Pennsylvania Route 23
Pennsylvania Route 23 is a 81.14-mile-long state highway in southeastern Pennsylvania. The route begins at PA 441 in Marietta and heads east to U. S. Route 1 on the border of Lower Merion Township and Philadelphia. PA 23 begins at Marietta in Lancaster County and continues east to Lancaster, where it passes through the city on a one-way pair and intersects US 222 and US 30. East of Lancaster, the route passes through agricultural areas in Pennsylvania Dutch Country, serving Leola, New Holland, Blue Ball, where it crosses US 322. PA 23 passes through the southern tip of Berks County and serves Morgantown, where a ramp provides access to Interstate 176; the route runs through northern Chester County and serves Elverson, Bucktown and Valley Forge. PA 23 continues into Montgomery County and intersects US 422 in King of Prussia and US 202 in Bridgeport; the route follows the Schuylkill River to West Conshohocken, where it has access to I-76 and I-476, before it continues southeast through Lower Merion Township to US 1.
PA 23 was first designated in 1927 between US 230 in Lancaster and City Avenue on the Lower Merion Township/Philadelphia border. The route was extended east to US 30 in West Philadelphia via Conshohocken Avenue and Belmont Avenue in the 1930s. PA 23 was rerouted to use Gulph Road through Valley Forge Park by 1945, with PA 23 Truck designated to bypass the route to the north and east by 1950. PA 23 Alternate was designated as an alternate alignment in Lower Merion Township in 1937. PA 23 was moved to its current alignment between Valley Forge and Bala Cynwyd by 1967, replacing parts of PA 363 between Valley Forge and Port Kennedy and PA 320 between Bridgeport and West Conshohocken; the alternate and truck routes were decommissioned at this time. The route was extended west from Lancaster to Marietta by 1970, replacing a part of PA 340; the eastern terminus was moved to its current location in the 1980s. PA 23 was rerouted to its current alignment in the eastern part of Lancaster in 1992, bypassing New Holland Avenue.
A PA 23 freeway was proposed east of Lancaster in the 1960s. The road was turned over to farmers and is known as the "Goat Path". A two-lane bypass of PA 23 east of Lancaster was proposed before being shelved in 2010. A freeway between US 422 and US 202 in Upper Merion Township called the Schuylkill Parkway was planned in the 1960s. PA 23 begins at an intersection with PA 441 on the eastern edge of Marietta in Lancaster County, heading east on two-lane undivided Marietta Avenue into East Donegal Township; the road runs through a mix of farmland and trees with some residences, crossing Chiques Creek into West Hempfield Township. The route continues through rural land with some housing developments as Marietta Pike, passing through the community of Silver Spring. PA 23 runs through farm fields with some residential and commercial development and crosses into East Hempfield Township at the Stony Battery Road intersection in the community of Oyster Point; the road continues through development with some farmland, coming to bridges over the US 30 freeway without an interchange and Norfolk Southern's Columbia Secondary.
The route passes homes in the community of Rohrerstown and reaches an intersection with PA 741. PA 23 runs through wooded residential areas and enters Lancaster Township upon crossing Little Conestoga Creek; the route becomes Marietta Avenue, running through the community of School Lane Hills and curving to the southeast. The road passes to the north of Wheatland, the former home of President James Buchanan, before it enters the city of Lancaster and becomes city-maintained. Upon entering Lancaster, PA 23 intersects the westbound direction of PA 462 at Race Avenue. Here, the route splits into a one-way pair, with the eastbound direction of PA 23 continuing along two-way Marietta Avenue and the westbound direction of PA 23 becoming concurrent with westbound PA 462 on one-way West Walnut Street, carrying two lanes. Two blocks near Lancaster Regional Medical Center, eastbound PA 23 splits from Marietta Avenue onto one-way eastbound West Chestnut Street, with two lanes; the route follows West Chestnut Street eastbound and West Walnut Street westbound, continuing concurrent with PA 462 westbound, passing through residential areas of the city.
