Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments. There are two main types of woodwind instruments: reed instruments. What differentiates these instruments from other wind instruments is the way in which they produce their sound. All woodwinds produce sound by splitting an exhaled air stream on a sharp edge, such as a reed or a fipple. A woodwind may be made of any material, not just wood. Common examples include brass, cane, as well as other metals such as gold and platinum. Woodwinds are made out of earthen materials ocarinas. Common examples include flute, clarinet and saxophone. Flutes produce sound by directing a focused stream of air below the edge of a hole in a cylindrical tube; the flute family can be divided into two sub-families: closed flutes. To produce a sound with an open flute, the player is required to blow a stream of air across a sharp edge that splits the airstream; this split airstream acts upon the air column contained within the flute's hollow causing it to vibrate and produce sound.
Examples of open flutes are the transverse flute and shakuhachi. Ancient flutes of this variety were made from tubular sections of plants such as grasses and hollowed-out tree branches. Flutes were made of metals such as tin, copper, or bronze. Modern concert flutes are made of high-grade metal alloys containing nickel, copper, or gold. To produce a sound with a closed flute, the player is required to blow air into a duct; this duct acts as a channel bringing the air to a sharp edge. As with the open flutes, the air is split. Examples of this type of flute include the recorder and organ pipes. Reed instruments produce sound by focusing air into a mouthpiece which causes a reed, or reeds, to vibrate. Similar to flutes, Reed pipes are further divided into two types: single reed and double reed. Single-reed woodwinds produce sound by placing a reed onto the opening of a mouthpiece; when air is forced between the reed and the mouthpiece, the reed causes the air column in the instrument to vibrate and produce its unique sound.
Single reed instruments include the clarinet and others such as the chalumeau. Double-reed instruments use two cut, small pieces of cane bound together at the base; this form of sound production has been estimated to have originated in the middle to late Neolithic period. The finished, bound reed is inserted into the instrument and vibrates as air is forced between the two pieces; this family of reed pipes is subdivided further into another two sub-families: exposed double reed, capped double reed instruments. Exposed double-reed instruments are played by having the double reed directly between the player's lips; this family includes instruments such as the oboe, cor anglais and bassoon, many types of shawms throughout the world. On the other hand, Capped double-reed instruments have the double reed covered by a cap; the player blows through a hole in this cap that directs the air through the reeds. This family includes the crumhorn. Bagpipes are unique reed pipe instruments since they use two or more single reeds.
However, bagpipes are functionally the same as a capped double reed instruments since the reeds are never in direct contact with player's lips. Free reed aerophone instruments are unique since sound is produced by'free reeds' – small metal tongues arranged in rows within a metal or wooden frame; the airflow necessary for the instruments sound is generated either by a player's breath, or by bellows. The modern orchestra's woodwind section includes: flutes, oboes and bassoons; the piccolo, cor anglais, bass clarinet, E-flat clarinet, contrabassoon are used supplementary woodwind instruments. The section may on occasion be expanded by the addition of saxophone; the concert band's woodwind section is much larger and more diverse than the orchestra's. The concert band's woodwind section includes piccolos, oboes, B♭ clarinets, bass clarinets, alto saxophones, tenor saxophones, baritone saxophones; the cor anglais, E♭ clarinet, alto clarinet, contra-alto clarinet, contrabass clarinet and soprano saxophone are used, but not as as the other woodwinds.
Brass instrument Musical instrument Wind instrument Percussion instrument How do Woodwind Instruments work Woodwind Fingering Chart Woodwind Reference – ClassicalMusicHomepage.com
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Cowboys compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team is headquartered in Frisco and plays its home games at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, which opened for the 2009 season. The stadium took its current name prior to the 2013 season; the Cowboys joined the NFL as an expansion team in 1960. The team's national following might best be represented by its NFL record of consecutive sell-outs; the Cowboys' streak of 190 consecutive sold-out regular and post-season games began in 2002. The franchise has made it to the Super Bowl eight times, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Denver Broncos for second most Super Bowl appearances in history, just behind the New England Patriots record eleven Super Bowl appearances; this has corresponded to eight NFC championships, most in the NFC. The Cowboys have won five of those Super Bowl appearances, tying them with their NFC rivals, the San Francisco 49ers.
