabinets, blaming Gyurcsány's "disastrous governance" for having Fidesz won a two-thirds majority in 2010.[21] However prominent politicians in LMP were divided on the issue of cooperation.[22] During the party's congress in November 2012, LMP decided not to join Together 2014, the planned electoral alliance of opposition parties and movements led by Gordon Bajnai. As a result, Benedek Jávor, a proponent of the agreement, resigned from his position of parliamentary group leader.[23] Jávor and his supporters (including Tímea Szabó and Gergely Karácsony) founded a platform within the party, called "Dialogue for Hungary" on 26 November 2012. The platform argued in favour of conclusion of an electoral agreement with Bajnai's movement in order to replace "Orbán's regime".[24] In January 2013, the LMP's congress rejected again the electoral cooperation with other opposition parties, including Together 2014.[25] As a result, members of the party's "Dialogue for Hungary" platform left LMP to form a new political organization. Benedek Jávor announced the eight leaving MPs will not resign from their parliamentary seats, while seven parliamentarians (Schiffer's supporters) remained in the party.[26] The leaving MPs founded the Dialogue for Hungary as an officially registered party in March 2013.[27] On 8 March 2013, the PM has established an electoral coalition with the Together, which was formed as a political party on that day.[28]

In January 2013, two independent MPs who were elected from the Jobbik's national list but were expelled or resigned from the party earlier (Zsolt Endrésik and Ernő Rozgonyi) announced that they would henceforth represent the Hungarian Justice and Life Party (MIÉP) in the National Assembly. MIÉP had parliamentary representation the last time in 2002.[29][30]

Opposition cooperation negotiations[edit]

Gordon Bajnai, who served as Prime Minister between 2009 and 2010, preceding Orbán, announced his return to politics on 23 October 2012, during the anti-government demonstration of the One Million for Press Freedom (Milla) non-governmental organization.[31] On the protest, he called for an anti-Orbán coalition so as to form a supermajority in Parliament with the help of which the changes done by Orbán's ruling party, Fidesz could be undone.

In his speech, Bajnai repeatedly used a variant of the term ("We may fail on our own, but together, we shall prove victorious!"),[32] when he proclaimed his support for such a "cooperation between hopeful left-wingers, disappointed rightwingers, politically abandoned free-thinkers and committed Greens" that his organization along with two other civilian body named Together 2014 as a reference to the date of the next general elections in Hungary.[33] In December 2012, Bajnai announced that he intends to become a Member of Parliament in the 2014 national election.[34] Medián polled 22 then 16 percent for the first time to the Together movement among the "certain" voters in their two November surveys. Several scholars criticized the Medián's questioning method which was different from previous ones, suspecting a political intent behind the surveys.[35]

According to plans, Together 2014 would have been an umbrella organization of centre-left parties, similar to the Olive Tree in Italy which established against Silvio Berlusconi's right-wing coalition in 1995. However LMP had rejected the cooperation in November 2012[36] and January 2013,[37] and the Socialists led by Attila Mesterházy gradually took over the initiative. Consequently, the Together movement transformed itself into party on 8 March 2013, as only parties could take part in the election according to the rules.[38] On the same day, the Dialogue for Hungary, which was founded by deserters from the LMP, has established an electoral coalition with the Together.[28]

Candidates[edit]

Registered parties[edit]

Individual candidates[edit]

The National Election Office announced that a total of 2,304 candidates submitted the required number of nominations for the parliamentary election by the 3 p.m. deadline on 4 March.[39] The candidacy of 1,531 people was accepted after completion of the registration process. The following table contains a selected list of numbers of individual candidates by county representation and party affiliation:

National lists[edit]

Under the new election law, parties which ran individual candidates in at least 27 constituencies in Budapest and at least nine counties had the opportunity to set up a national list. On 21 February 2014, the National Election Committee (NVB) registered at first[clarification needed] the joint list of the governing Fidesz–KDNP party alliance, led by PM Viktor Orbán and KDNP president Zsolt Semjén.[54]