Eastbound PA 462 is located two blocks south of eastbound PA 23 along King Street. The route heads into the commercial downtown of Lancaster, where it intersects one-way southbound US 222/PA 272 at North Prince Street. A short distance PA 23 crosses one-way northbound PA 72 at North Queen Street. Past this intersection, the route becomes East Chestnut Street eastbound and East Walnut Street westbound, intersecting one-way northbound US 222/PA 272 at North Lime Street at the east end of downtown. Following this, PA 23 passes more homes and industrial establishments in the eastern part of the city. At North Broad Street, westbound PA 462 splits from westbound PA 23, the two directions of PA 23 merge a short distance onto four-lane, divided East Walnut Street, state-maintained; the route curves northeast through wooded areas with some nearby development, passing through a corner of Manheim Township before crossing under the Conestoga Creek Viaduct that carries Amtrak's Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line over the route and the Conestoga River to the east.
The road continues north into Lancaster again before it turns northeast into Manheim Township and crosses the Conestoga River back into Lancaster. PA 23 comes to an interchange with the US 30 freeway, where it turns northwest for a concurr
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land, dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals. Floods can occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers.
While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry. Some floods develop while others such as flash floods can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or large, affecting entire river basins; the word "flood" comes from a word common to Germanic languages. Floods can happen on flat or low-lying areas when water is supplied by rainfall or snowmelt more than it can either infiltrate or run off; the excess accumulates in place, sometimes to hazardous depths. Surface soil can become saturated, which stops infiltration, where the water table is shallow, such as a floodplain, or from intense rain from one or a series of storms. Infiltration is slow to negligible through frozen ground, concrete, paving, or roofs.
Areal flooding begins in flat areas like floodplains and in local depressions not connected to a stream channel, because the velocity of overland flow depends on the surface slope. Endorheic basins may experience areal flooding during periods when precipitation exceeds evaporation. Floods occur in all types of river and stream channels, from the smallest ephemeral streams in humid zones to normally-dry channels in arid climates to the world's largest rivers; when overland flow occurs on tilled fields, it can result in a muddy flood where sediments are picked up by run off and carried as suspended matter or bed load. Localized flooding may be caused or exacerbated by drainage obstructions such as landslides, debris, or beaver dams. Slow-rising floods most occur in large rivers with large catchment areas; the increase in flow may be the result of sustained rainfall, rapid snow melt, monsoons, or tropical cyclones. However, large rivers may have rapid flooding events in areas with dry climate, since they may have large basins but small river channels and rainfall can be intense in smaller areas of those basins.
Rapid flooding events, including flash floods, more occur on smaller rivers, rivers with steep valleys, rivers that flow for much of their length over impermeable terrain, or normally-dry channels. The cause may be localized convective precipitation or sudden release from an upstream impoundment created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier. In one instance, a flash flood killed eight people enjoying the water on a Sunday afternoon at a popular waterfall in a narrow canyon. Without any observed rainfall, the flow rate increased from about 50 to 1,500 cubic feet per second in just one minute. Two larger floods occurred at the same site within a week, but no one was at the waterfall on those days; the deadly flood resulted from a thunderstorm over part of the drainage basin, where steep, bare rock slopes are common and the thin soil was saturated. Flash floods are the most common flood type in normally-dry channels in arid zones, known as arroyos in the southwest United States and many other names elsewhere.
In that setting, the first flood water to arrive is depleted. The leading edge of the flood thus advances more than and higher flows; as a result, the rising limb of the hydrograph becomes quicker as the flood moves downstream, until the flow rate is so great that the depletion by wetting soil becomes insignificant. Flooding in estuaries is caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by winds and low barometric pressure, they may be exacerbated by high upstream river flow. Coastal areas may be flooded by storm events at sea, resulting in waves over-topping defenses or in severe cases by tsunami or tropical cyclones. A storm surge, from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone, falls within this category. Research from the NHC explains: "Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm and above the predicted astronomical tides. Storm surge should not be confused with storm tide, defined as the water level rise due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.
This rise in water level can cause extreme flooding in coastal areas when storm surge coincides with normal high tide, resulting in storm tides reaching up to 20 feet or more in some cases." Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built environment in more densely populated areas, caused by rainfall overwhelmi
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Lancaster County locally, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445, its county seat is Lancaster. Lancaster County comprises the Lancaster, Metropolitan Statistical Area and is a part of Philadelphia's Designated Media Market; the County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with its Amish community a major attraction. The "Dutch" of Pennsylvania Dutch is the English form of Düütsch, the Low German cognate of Standard German Deutsch and Pennsylvania Dutch Deitsch; the ancestors of the Amish began to immigrate to colonial Pennsylvania in the early 18th century to take advantage of the religious freedom offered by William Penn. They were attracted by the area's rich soil and mild climate. Attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution settled this area in 1710. There were significant numbers of English and Ulster Scots.