The Cowboys are the only NFL team to record 20 straight winning seasons, in which they missed the playoffs only twice. In 2015, the Dallas Cowboys became the first sports team to be valued at $4 billion, making it the most valuable sports team in the world, according to Forbes; the Cowboys generated $620 million in revenue in 2014, a record for a U. S. sports team. In 2018 they became the first NFL franchise to be valued at $5 billion and making Forbes' list as the most valued NFL team for the 12th straight year. Prior to the formation of the Dallas Cowboys, there had not been an NFL team south of Washington, D. C. since the Dallas Texans folded in 1952. Oilman Clint Murchison Jr. had been trying to get an NFL expansion team in Dallas, but George Preston Marshall, owner of the Washington Redskins, had a monopoly in the South. Murchison had tried to purchase the Washington Redskins from Marshall in 1958. An agreement was struck, but as the deal was about to be finalized, Marshall called for a change in terms.
This infuriated. Marshall opposed any franchise for Murchison in Dallas. Since NFL expansion needed unanimous approval from team owners at that time, Marshall's position would prevent Murchison from joining the league. Marshall had a falling out with the Redskins band leader Barnee Breeskin. Breeskin had written the music to the Redskins fight song "Hail to the Redskins" and Marshall's wife had penned the lyrics. Breeskin was aware of Murchison's plight to get an NFL franchise. Angry with Marshall, Breeskin approached Murchison's attorney to sell him the rights to the song before the expansion vote in 1959. Murchison purchased "Hail to the Redskins" for $2,500. Before the vote to award franchises in 1959, Murchison revealed to Marshall that he owned the song and Marshall could not play it during games. After a few Marshall expletives, Murchison gave the rights to "Hail to the Redskins" to Marshall for his vote, the lone one against Murchison getting a franchise at that time, a rivalry was born.
From 1970 through 1979, the Cowboys won 105 regular season games, more than any other NFL franchise during that span. In addition, they appeared in 5 and won two Super Bowls, at the end of the 1971 and 1977 regular seasons. Danny White became the Cowboys' starting quarterback in 1980 after quarterback Roger Staubach retired. Despite going to 12–4 in 1980, the Cowboys came into the playoffs as a Wild Card team. In the opening round of the 1980–81 NFL playoffs they avenged their elimination from the prior year's playoffs by defeating the Rams. In the Divisional Round they squeaked by the Atlanta Falcons 30–27. For the NFC Championship they were pitted against division rival Philadelphia, the team that won the division during the regular season; the Eagles captured their first conference championship and Super Bowl berth by winning 20–7. 1981 brought another division championship for the Cowboys. They entered the 1981-82 NFL playoffs as the number 2 seed, their first game of the postseason saw them blowout and shutout Tampa Bay 38–0.
For the Conference Title game they were pitted against the number 1 seed. Despite having a late 4th quarter 27–21 lead, they would lose to the 49ers 28–27. 49ers quarterback Joe Montana led his team to an 89-yard game-winning touchdown drive connecting to Dwight Clark in a play known as The Catch. The 1982 season was shortened after a player strike. With a 6–3 record Dallas made it to the playoffs for the 8th consecutive season; as the number 2 seed for the 1982–83 NFL playoffs they eliminated the Buccaneers 30–17 in the Wild Card round and dispatched the Packers 37–26 in the Divisional round to advance to their 3rd consecutive Conference championship game. 3 times was not a charm for the Cowboys as they fell 31–17 to division rival and eventual Super Bowl XVII champions, the Redskins. For the 1983 season the Cowboys went 12–4 and made it once again to the playoffs but were defeated at home in the Wild Card by the Rams 24–17. Prior to the 1984 season, H. R. "Bum" Bright purchased the Dallas Cowboys from Clint Murchison, Jr. Dallas posted a 9–7 record that season but missed the playoffs for the first time in 10 seasons.
