The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia. The name Harz derives from Hart, Latinized as Hercynia; the Brocken is the highest summit in the Harz with an elevation of 1,141.1 metres above sea level. The Wurmberg is the highest peak located within the state of Lower Saxony; the Harz has a length of 110 kilometres, stretching from the town of Seesen in the northwest to Eisleben in the east, a width of 35 kilometres. It occupies an area of 2,226 square kilometres, is divided into the Upper Harz in the northwest, up to 800 m high, apart from the 1,100 m high Brocken massif, the Lower Harz in the east, up to around 400 m high and whose plateaus are capable of supporting arable farming; the following districts fall wholly or within the Harz: Goslar and Göttingen in the west and Mansfeld-Südharz in the north and east, Nordhausen in the south. The districts of the Upper Harz are Goslar and Göttingen, whilst the Lower Harz is on the territory of Harz and Mansfeld-Südharz districts.
The Upper Harz is higher and features fir forests, whilst the Lower Harz descends into the surrounding area and has deciduous forests interspersed with meadows. The dividing line between Upper and Lower Harz follows a line from Ilsenburg to Bad Lauterberg, which separates the catchment areas for the Weser and Elbe. Only on the southeastern perimeter of the Upper Harz, called the High Harz, does the mountain range exceed 1,000 m above NN on the Brocken massif, its highest peak is the Brocken, its subsidiary peaks are the Heinrichshöhe to the southeast and the Königsberg to the southwest. Other prominent hills in the Harz are the Acker-Bruchberg ridge, the Achtermannshöhe and the Wurmberg near Braunlage. In the far east, the mountains merge into the East Harz foothills, which are dominated by the Selke Valley. Part of the south Harz lies in the Thuringian district of Nordhausen; the Harz National Park is located in the Harz. 600,000 people live in towns and villages of the Harz Mountains. Because of the heavy rainfall in the region the rivers of the Harz Mountains were dammed from an early date.
Examples of such masonry dams are the two largest: the Rappbode Dam. The clear, cool water of the mountain streams was dammed by early mountain folk to form the various mountain ponds of the Upper Harz waterways, such as the Oderteich; the 17 dams in the Harz block a total of twelve rivers. Because the Harz is one of the regions of Germany that experiences the most rainfall, its water power was used from early times. Today the dams are used to generate electricity, to provide drinking water, to prevent flooding and to supply water in times of scarcity. Modern dam-building began in the Harz with the construction of the Söse Valley Dam, built between 1928 and 1931; the dams of the Upper Harz lakes are some of the oldest dams in Germany. → See List of dams in the Harz The largest rivers in the Harz are the Innerste, the Oker and the Bode in the north. The Innerste merges into the Leine and its tributaries are the Nette and the Grane; the rivers Radau and Ilse all discharge into the Oker. The Hassel, the Selke and the Holtemme flow into the Bode.
The Wipper is fed by the Eine. The Rhume is joined by the Oder; the Zorge, the Wieda and the Uffe all flow into the Helme. → See List of hills in the Harz → See List of rock formations in the Harz Climatically a hill range has lower temperatures and higher levels of precipitation than the surrounding land. The Harz is characterised by regular precipitation throughout the year. Exposed to westerly winds from the Atlantic, heavy with rain, the windward side of the mountains has up to 1,600 mm of rain annually; the Harz is the most geologically diverse of the German Mittelgebirge, although it is overwhelmingly dominated by base-poor rocks. The most common rocks lying on the surface are argillaceous shales, slaty greywackes and granite intrusions in the shape of two large igneous rock masses or plutons; the Gießen-Harz surface layer of the Rhenohercynian zone, widespread in the Harz, consists of flysch. Well-known and economically important are the limestone deposits around Elbingerode and the Gabbro of Bad Harzburg.