The area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter. John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691. Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that any Europeans settled in Lancaster County before 1710. Lancaster County was part of Chester County, Pennsylvania until May 10, 1729, when it was organized as colony's fourth county, it was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, an early settler. As settlement increased, six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon and York. Many other counties were in turn formed from these six. Indigenous peoples had occupied the areas along the waterways for thousands of years, established varying cultures. Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Gawanese and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families and had distinct cultures.
Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock, whose name was derived from the Lenape term for "Oyster River People". The English called them the Conestoga, after the name of their principal village, Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga, anglicized as "Conestoga." Other places occupied by the Susquehannock were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra, where present-day Chickisalunga developed, Gasch'guch'sa, now called Conewago Falls, Lancaster County. Other Native tribes, as well as early European settlers, considered the Susquehannock a mighty nation, experts in war and trade, they were beaten only by the combined power of the Five Nation Iroquois Confederacy, after colonial Maryland withdrew its support. After 1675, the Susquehannock were absorbed by the Iroquois. A handful were settled at "New Conestoga," located along the south bank of the Conestoga River in Conestoga Township of the county, they helped staff an Iroquois consulate to the English in Virginia. By the 1720s, the colonists considered the Conestoga Indians as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, speaking English as a second language, making brooms and baskets for sale, naming children after their favorite neighbors.
The outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused widespread settler suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties, without distinguishing among hostile and friendly peoples. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, attacked Conestoga, killing the six Indians present, burning all the houses. Officials sheltered the tribe's fourteen survivors in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, massacred the remaining natives; the lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers meant they were never discovered or brought to justice. Pennsylvania had a longstanding dispute with Maryland about the southern border of the province and Lancaster County. Nine years of armed clashes accompanied the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute, which began soon after the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River.
Lord Baltimore believed. This was the town of Willow Street, Pennsylvania; this line of demarcation would have resulted in Philadelphia's being included in Maryland. New settlers began to cross the Susquehanna. In 1730, the Wright's Ferry services were licensed and begun. Starting in mid-1730, Thomas Cresap, acting as an agent of Lord Baltimore, began confiscating the newly settled farms near present-day Peach Bottom and Columbia, Pennsylvania. Believing he controlled this land under his grant, Lord Baltimore wanted the income from the lands, he believed he had a defensible claim established on the west bank of the Susquehanna since 1721, that his demesne and grant
Upper Leacock Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Upper Leacock Township is a township in east central Lancaster County, United States. The population was 8,708 at the 2010 census; the township includes a village called Mascot, named by Annie Groff, a deceased member of the Ressler family, owners of the Mascot Roller Mills. She dedicated the name of the village to a canine actor she watched at a Broadway theatre show on her honeymoon. In 2005, the Lancaster Barnstormers baseball team introduced its mascot, Cylo, at the village's Mascot Roller Mills; the location was chosen for its lighthearted synonymity with the word mascot. The Mascot Roller Mills and Pinetown Covered Bridge are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 18.1 square miles, of which, 18.0 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,229 people, 2,777 households, 2,102 families residing in the township; the population density was 457.1 people per square mile.
There were 2,854 housing units at an average density of 158.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 92.34% White, 1.24% African American, 0.15% Native American, 3.71% Asian, 1.29% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.24% of the population. There were 2,777 households, out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.3% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.3% were non-families. 19.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.45. In the township the population was spread out, with 31.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $45,403, the median income for a family was $49,670. Males had a median income of $34,141 versus $22,309 for females; the per capita income for the township was $20,902. About 4.4% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over
Hurricane Agnes was the second tropical cyclone and first named storm of the 1972 Atlantic hurricane season. Agnes developed on June 14 from the interaction of a polar front and an upper trough over the Yucatán Peninsula. Forming as a tropical depression, the storm headed eastward and emerged into the western Caribbean Sea on June 15. Once in the Caribbean, the depression began to strengthen, by the following day, it became Tropical Storm Agnes. Thereafter, Agnes curved northward and passed just west of Cuba on June 17. Early on June 18, the storm intensified enough to be upgraded to Hurricane Agnes. Heading northward, the hurricane made landfall near Panama City, Florida late on June 19. After moving inland, Agnes weakened and was only a tropical depression when it entered Georgia; the weakening trend halted as the storm crossed into South Carolina. While over eastern North Carolina, Agnes re-strengthened into a tropical storm on June 21, as a result of baroclinic activity. Early the following day, the storm emerged into the Atlantic Ocean before re-curving northwestward and making landfall near New York City as a strong tropical storm.