After going 10–6 in 1985 and winning a division title, the Cowboys were blown out in the Divisional round at home to the Rams 20–0. Hard times came for the organization as they went 7–9 in 1986, 7–8 in 1987, 3–13 in 1988. During this time period Bright became disenchanted with the team. During the savings and loan crisis, the team and Mr. Bright's saving
The wolverine, Gulo gulo referred to as the glutton, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae. It is a stocky and muscular carnivore, more resembling a small bear than other mustelids. A solitary animal, it has a reputation for ferocity and strength out of proportion to its size, with the documented ability to kill prey many times larger than itself; the wolverine is found in remote reaches of the Northern boreal forests and subarctic and alpine tundra of the Northern Hemisphere, with the greatest numbers in Northern Canada, the American state of Alaska, the mainland Nordic countries of Europe, throughout western Russia and Siberia. Its population has declined since the 19th century owing to trapping, range reduction and habitat fragmentation; the wolverine is now absent from the southern end of its European range. Genetic evidence suggests that the wolverine is most related to the tayra and martens, all of which shared a Eurasian ancestor. Within the Gulo gulo species, a clear separation occurs between two subspecies: the Old World form Gulo gulo gulo and the New World form G. g. luscus.
Some authors had described as many as four additional North American subspecies, including ones limited to Vancouver Island and the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. However, the most accepted taxonomy recognizes either the two continental subspecies or G. gulo as a single Holarctic taxon. Compiled genetic evidence suggests most of North America's wolverines are descended from a single source originating from Beringia during the last glaciation and expanding thereafter, though considerable uncertainty to this conclusion is due to the difficulty of collecting samples in the depleted southern extent of the range. Anatomically, the wolverine is muscular animal. With short legs and rounded head, small eyes and short rounded ears, it more resembles a bear than it does other mustelids. Though its legs are short, its large, five-toed paws with crampon-like claws and plantigrade posture enable them to climb up and over steep cliffs and snow-covered peaks with relative ease; the adult wolverine is about the size of a medium dog, with a length ranging from 65–107 cm, a tail of 17–26 cm, a weight of 5.5–25 kg, though exceptionally large males can weigh up to 32 kg.
Another outsized specimen was reported to scale 35 kg. The males can be twice the females' weight. According to some sources, Eurasian wolverines are claimed to be larger and heavier than North American with average weights in excess of 20 kg but this may refer more to areas such as Siberia, as data from European wolverines shows they are around the same size as their American counterparts; the average weight of female wolverines from a study in the Northwest territories of Canada was 10.1 kg and that of males 15.3 kg. In a study from Alaska, the median weight of ten males was 16.7 kg while the average of two females was 9.6 kg. In Ontario, the mean weight of males and females was 9.9 kg. The average weights of wolverines were notably lower in a study from the Yukon, averaging 7.3 kg in females and 11.3 kg in males because these animals from a "harvest population" had low fat deposits. In Finland, the average weight was claimed as 11 to 12.6 kg. The average weight of male and female wolverines from Norway was listed as 10 kg.
Shoulder height is reported from 30 to 45 cm. It is the largest of terrestrial mustelids. Wolverines have thick, oily fur, hydrophobic, making it resistant to frost; this has led to its traditional popularity among hunters and trappers as a lining in jackets and parkas in Arctic conditions. A light-silvery facial mask is distinct in some individuals, a pale buff stripe runs laterally from the shoulders along the side and crossing the rump just above a 25–35 cm bushy tail; some individuals display prominent white hair patches on their chests. Like many other mustelids, it has potent anal scent glands used for marking territory and sexual signaling; the pungent odor has given rise to the nicknames "skunk bear" and "nasty cat." Wolverines, like other mustelids, possess a special upper molar in the back of the mouth, rotated 90 degrees, towards the inside of the mouth. This special characteristic allows wolverines to tear off meat from prey or carrion, frozen solid. Wolverines are considered to be scavengers.