The landscapes of the Harz are characterised by steep mountain ridges, stone runs flat plateaus with many raised bogs and long, narrow V-shaped valleys, of which the Bode Gorge, the Oker and Selke valleys are the best known. A representative cross-section of all the Harz rocks is displayed on the Jordanshöhe near Sankt Andreasberg near the car park; the formation and geological folding of the Harz hills began during a prominent phase of the Palaeozoic era, in the course of the Hercynian mountain building of the Carboniferous period, about 350 to 250 million years ago. At that time in the history of the Earth, numerous high mountains appeared in Western Euro
The Suebi were a large group of related Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Hermunduri, Semnones and others, sometimes including sub-groups referred to as Suebi. In the broadest sense, the Suebi are associated with the early Germanic tribal group Irminones mentioned by classical authors. Beginning in the 1st century BC, various Suebian tribes moved south-westwards from the Baltic Sea and the Elbe and came into conflict with Ancient Rome, they are first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with the invasion of Gaul by the Suebian chieftain Ariovistus during the Gallic Wars. During the reign of Augustus, the Suebi expanded southwards at the expense of Gallic tribes, establishing a Germanic presence in the immediate areas north of the Danube. During this time, Maroboduus of the Marcomanni established the first confederation of Germanic tribes in Bohemia. Under the reign of Marcus Aurelius in the 2nd century AD, the Marcomanni, under pressure from East Germanic tribes, invaded Italy.
By the Crisis of the Third Century, new Suebian groups had emerged, Italy was invaded again by the Juthungi, while the Alamanni ravaged Gaul and settled the Agri Decumates. The Alamanni continued exerting pressure on Gaul, while the Alamannic chieftain Chrocus played an important role in elevating Constantine the Great to Roman Emperor. By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and overran Hispania, where they established the Kingdom of the Suebi. During the last years of the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Suebian general Ricimer was its de facto ruler; the Lombards settled Italy and established the Kingdom of the Lombards. The Alammani and Thuringii who remained in Germania gave their name to the German regions of Swabia and Thuringia respectively; the Suebi are thought to encompass the High German cultures and dialects predominant in Southern Germany and Austria. Etymologists trace the name from Proto-Germanic *swēbaz, either based on the Proto-Germanic root *swē- meaning "one's own" people or on the third-person reflexive pronoun.
The etymological sources list the following ethnic names as being from the same root: Suiones, Samnites and Sabines, indicating the possibility of a prior more extended and common Indo-European ethnic name, "our own people". Notably, the Semnones, known to classical authors as one of the largest Suebian groups seem to have a name with this same meaning, but recorded with a different pronunciation by the Romans. Alternatively, it may be borrowed from a Celtic word for "vagabond". Caesar placed the Suebi east of the Ubii near modern Hesse, in the position where writers mention the Chatti, he distinguished them from their allies the Marcomanni; some commentators believe that Caesar's Suebi were the Chatti or the Hermunduri, or Semnones. Authors use the term Suebi more broadly, "to cover a large number of tribes in central Germany". While Caesar treated them as one Germanic tribe within an alliance, albeit the largest and most warlike one authors, such as Tacitus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo, specified that the Suevi "do not, like the Chatti or Tencteri, constitute a single nation.
They occupy more than half of Germania, are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all are called Suebi". Although no classical authors explicitly call the Chatti Suevic, Pliny the Elder, reported in his Natural History that the Irminones were a large grouping of related Germanic gentes or "tribes" including not only the Suebi, but the Hermunduri and Cherusci. Whether or not the Chatti were considered Suevi, both Tacitus and Strabo distinguish the two because the Chatti were more settled in one territory, whereas Suevi remained less settled; the definitions of the greater ethnic groupings within Germania were not always consistent and clear in the case of mobile groups such as the Suevi. Whereas Tacitus reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones and Ingaevones, Pliny adds two more genera or "kinds", the Bastarnae and the Vandili; the Vandals were tribes east of the Elbe, including the well-known Silingi and Burgundians, an area that Tacitus treated as Suebic.
