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Huns

The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area, part of Scythia at the time. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, by 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders, causing many others to flee into Roman territory; the Huns under their King Attila, made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. In 451, the Huns invaded the Western Roman province of Gaul, where they fought a combined army of Romans and Visigoths at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, in 452 they invaded Italy. After Attila's death in 453, the Huns ceased to be a major threat to Rome and lost much of their empire following the Battle of Nedao. Descendants of the Huns, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia from about the 4th to 6th centuries.

Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection; the issue remains controversial. Their relationships to other peoples known collectively as the Iranian Huns are disputed. Little is known about Hunnic culture and few archaeological remains have been conclusively associated with the Huns, they are believed to have used bronze cauldrons and to have performed artificial cranial deformation. No description exists of the Hunnic religion of the time of Attila, but practices such as divination are attested, the existence of shamans likely, it is known that the Huns had a language of their own, however only three words and personal names attest to it. Economically, they are known to have practiced a form of nomadic pastoralism.

They do not seem to have had a unified government when they entered Europe, but rather to have developed a unified tribal leadership in the course of their wars with the Romans. The Huns ruled over a variety of peoples who spoke various languages and some of whom maintained their own rulers, their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire; the memory of the Huns lived on in various Christian saints' lives, where the Huns play the roles of antagonists, as well as in Germanic heroic legend, where the Huns are variously antagonists or allies to the Germanic main figures. In Hungary, a legend developed based on medieval chronicles that the Hungarians, the Székely ethnic group in particular, are descended from the Huns. However, mainstream scholarship dismisses a close connection between the Huns. Modern culture associates the Huns with extreme cruelty and barbarism; the origins of the Huns and their links to other steppe people remain uncertain: scholars agree that they originated in Central Asia but disagree on the specifics of their origins.

Classical sources assert that they appeared in Europe around 370. Most Roman writers' attempts to elucidate the origins of the Huns equated them with earlier steppe peoples. Roman writers repeated a tale that the Huns had entered the domain of the Goths while they were pursuing a wild stag, or else one of their cows that had gotten loose, across the Kerch Strait into Crimea. Discovering the land good, they attacked the Goths. Jordanes' Getica relates that the Goths held the Huns to be offspring of "unclean spirits" and Gothic witches. Since Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, modern historians have associated the Huns who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th century AD with the Xiongnu who had invaded China from the territory of present-day Mongolia between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. Due to the devastating defeat by the Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the Xiongnu had retreated north-westward. Scholars discussed the relationship between the Xiongnu, the Huns, a number of people in central Asia who were known as or came to be identified with the name "Hun" or "Iranian Huns".

The most prominent of these were Chionites, the Kidarites, the Hephthalites. Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based on the study of written sources, to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Since Maenchen-Helfen's work, the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns' ancestors has become controversial. Additionally, several scholars have questioned the identification of the "Iranian Huns" with the European Huns. Walter Pohl cautions that none of the great confederations of steppe warriors was ethnically homogenous, the same name was used by different groups for reasons of prestige, or by outsiders to describe their lifestyle or geographic origin, it is therefore futile to speculate about identity or blood relationships between Hiung-nu, Attila's Huns, for instance. All we can safely say is that the name Huns

2014–15 Boston University Terriers men's basketball team

The 2014–15 Boston University Terriers men's basketball team represented Boston University during the 2014–15 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Terriers, led by fourth year head coach Joe Jones, played their home games at Agganis Arena, with early season games at Case Gym, were members of the Patriot League, they finished the season 9 -- 9 in Patriot League play to finish in a tie for fourth place. They lost in the quarterfinals of the Patriot League Tournament to Lafayette; the Terriers finished the season 24–11, 15–3 in Patriot League play to win the Patriot League regular season championship. They advanced to the championship game of the Patriot League Tournament; as a regular season league champion who failed to win their league tournament, they received an automatic bid to the National Invitation Tournament where they lost in the first round to Illinois

Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus

Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus is a predatory fish and a member of the family Platycephalidae. Bluespotted flathead are a marine species and are predominantly found in offshore waters and coastal bays on the east coast of Australia where they are exclusively found on marine sand Flathead are notable for their unusual body shape, upon which their hunting strategy is based. Flathead are dorsally compressed, meaning their body is wide but flattened and low in height. Both eyes are on the top of the flattened head, giving excellent binocular vision to attack overhead prey; the effect is somewhat similar to flounder. In contrast to flounder however, flathead are much more elongated, the tail remains vertical, the mouth is large and symmetrical. Bluespotted flathead use this body structure to hide in sand. While it has not been observed, it is thought that like other flathead species, the bluespotted flathead uses this camouflage to ambush small prey species; the species can be an active swimmer and will chase prey without resorting to ambush.

The bluespotted flathead can be distinguished from other flathead by its scattered blue spots, elongated dark blotches on the tail which become larger from the top of tail to the bottom. The lower preopercular spine is distinctly longer than the upper. Bluespotted flathead are a encountered on marine sands in south-eastern Australia and are found in other habitats, they reach up to and 68 cm in length and it is thought that both males and females reach this maximum size. Both commercial and recreational fishers target bluespotted flathead, they are confused by fishers with the numerous other species of flathead caught in the same areas