A majority of the wolverine's sustenance is derived from carrion, on which it depends exclusively in winter and early spring. Wolverines may find carrion themselves, feed on it after the predator has finished, or take it from another predator. Wolverines are known to follow wolf and lynx trails, purportedly with the intent of scavenging the remains of their kills. Whether eating live prey or carrion, the wolverine's feeding style appears voracious, leading to the nickname of "glutton". However, this feeding style is believed to be an adaptation to food scarcity in winter; the wolverine is a powerful and versatile predator. Prey consists of small to medium-sized mammal
Danielle Andrea Harris is an American actress, voice actress, film director. She is known as a "scream queen" for her roles in multiple horror films, including four entries in the Halloween franchise: Halloween 4 and 5, as Jamie Lloyd. Other such roles include Tosh in Urban Legend, Belle in Stake Land, Marybeth Dunston in the Hatchet series. In 2012, she was inducted into the Fangoria Hall of Fame. Harris began her career as a child actress, with various appearances on television and prominent roles in films such as Marked for Death, Don't Tell Mom the Babysitter's Dead, The Last Boy Scout, Free Willy, Daylight, she is known for her voice work, which includes playing Debbie Thornberry for the entire run of the Nickelodeon series The Wild Thornberrys, in the related films The Wild Thornberrys Movie and Rugrats Go Wild. In 2013, Harris made her feature directorial debut with the horror film Among Friends, after directing a segment from the anthology film Prank and a Stake Land companion short film.
Harris was born in Plainview, New York and was raised by her mother Fran, along with her sister Ashley. Harris is Jewish. While living in Florida during elementary school, Harris won a beauty contest, winning a trip to New York City for ten days. While there, she was offered various modeling jobs, but turned them down because they were all far from her home, her mother was transferred back to New York due to her job and Harris began work as a model. She began appearing in television commercials. In 1985, at age seven, Harris was cast in the role of Samantha "Sammi" Garretson in the ABC soap opera One Life to Live, she stayed on the program for three years, her character was considered a "miracle child", extracted as an embryo from the womb of her deceased mother and implanted in a family friend, whom her father married. In 1987, Harris made an appearance in the series Spenser: For Hire named Tara. Following her early television work, Harris auditioned for the role of Jamie Lloyd from the fourth edition of the Halloween franchise, beating out several other young actresses, Melissa Joan Hart among them.
Harris celebrated her eleventh birthday on set. Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers was released in October 1988 to critical and commercial success, it went on to gross over $17 million worldwide, $6,831,250 in its opening weekend alone. On doing this type of film at such a young age, Harris stated: It was fun for me. I knew we were making a movie and I knew that it was make believe. I was more worried about being a good, little actress and being able to cry and scream good. I think. In between takes we would joke around and it was just fun, it didn't bother me until I got to be older. Harris returned the following year for the sequel, titled Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers, not as successful as its predecessor. Harris portrayed Jamie Lloyd once again, but her character was mute for the first half of Halloween 5 owing to events in the previous film. In 1990, Harris appeared in her third film, Marked for Death, as protagonist John Hatcher's niece Tracey; the action film had a $12 million budget and earned $43 million domestically and $57 million worldwide.
It has a 22% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes, Entertainment Weekly gave it a letter grade of "C". 1991 saw Harris partake in several film and television projects, including the made-for-television films Don't Touch My Daughter, as a young girl, kidnapped and molested, The Killing Mind, where she portrayed main character Isobel as a child. That year, Harris made an appearance on the sketch-oriented show In Living Color. Harris' next major role was in the 1991 comedy film Don't Tell Mom the Babysitter's Dead, as Melissa Crandell, with the story revolving around five siblings whose mother goes to Australia for two months, only to have her children's babysitter die; the young protagonists choose not to tell their attempt to live on their own. The film has a 31% approval rate on Rotten Tomatoes. Harris had a guest role in the 1991 series Eerie, portraying a character who receives a heart transplant begins to act like the heart's original owner, she guest starred in an episode of Growing Pains, as Susie Maxwell.