Eighteen national party lists were registered up to 8 March 2014, when the National Election Office (NVI) approved the following 14 organizations (parties and electoral alliances), in addition to the parliamentary parties (Fidesz–KDNP, Unity, Jobbik and LMP), which had already successfully registered: Homeland Not For Sale Movement Party (HNEM), the communist Hungarian Workers' Party, Party for a Fit and Healthy Hungary (SEM), Andor Schmuck's Social Democratic Civic Party (Soc Dems), the former long-time parliamentary party Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party (FKGP), former House Speaker and Socialist party member Katalin Szili's Community for Social Justice People's Party (KTI), Gypsy Party of Hungary (MCP), Party of Greens (Greens), New Dimension Party (ÚDP), New Hungary Party (ÚMP), Together 2014 Party, Democratic Community of Welfare and Freedom (JESZ), Unity Party (ÖP) and Alliance of Mária Seres (SMS).[55] The following table contains only the incumbent parliamentary parties' national lists (first 20 members), which could won[clarification needed] mandates:

Minority lists[edit]

Under the election law, the thirteen officially recognized national minorities are entitled to send minority spokespersons (Hungarian: nemzetiségi szószólók) to the National Assembly. They have the same rights as other parliamentarians to address the parliament, but are not entitled to vote. However the minorities could also each set up national lists. If any such national list reached the 5% electoral threshold from[clarification needed] minority votes, this would entitle them to full-fledged[clarification needed] representatives.[61]

The Polish minority list was the first minority list to be successfully registered by the National Election Committee (NVB), on 25 February 2014. Two days later, on 27 February, the NVB registered three other national lists: those for the German, Rusyn and Serb minorities,[61] and then approved the lists of Armenians and Romanians on 1 March,[62] Bulgarians and Slovaks on 3 March, Croats, Ukrainians and Romani people on 4 March, and, finally, Greeks and Slovenes on 7 March.[63]

The officially recognized minority self-government organizations received a total of 298.5 million Ft (EUR 954,000) of public support for campaign activity. The National Roma Council was awarded a significant portion of the funds – altogether 101 million forints – while the Bulgarians granted the lowest amount (8.4 million), according to official demographic ratios.[64]

Opinion polls[edit]

This chart illustrates the level of support for the Hungarian government party Fidesz among all eligible voters, as measured by the five polling institutions regularly conducting polling in Hungary, over the year 2013. Since many eligible Hungarian voters expressed no preference for any political party at all, these numbers are significantly lower than those for Fidesz support among decided voters.
This chart illustrates the level of support for the Hungarian government party Fidesz among decided voters, as measured by the five polling institutions regularly conducting polling in Hungary, over the year 2013. Please note the information in the footnotes about the selection and calculation of the Medián and Nézőpont numbers.

Methodological note: The Hungarian pollsters generally release separate data on the support of political parties among all eligible voters (which tends to include a high percentage for "don't know/no preference"), and on the support of political parties among "active" or "certain" voters. The table below refers to the latter data.[a]

Support for the main Hungarian political parties among decided voters, as measured by the five regular polling institutions. Please note the clarifications about the selection and calculation of the Medián and Nézőpont data, and the calculation of the Unity average for the first month.

Results[edit]