Agnes became an extratropical cyclone on June 23, tracked to the northwest of Great Britain, before being absorbed by another extratropical cyclone on July 6. Agnes was, at the costliest hurricane to hit the United States in recorded history. Though it moved across the Yucatán Peninsula, the damage Agnes caused in Mexico is unknown. Although the storm bypassed the tip of Cuba, heavy rainfall occurred. In Florida, Agnes caused a significant tornado outbreak, with at least 26 confirmed twisters, two of which were spawned in Georgia; the tornadoes and two unconfirmed tornadoes in Florida alone resulted in over $4.5 million in damage and six fatalities. At least 2,082 structures in Florida were destroyed. About 1,355 other dwellings experienced minor losses. Though Agnes made landfall as a hurricane, no hurricane-force winds were reported. Along the coast abnormally high tides resulted in extensive damage between Apalachicola and Cedar Key. Light to moderate rainfall was reported in Florida. In Georgia, damage was limited to two tornadoes, which caused $275,000 in losses.
Minimal effects were recorded in Alabama, Delaware, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee. The most significant effects, by far, occurred in Pennsylvania due to intense flooding; the hurricane flooded the Susquehanna River and the Lackawanna River causing major damage to the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton metropolitan area. In both Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined, about 43,594 structures were either destroyed or damaged. In Canada, a mobile home was toppled. Overall, Agnes caused 128 fatalities and nearly $3 billion in damage, though more it is estimated that there were $2.1 billion in losses associated with the storm. Due to the significant effects, the name Agnes was retired in the spring of 1973. In early-mid June 1972, atmospheric conditions favored tropical cyclogenesis in the Caribbean Sea. Banded convection developed in the northwestern Caribbean Sea by June 11, though the system did not organize. After an upper trough moved east, wind shear decreased, causing lower atmospheric pressures observations in Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico.
It is estimated that a tropical depression developed by 1200 UTC on June 14, while centered over the Yucatán Peninsula, about 78 miles southeast of Mérida, Yucatán. The depression tracked eastward and entered the western Caribbean Sea on June 15. Operationally, the National Hurricane Center did not initiate advisories on the depression until 1500 UTC on June 15. Early on June 16 at 0000 UTC, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Agnes. However, the depression was not operationally upgraded until sixteen hours later. After becoming a tropical storm on June 16, Agnes curved northward and approached the Yucatán Channel. Late on June 17, it was noted that projected path indicated the of landfall in western Cuba. However, the storm remained offshore, though it brushed the western tip of Cuba. At 1200 UTC on June 18, Agnes intensified into a hurricane while in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Prematurely, the National Hurricane Center operationally upgraded Agnes to a hurricane at 0200 UTC on that day.
Upon becoming a hurricane, Agnes attained its maximum sustained winds of 85 mph, though it had not reached its minimum atmospheric pressure. Due to unfavorable conditions, Agnes leveled-off in intensity and weakened to a minimal hurricane while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United States. Shortly before 2200 UTC on June 19, Agnes made landfall near Cape San Blas, Florida with winds of 75 mph. At 0000 UTC on June 20, only a few hours after moving inland, Agnes weakened to a tropical storm. After crossing the Florida/Alabama/Georgia stateline, Agnes weakened to a tropical depression. While over Georgia, the depression curved northeastward and to the east-northeast after entering South Carolina. Though the storm had not dissipated, the National Hurricane Center issued its final bulletin on Agnes at 1600 UTC on June 20. By early on June 21, a large extratropical trough spawned a low pressure area, which resulted in baroclinic activity; as a result, Agnes restrengthened into a tropical storm at 1800 UTC on June 21, while centered over eastern North Carolina.