Harris had the role of Darian Hallenbeck in the 1991 action film The Last Boy Scout, alongside Bruce Willis and Damon Wayans. The film grossed $7,923,669 in its opening weekend, the total gross was $59,509,925. Reviews were mixed, some critics cited the Christmastime release for such a violent film as a reason for its somewhat underwhelming box office.1992 saw Harris participate in the pilot for the potential CBS series 1775, although it was not picked up. Between 1992 and 1993, Harris had the recurring role of Molly Tilden on the sitcom Roseanne joined Roseanne Barr again in 1993 for the television film The Woman Who Loved Elvis, this time as daughter Priscilla, she appeared in an episode of Jack's Place the same year. In 1993, Harris portrayed Gwenie in the film Free Willy, which had a US gross of $7,868,829 in its opening weekend and went on to make $77,698,625 in the US and $153,698,625 worldwide. In 1994, she appeared on the drama series The Commish, playing the role of Sheri Fisher for one episode.
The same year, Harris portrayed the main character's daughter Jessica in the television film Roseanne: An Unauthorized Biography, based upon her former co-star Roseanne Barr. She guest starred in the sitcom Boy Meets World
The King and I
The King and I is the fifth musical by the team of composer Richard Rodgers and dramatist Oscar Hammerstein II. It is based on Margaret Landon's novel and the King of Siam, in turn derived from the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, governess to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in the early 1860s; the musical's plot relates the experiences of Anna, a British schoolteacher hired as part of the King's drive to modernize his country. The relationship between the King and Anna is marked by conflict through much of the piece, as well as by a love to which neither can admit; the musical premiered on March 1951, at Broadway's St. James Theatre, it ran for nearly three years, making it the fourth longest-running Broadway musical in history at the time, has had many tours and revivals. In 1950, theatrical attorney Fanny Holtzmann was looking for a part for her client, veteran leading lady Gertrude Lawrence. Holtzmann realized that Landon's book would provide an ideal vehicle and contacted Rodgers and Hammerstein, who were reluctant but agreed to write the musical.
The pair sought Rex Harrison to play the supporting part of the King, a role he had played in the 1946 film made from Landon's book, but he was unavailable. They settled on television director Yul Brynner; the musical was an immediate hit, winning Tony Awards for Best Musical, Best Actress and Best Featured Actor. Lawrence died unexpectedly of cancer a year and a half after the opening, the role of Anna was played by several actresses during the remainder of the Broadway run of 1,246 performances. A hit London run and U. S. national tour followed, together with a 1956 film for which Brynner won an Academy Award, the musical was recorded several times. In revivals, Brynner came to dominate his role and the musical, starring in a four-year national tour culminating in a 1985 Broadway run shortly before his death. Christopher Renshaw directed major revivals on Broadway, winning the Tony Award for Best Revival, in the West End. A 2015 Broadway revival won another Tony for Best Revival. Both professional and amateur revivals of The King and I continue to be staged throughout the English-speaking world.
Mongkut, King of Siam, was about 57 years old in 1861. He had lived half his life as a Buddhist monk, was an able scholar, founded a new order of Buddhism and a temple in Bangkok. Through his decades of devotion, Mongkut acquired an ascetic lifestyle and a firm grasp of Western languages; when Nangklao died in 1850, Mongkut became king. At that time, various European countries were striving for dominance, American traders sought greater influence in Southeast Asia, he succeeded in keeping Siam an independent nation by familiarizing his heirs and harem with Western ways. In 1861, Mongkut wrote to his Singapore agent, Tan Kim Ching, asking him to find a British lady to be governess to the royal children. At the time, the British community in Singapore was small, the choice fell on a recent arrival there, Anna Leonowens, running a small nursery school in the colony. Leonowens was the Anglo-Indian daughter of an Indian Army soldier and the widow of Thomas Owens, a clerk and hotel keeper, she had arrived in Singapore two years claiming to be the genteel widow of an officer and explaining her dark complexion by stating that she was Welsh by birth.