That the Vandals might be a separate type of Germanic people, corresponding to the modern concept of East Germanic, is a possibility that Tacitus noted, but for example the Varini are named as Vandilic by Pliny, Suebic by Tacitus. At one time, classical ethnography had applied the name Suevi to so many Germanic tribes that it appeared as if, in the first centuries AD, that native name would replace the foreign name "Germans"; the modern term "Elbe Germanic" covers a large grouping of Germanic peoples that at least overlaps with the classical terms "Suevi" and "Irminones". However, this term was developed as an attempt to define the ancient peoples who must have spoken the Germanic dialects that led to modern Upper German dialects spoken in Austria, Thuringia, Baden-Württemberg and German speaking Switzerland; this was proposed by Friedrich Maurer as one of five major Kulturkreise or "culture-groups" whose dialects developed in the southern German area from the first century BC through to the fourth century AD.
Apart from his own linguistic work with modern dialects, he referred to the archaeological and literary analysis of Germanic tribes done earlier by Gustaf Kossinna In terms of these pr
The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire. The only known information about the Germanic tribe the Romans called the'Quadi' comes through reports of the Romans themselves, whose empire had its border on the River Danube just to the south of the Quadi, they associated the Quadi with their neighbours the Marcomanni, described both groups as having entered the region after the Celtic Boii had left it deserted. The Quadi are thought to have been an important part of the Suebian group who crossed the Rhine with the Vandals and Alans in the 406 Crossing of the Rhine, founded a kingdom in northwestern Iberia. In the 1st century BC, according to Roman written sources, the more numerous Marcomanni, whose name means the "men of the borderlands", moved themselves from settlements elsewhere into a hilly area in the Hercynian forest known as Baiohaemum, considered to have been the same as, or near to, modern Bohemia, it is said that the Quadi lived in the same general region, were Suebian Germans, like the Marcomanni.
The Quadi lived in what is now Moravia, western Slovakia and Lower Austria where they had displaced Celtic cultures and were first noticed by Romans in 8–6 BC documented by Tacitus in his Germania. They came to be part of the Marcomannic confederation that fought the future emperor Tiberius in 6 AD. There may be an earlier reference to the Quadi in the Geography of Strabo. In a parenthetical expression removed from the main text, he mentions a branch of the Suevi called the Koldouoi, transliterated to Latin Coldui. Part of their range is the domain of Maroboduus; the amendment of Coldui to Coadui is considered correct. Tacitus mentions the Quadi in the same breath as the Marcomanni, alike in warlike spirit, alike governed by "kings" of their own noble stock, "descended from the noble line of Maroboduus and Tudrus"; the royal powers of both tribes were alike, according to Tacitus, in being supported by Roman silver. In The Annals, Tacitus writes that Maroboduus was deposed by the exile Catualda around 18 AD.
Catualda was in turn defeated by the Hermunduri Vibilius, after which the realm was ruled by the Quadian Vannius. Vannius was himself deposed by Vibilius, in coordination with his nephews Vangio and Sido, who divided his realm between themselves as Roman client kings, their neighbours for the next 350 years or more were the Marcomanni to the west, Buri to the north, Sarmatian Iazgyians and Asding Vandals arriving to the east somewhat and the Roman Empire to the south, across the Danube. Tacitus writes: Behind them the Marsigni, Gotini and Buri, close in the rear of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Of these, the Marsigni and Buri, in their language and manner of life, resemble the Suevi; the Gotini and Osi are proved by their respective Gallic and Pannonian tongues, as well as by the fact of their enduring tribute, not to be Germans. Tribute is imposed on them as aliens by the Sarmatæ by the Quadi; the Gotini, to complete their degradation work iron mines. All these nations occupy but on mountain-tops.