Turnout[65]
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:30 Overall
1.64% 9.5% 23.23% 34.33% 45.02% 56.77% 61.73%
Summary of the 6 April 2014 Hungarian Parliament election results
Hungarian National Assembly 2015.svg
Parties and coalitions Party list Constituency Total seats
Votes  % ±pp Seats Votes Seats Seats ±  % ±pp
Fidesz–KDNP
party alliance
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union (Fidesz) 2,264,780 44.87 Decrease7.86 30 2,165,342 87 117 Decrease 110 66.83 Decrease1.30
Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP) 7 9 16 Decrease 20
Unity Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) 1,290,806 25.57 Increase6.27 21 1,317,879 8 29 Decrease 30 19.10 Increase3.82
Together – Party for a New Era (Együtt) New 2 1 3 New
Democratic Coalition (DK) New 3 1 4 New
Dialogue for Hungary (PM) New 1 0 1 New
Hungarian Liberal Party (Liberálisok) New 1 0 1 New
Movement for a Better Hungary (Jobbik) 1,020,476 20.22 Increase3.55 23 1,000,637 0 23 Decrease 24 11.56 Decrease0.62
Politics Can Be Different (LMP) 269,414 5.34 Decrease2.14 5 244,191 0 5 Decrease 11 2.51 Decrease1.64
Hungarian Workers' Party (Munkáspárt) 28,323 0.56 Increase0.45 0 12,716 0 0 Steady 0 0 0
The Homeland Not For Sale Movement Party (HNEM) 23,507 0.47 New 0 23,037 0 0 New 0 0
Alliance of Mária Seres (SMS) 22,219 0.44 Decrease0.45 0 20,229 0 0 Steady 0 0 0
Party of Greens (Greens) 18,557 0.37 Increase0.37 0 9,392 0 0 Steady 0 0 0
Social Democratic Hungarian Civic Party (Soc Dems) 15,073 0.30 Increase0.22 0 12,232 0 0 Steady 0 0 0
Together 2014 Party 14,085 0.28 New 0 6,361 0 0 New 0 0
Party for a Fit and Healthy Hungary (SEM) 12,563 0.25 New 0 11,746 0 0 New 0 0
Community for Social Justice People's Party (KTI) 10,969 0.22 New 0 10,551 0 0 New 0 0
Democratic Community of Welfare and Freedom (JESZ) 9,925 0.20 New 0 13,051 0 0 New 0 0
Gypsy Party of Hungary (MCP) 8,810 0.17 New 0 9,030 0 0 New 0 0
Independent Smallholders Party (FKgP) 8,083 0.16 Increase0.16 0 7,175 0 0 Steady 0 0 0
Unity Party (ÖP) 6,552 0.13 Increase0.06 0 6,887 0 0 Steady 0 0 0
New Dimension Party (ÚDP) 2,100 0.04 New 0 1,706 0 0 New 0 0
New Hungary Party (ÚMP) 1,578 0.03 New 0 2,018 0 0 New 0 0
Others and Independent candidates 34,432 0 0 Decrease 1 0 Decrease0.26
13 minority lists (needed 22,022 votes/list for a mandate) 19,543 0.38
Total (turnout 61.73%) Decrease 2.63pp 5,047,363 100.00 93 4,908,608 106 199 Decrease 187 100
Source: National Election Office (100.00% reporting)
133 38 23 5
Fidesz–KDNP Unity Jobbik LMP

Evaluation of the elections[edit]

Domestic[edit]

Fidesz's leader Viktor Orbán celebrated in Budapest with thousands of supporters in the evening and said that Hungary was on the threshold of a "new and wonderful epoch".

Jobbik leader Gábor Vona said that the party is now the "strongest national radical party" in the EU, as well as Hungary’s second largest political party". Jobbik continuously increases it popularity and ahead of the European parliament elections it is important to make this clear. [Yet even though] we outperformed pollsters’ expectations, but we were not able to achieve the goal we set for ourselves of winning the elections".

One of the five party alliance's leaders, Gordon Bajnai, said the result was a "crushing defeat" and a "great disappointment" for those who wanted change.[66]

International[edit]

The Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Limited Election Observation Mission found that the elections were "efficiently administered and offered voters a diverse choice following an inclusive candidate registration process" but that Fidesz "enjoyed an undue advantage because of restrictive campaign regulations, biased media coverage and campaign activities that blurred the separation between political party and the State".[67]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In addition, confusingly, two pollsters even publish parallel data on "active" or "certain" voters. Thus, Medián publishes different numbers for the categories of "választani tudók" and "választani tudó "biztos" szavazók", though they do not tend to differ much – the data in the table here generally refers to the latter. Tárki's polling releases always highlight results about "A pártok támogatottsága a pártválasztók körében", and those are included in the table here (and can be reviewed further back into time in this database on their website), but their website also provides a separate database with somewhat different polling data on "A pártok támogatottságának alakulása a biztos szavazó pártválasztók körében". Finally, in February 2013 Nézőpont switched to a system in which it distinguishes between "the entire population" and "active voters", but even the "active voters" sample always includes a percentage of those who are "undecided but favour a change in government" and a percentage of those who are "undecided altogether". Those numbers are given in the footnotes for each Nézőpont poll in the table.
  2. ^ Includes 1% for 4K! – Fourth Republic!.
  3. ^ This poll has 20% undecideds, of which 10% fully undecided and 10% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  4. ^ This poll has 17% undecideds, of which 9% fully undecided and 8% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  5. ^ This poll has 15% undecideds, of which 6% fully undecided and 9% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  6. ^ This poll has 13% undecideds, of which 6% fully undecided and 7% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  7. ^ This poll has 20.6% undecideds, of which 11.6% fully undecided and 9% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  8. ^ This poll has 26% undecideds, of which 12% fully undecided and 14% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  9. ^ This poll has a separate share of undecideds, which Nézőpont usually breaks down between those fully undecided and those undecided but in favour of a change in government. This month that data does not appear to have been published though, but a total of 26% must have fallen in those two categories or expressed support for DK or the smallest parties ("Others").
  10. ^ This poll has 17% undecideds, of which 10% fully undecided and 7% undecided but in favour of a change in government. In addition, this time the Nézőpont poll also provides data for "potenciális szavazók", which add up to 100%, leaving no number of undecided voters. The proportions are substantively different in this data, to the advantage of the MSzP: Fidesz 44%, MSzP 25%, Jobbik 14%, LMP 6%, DK 3%, E2014 7%.
  11. ^ This poll has 18% undecideds, of which 10% fully undecided and 8% undecided but in favour of a change in government. In addition, this time the Nézopont poll also provides data for "potenciális szavazók", which add up to 100%, leaving no number of undecided voters. The proportions are substantively different in this data, to the advantage of the MSzP and E2014: Fidesz 42%, MSzP 23%, Jobbik 13%, LMP 6%, DK 4%, E2014 10%, Others 2%.
  12. ^ This poll has 21% undecideds, of which 16% fully undecided and 5% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  13. ^ Includes 1% for Hungarian Liberal Party.
  14. ^ This poll has 14% undecideds, of which 12% fully undecided and 2% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  15. ^ This poll has 14% undecideds, of which 9% fully undecided and 5% undecided but in favour of a change in government.
  16. ^ This poll had 20% undecideds, of which 13% were fully undecided and 7% were undecided but in favour of a change in government. The figures presented represent decided voters.
  17. ^ This poll had 19% undecideds, of which 13% were fully undecided and 6% undecided but in favour of a change in government. The figures presented represent decided voters.
  18. ^ In addition to its polling data, Median provided a forecast for the election results: Fidesz/KDNP 38-44%; Unity 26-32%; Jobbik 21-25%; LMP 3-5%. See http://median.hu/object.cd804c1b-7e19-4376-ac97-b8089b67b753.ivy
  19. ^ This polling data does not include the "active voters" category which Nezopont used (and this table reflected) since February 2013. It only has data for "the entire population", with 27% undecideds and non-voters, and for "potential voters", with no undecideds at all. This table therefore uses the latter data.
  20. ^ In addition to this polling data for decided voters, Ipsos provided a forecast for the election results: Fidesz/KDNP 40-45%; Unity 26-31%; Jobbik 19-23%; LMP 4-6%.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Áder sets date of 2014 election for April 6". 18 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "Hungary election: PM Viktor Orban heads for victory". bbc. 
  3. ^ Az országgyűlési képviselők választásáról szóló 2011. évi CCIII. törvény. In.: Magyar Közlöny. 2011. évi, 165. sz., 41095-41099. p.