Her deception was not detected until long after her death, had still not come to light when The King and I was written. Upon receiving the King's invitation, Leonowens sent her daughter, Avis, to school in England, to give Avis the social advantage of a prestigious British education, traveled to Bangkok with her five-year-old son, Louis. King Mongkut had sought a Briton to teach his children and wives after trying local missionaries, who used the opportunity to proselytize. Leonowens asked for $150 in Singapore currency per month, her additional request, to live in or near the missionary community to ensure she was not deprived of Western company, aroused suspicion in Mongkut, who cautioned in a letter, "we need not have teacher of Christianity as they are abundant here". King Mongkut and Leonowens came to an agreement: $100 per month and a residence near the royal palace. At a time when most transport in Bangkok was by boat, Mongkut did not wish to have to arrange for the teacher to get to work every day.
Leonowens and Louis temporarily lived as guests of Mongkut's prime minister, after the first house offered was found to be unsuitable, the family moved into a brick residence within walking distance of the palace. In 1867, Leonowens took a six-month leave of absence to visit her daughter Avis in England, intending to deposit Louis at a school in Ireland and return to Siam with Avis. However, due to unexpected delays and opportunities for further travel, Leonowens was still abroad in late 1868, when Mongkut fell ill and died. Leonowens did not return to Siam, although she continued to correspond with her former pupil, the new king Chulalongkorn. In 1950, British actress Gertrude Lawrence's business manager and attorney, Fanny Holtzmann, was looking for a new vehicle for her client when the 1944 Margaret Landon novel Anna and the King of Siam was sent to her by Landon's agent. According to Rodgers biographer Meryle Secrest, Holtzmann was worried that Lawrence's career was fading; the 51-year-old actress had appeared only in plays, not in musicals, since Lady in the Dark closed in 1943.
Holtzmann agreed that a musical based on Anna and the King of Siam would be ideal for her client, who purchased the rights to adapt the no
Pantomime is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment. It was developed in England and is performed throughout the United Kingdom, Ireland and in other English-speaking countries during the Christmas and New Year season. Modern pantomime includes songs, slapstick comedy and dancing, it employs gender-crossing actors and combines topical humour with a story more or less based on a well-known fairy tale, fable or folk tale. It is a participatory form of theatre, in which the audience is expected to sing along with certain parts of the music and shout out phrases to the performers. Pantomime has a long theatrical history in Western culture dating back to classical theatre, it developed from the 16th century commedia dell'arte tradition of Italy and other European and British stage traditions, such as 17th-century masques and music hall. An important part of the pantomime, until the late 19th century, was the harlequinade. Outside Britain, the word "pantomime" is understood to mean miming, rather than the theatrical form discussed here.
The word pantomime was adopted from the Latin word pantomimus, which in turn derives from the Greek word παντόμιμος, consisting of παντο- meaning "all", μῖμος, meaning a dancer who acted all the roles or all the story. The Roman pantomime drew upon the Greek tragedy and other Greek genres from its inception, although the art was instituted in Rome and little is known of it in pre-Roman Greece; the English word came to be applied to the performance itself. According to a lost oration by Aelius Aristides, the pantomime was known for its erotic content and the effeminacy of its dancing. Roman pantomime was a production based upon myth or legend, for a solo male dancer—clad in a long silk tunic and a short mantle, used as a "prop"—accompanied by a sung libretto rendered by a singer or chorus. Music was supplied by flute and the pulse of an iron-shod shoe called a scabellum. Performances might be in a private household, with minimal personnel, or else lavish theatrical productions involving a large orchestra and chorus and sometimes an ancillary actor.