These Gotini, or Cotini, are mentioned in other Roman sources and appear to have been a remnant of an older Celtic population. In the 2nd century AD, Marcus Aurelius fought them in the Marcomannic Wars, for which our source is an abridgement of lost books of Dio Cassius' history; the troubles began in late 166 when the Obii crossed the Danube into Roman Moesia. They must have done so with the consent of the Quadi; the Quadi wished to avoid trouble themselves by allowing these tribes to pass through into Roman territory. This invasion was thrown back into Quadi territory without too much difficulty as far as the Romans were concerned, but the incursion marked the start of a long series of attempts to cross the border. A few years the Marcomanni and Quadi, with assistance from other tribes that had crossed the Danube, overwhelmed a Roman army, passed over the plain at the head of the Adriatic, put the town of Aquileia in northern Italy under siege. After initial Roman losses, the Marcomanni were defeated in 171, Marcus Aurelius managed to make peace with some of the tribes along the Danube, including the Quadi.
But in 172, he launched a major attack into the territory of the Marcomanni, turned on the Quadi, aiding Marcomanni refugees. In a major battle in that year, his troops were defeated, until a sudden rainstorm allowed them to defeat the Quadi; the Quadi were eliminated as a direct threat in 174. Marcus' planned counteroffensive across the Danube was prevented in 175, however, by insurrection within the Empire. Though Marcus Aurelius suppressed the revolt, it was not until 178 that he was able to pursue the Quadi over the Danube into Bohemia, he executed a successful and decisive battle against them in 179 at Laugaricio Trenčín - Slovakia under the command of legate and procurator Marcus Valerius Maximianus of Poetovio Pannonia. He was planning to advance the Roman border east and north to the Carpathian Mountains and Bohemia when he became ill and died in 180; the wars of Marcus Aurelius appeared to have been successful in that the Quadi remained quiet for several generations, though sources become scarcer and of poorer quality during the third century.
In the 4t
History of Germany
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul, which he had conquered. The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest prevented annexation by the Roman Empire, although the Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes; when the Frankish Empire was divided among Charles the Great's heirs in 843, the eastern part became East Francia. In 962, Otto I became the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the medieval German state. In the Late Middle Ages, the regional dukes and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic.
The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War, ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany. 1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as Prussia, Saxony and other states, which controlled land outside of the area considered as "Germany". After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars from 1803–1815, feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction; the German revolutions of 1848–49 failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for science and humanities, while music and art flourished; the unification of Germany was achieved under the leadership of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in 1871 which solved the Kleindeutsche Lösung, the small Germany solution, or Großdeutsche Lösung, the greater Germany solution, the former prevailing.
The new Reichstag, an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in the Pacific. By 1900, Germany was the dominant power on the European continent and its expanding industry had surpassed Britain's, while provoking it in a naval arms race. Germany led the Central Powers in World War I against France, Great Britain and the United States. Defeated and occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of home territory to be ceded to Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Poland; the German Revolution of 1918–19 put an end to the federal constitutional monarchy, which resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany.
The Nazi Party began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hitler established a totalitarian regime. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. First came the remilitarization of the Rhineland in 1936, the annexing of Austria in the Anschluss and parts of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement in 1938. On 1 September 1939, Germany initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland. After forming a pact with the Soviet Union in 1939, Hitler and Stalin divided Eastern Europe. After a "Phoney War" in spring 1940, the Germans swept Denmark and Norway, the Low Countries and France, giving Germany control of nearly all of Western Europe. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the Nazi regime. In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areas, the systematic genocide program known as The Holocaust killed 11 million including Jews, German dissidents, disabled people, Romanies and others.
In 1942, the German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, after the United States had entered the war, Britain became the base for massive Anglo-American bombings of German cities. Germany fought the war on multiple fronts through 1942–1944, however following the Allied invasion of Normandy, the German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May 1945. Under occupation by the Allies, German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany. Millions of ethnic Germans were deported or fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion, became the dominant economy in Western Europe. West Germany was rearmed in the 1950s under the auspices of NATO, but without access to nuclear weapons; the Franco-German friendship became the basis for the political integration of Western Europe in the European Union.
In 1989, the Berlin Wall was destroye
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.