  4. ^ "Életbe lép az új választójogi törvény". Magyar Nemzet (in Hungarian). 29 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  5. ^ "Q&A Hungary's Controversial Constitutional Changes". bbc. 
  6. ^ "New Electoral System in the Home Stretch" (PDF). valasztasirendszer. 
  7. ^ "Orban the Unstoppable". The Economist. 
  8. ^ "Hungary's new constitution drafted by next March, says Fidesz official", politics.hu, 2 August 2010; accessed 18 August 2010
  9. ^ (in Hungarian) "Bihari szerint mindig lehet jobb" ("According to Bihari, One May Always Do Better"), FN.hu, 7 August 2010; accessed 18 August 2010
  10. ^ Zoltán Simon, "Hungary First to Write a Constitution on IPad, Lawmaker Says", Bloomberg, 4 March 2011; accessed 25 April 2011
  11. ^ "Hungary's parliament passes controversial new constitution", Deutsche Welle, 18 April 2011; accessed 25 April 2011
  12. ^ "Hungarian president signs new constitution despite human rights concerns", Deutsche Welle, 25 April 2011; accessed 25 April 2011
  13. ^ Judy Dempsey, "Hungarian Parliament Approves New Constitution", The New York Times, 18 April 2011; accessed 25 April 2011
  14. ^ "The new electoral law in Hungary: in-depth analysis" (PDF). Political Capital. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  15. ^ Marton Dornbach, Open Access Archivangelism, 30 November 2012 http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/964-Beyond-the-Problem-of-Access-Democracy-Closing-in-Hungary.html
  16. ^ Former PM Gyurcsány on week-long hunger strike over Fidesz voter registration plan
  17. ^ "Hungary top court voids election law in blow to Orban". BBC. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  18. ^ "Gov't backs off on voter registration after Constitutional Court ruling". Budapest Business Journal. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  19. ^ Szili Katalin kilépett az MSZP-frakcióból
  20. ^ Gyurcsány announces departure from Socialists, formation of new “Western, civic center-left” party
  21. ^ "Schiffer nem csókolózott Mesterházyval" (in Hungarian). Index. November 25, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  22. ^ Szalay Tamás Lajos (12 July 2011). "Belföld: 'Saját fegyverével kell felszámolni a Fidesz rendszerét' - NOL.hu". NOL.hu. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  23. ^ "Beintett Bajnainak az LMP, lemondott Jávor Benedek". 18 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  24. ^ "LMP fails to elect new parliamentary group leader as split in party continues". 26 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  25. ^ "LMP rejects proposals for new strategy at party congress". 27 January 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  26. ^ "LMP splits over cooperation with Together 2014; caucus may remain intact". 28 January 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "LMP rebels to establish Dialogue for Hungary as a full-fledged party". 4 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  28. ^ a b "Former PM Bajnai's political movement officially forms political party". 9 March 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  29. ^ Ex-Jobbik MPs stick to right with MIÉP
  30. ^ Justice and Life Party revival may dent Jobbik’s chances in 2014
  31. ^ Bajnai said to announce return to politics on October 23
  32. ^ Gordon Bajnai's speech as published on the home page of his organization Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ BBC News - Mass rallies mark 1956 Hungary uprising
  34. ^ Bajnai says plans to run for Parliament; in car accident in Budapest
  35. ^ "Medián: Bajnaiék lehetnek a legnagyobb ellenzéki erő". 7 November 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2017. 
  36. ^ Az LMP nemet mondott Bajnaiéknak – Index, 2012-11-18
  37. ^ Szétszakadt az LMP – Index, 2013-01-27
  38. ^ Párttá alakult az Együtt 2014 - közismert arcok a vezetőségben Archived 21 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. – Híradó.hu, 2013-03-08
  39. ^ "Monday deadline sees 2,300 candidates registered for general election". 4 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  40. ^ "Nyilvántartásba vett jelöltet, listát állító jelölőszervezetek (Egyéni jelöltek száma)" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "Országos jelölt és lista állítási statisztika a nyilvántartásba vett jelöltekről, listákról" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  42. ^ "FIDESZ–KDNP által állított nyilvántartásba vett jelöltek és listák" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  43. ^ "MSZP–EGYÜTT–DK–PM–MLP által állított nyilvántartásba vett jelöltek és listák" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  44. ^ "JOBBIK által állított nyilvántartásba vett jelöltek és listák" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  45. ^ "LMP által állított nyilvántartásba vett jelöltek és listák" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  46. ^ "Szociáldemokraták által állított nyilvántartásba vett jelöltek és listák" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  47. ^ "Soc Dems által állított nyilvántartásba vett jelöltek és listák" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  48. ^ "SMS által állított nyilvántartásba vett jelöltek és listák" (in Hungarian). National Election Office. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
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