Three hours the National Hurricane Center noted decreasing atmospheric pressures, indicated that winds had reached gale-force winds and o
The Burr Arch Truss—or Burr Truss or Burr Arch—is a combination of an arch and a multiple kingpost truss design. It was invented in 1804 by Theodore Burr, patented on April 3, 1817, used in bridges covered bridges; the design principle behind the Burr arch truss is that the arch should be capable of bearing the entire load on the bridge while the truss keeps the bridge rigid. Though the kingpost truss alone is capable of bearing a load, this was done because it is impossible to evenly balance a dynamic load crossing the bridge between the two parts; the opposite view is held, based on computer models, that the truss performs the majority of the load bearing and the arch provides the stability. Either way, the combination of the arch and the truss provides a more stable bridge capable of supporting greater weight than either the arch or truss alone; the U. S. state of Indiana has a large collection of Burr Truss bridges. Of its 92 extant bridges, 53 are Burr Trusses. Cummings, Hubertis M. "Theodore Burr and his bridges across the Susquehanna".
A covered bridge is a timber-truss bridge with a roof and siding, which in most covered bridges, create an complete enclosure. The purpose of the covering is to protect the wooden structural members from the weather. Uncovered wooden bridges have a lifespan of only 20 years because of the effects of rain and sun, but a covered bridge could last 100 years; the oldest surviving truss bridge in the world is the Kapellbrücke in Switzerland. Modern-style timber truss bridges were pioneered in Switzerland in the mid-1700s; the first known covered bridge constructed in the United States was the Permanent Bridge, completed in 1805 to span the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. The structure endured beyond the estimate of 40 years offered by its architect, only being taken down in 1850 to make way for a new bridge more conducive to carrying railroad tracks. About 1,500 covered bridges were built from 1820 and 1900, most were built from 1825 and 1875; the longest built was over the Susquehanna River at 5,960 feet.
Built in 1814, it was washed away in the freshets of 1832. In total, more than 12,000 covered bridges have been built in the United States, about 3,500 of which in Ohio. In the mid-1800s, the development of cheaper wrought iron and cast iron led to metal rather than timber trusses. Metal structures did not need protection from the elements, so no longer needed to be covered; the bridges became obsolete because most were single-lane, had low width and height clearances, could not support the heavy loads of modern traffic. In 1900, Quebec had an estimated 1000 covered bridges. Relative to the rest of North America, Quebec was late in building covered bridges, with the busiest decade for construction being the 1930s; the designs were varied, but around 1905, the design was standardised to the Town québécois, a variant on the lattice truss patented by Ithiel Town in 1820. About 500 of these were built in the first half of the 1900s; the last bridge was built by the Ministry of Colonisation in 1958 in Lebel-sur-Quévillon.
In 1900, New Brunswick had about 400 covered bridges. Today, there are 58. Between 1969 and 2015, the number of surviving covered bridges in Canada declined from about 400 to under 200. Covered bridges are structures with longitudinal timber-trusses which form the bridge's backbone; some were built as railway bridges, using heavy timbers and doubled up lattice work. Most bridges were built to cross streams, the majority had just a single span. All contained a single lane. A few two-lane bridges were built, having a central truss. Many different truss designs were used. One of the most popular designs was the Burr Truss, patented in 1817, which used an arch to bear the load, while the trusses kept the bridge rigid. Other designs included the King, Queen and Howe trusses. Early trusses were designed without an understanding of the engineering dynamics at work. In 1847, American engineer Squire Whipple published the first correct analysis of the way a load is carried through the truss, which enabled him to design stronger bridges with fewer materials.
About 1600 covered bridges remain in the world. The small number of surviving bridges is due to deliberate replacement and the high cost of restoration, they tend to be in isolated places which makes them subject to arson. The oldest covered bridges in America date back to the 1820s: 1825: Hyde Hall and Hassenplug bridges in New York and Pennsylvania 1829: Haverhill-Bath in New Hampshire and Roberts bridges in OhioAs of 2018, fewer than 1,000 authentic covered bridges are left in the United States. New Brunswick, has 58 covered bridges, including the world's longest, the Hartland Bridge. With 82 covered bridges in Quebec, Transports Québec considers the Félix-Gabriel-Marchand Bridge, the province's longest covered bridge, to be an important tourist attraction. In addition to being practical, covered bridges were popular venues for a variety of social activities and are enduring cultural icon; the Edgar Allan Poe story "Never Bet the Devil Your Head" Plot points in the 1988 comedy films Beetlejuice and Funny Farm refer to them.
Diehls Covered Bridge in Pennsylvania is featured in the opening scenes of The 1980's Anthology Horror Television Series Tales from the Darkside that ran, created by George Romero. Covered Bridge Map, an interactive map showing locations of covered bridges in the United States and Canada