The dancer danced all the roles, relying on masks, stock poses and gestures and a hand-language so complex and expressive that the pantomime's hands were compared to an eloquent mouth. Pantomime differed from mime by its more artistic nature and relative lack of farce and coarse humour, though these were not absent from some productions. Roman pantomime was immensely popular from the end of the first century BC until the end of the sixth century AD, a form of entertainment that spread throughout the empire where, because of its wordless nature, it did more than any other art to foster knowledge of the myths and Roman legends that formed its subject-matter – tales such as those of the love of Venus and Mars and of Dido and Aeneas – while in Italy its chief exponents were celebrities the protegés of influential citizens, whose followers wore badges proclaiming their allegiance and engaged in street-fights with rival groups, while its accompanying songs became known. Yet, because of the limits imposed upon Roman citizens' dance, the populism of its song-texts and other factors, the art was as much despised as adored, its practitioners were slaves or freedmen.
Because of the low status and the disappearance of its libretti, the Roman pantomime received little modern scholarly attention until the late 20th century, despite its great influence upon Roman culture as perceived in Roman art, in statues of famous dancers, graffiti and literature. After the renaissance of classical culture, Roman pantomime was a decisive influence upon modern European concert dance, helping to transform ballet from a mere entertainment, a display of technical virtuosity, into the dramatic ballet d'action, it became an antecedent which, through writers and ballet-masters of the 17th and 18th centuries such as Claude-François Ménestrier, John Weaver, Jean-Georges Noverre and Gasparo Angiolini, earned it respectability and attested to the capability of dance to render complex stories and express human emotion. In the Middle Ages, the Mummers Play was a traditional English folk play, based loosely on the Saint George and the Dragon legend performed during Christmas gatherings, which contained the origin of many of the archetypal elements of the pantomime, such as stage fights, coarse humour and fantastic creatures, gender role reversal, good defeating evil.
Precursors of pantomime included the masque, which grew in pomp and spectacle from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The development of English pantomime was strongly influenced by the continental commedia dell'arte, a form of popular theatre that arose in Italy in the Early Modern Period; this was a "comedy of professional artists" travelling from province to province in Italy and France, who improvised and told comic stories that held lessons for the crowd, changing the main character depending on where they were performing. Each "scenario" used some of the same stock characters; these included the innamorati. Italian masque performances in the 17th century sometimes included the Harlequin character. In the 17th century, adaptations of the commedia characters became familiar in English entertainments. From these, the standard E
Camelot is a musical by Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe. It is based on the King Arthur legend as adapted from the T. H. White novel The Once and Future King; the original 1960 production, directed by Moss Hart and orchestrated by Robert Russell Bennett and Philip J. Lang, ran on Broadway for 873 performances, winning four Tony Awards and spawning several revivals, foreign productions, the 1967 film Camelot; the original cast album was America's top-selling LP for 60 weeks. The musical has become associated with the Kennedy Administration, sometimes called the "Camelot Era". In 1959, Alan Jay Lerner and Moss Hart decided to adapt T. H. White's The Once and Future King as their next project; as discussed in Lerner's 1978 book, The Street Where I Live, Frederick Loewe, who had no interest in the project, agreed to write music, with the understanding that if things went badly, it would be his last score. After the tremendous success of My Fair Lady, expectations were high for a new Lerner and Loewe musical.
However, the show's production met several obstacles. Lerner's wife left him during the writing process, causing him to seek medical attention and delaying the production; when Camelot began rehearsals, it still needed considerable work. However, the producers were able to secure a strong cast, including Julie Andrews, Richard Burton, Roddy McDowall, as well as Robert Goulet in his first Broadway role. John Cullum made his Broadway debut as Sir Dinadan. Cullum replaced McDowall, William Squire replaced Burton. Other replacements included Kathryn Grayson and Janet Pavek for Andrews; the show premiered in Toronto, at the O'Keefe Centre on October 1, 1960. It overran drastically — it was supposed to last two hours forty minutes, instead clocked in at four and a half hours; the curtain came down at twenty minutes to one in the morning. Noël Coward is supposed to have remarked that the show was "longer than the Götterdämmerung... and not nearly as funny!" In spite of this, the morning papers gave positive reviews, but hinted that the show needed much work, i.e. drastic editing, in order to succeed.
Soon afterwards, Lerner was hospitalised for three weeks with a bleeding ulcer. Soon after he was discharged, Hart suffered his second heart attack, Lerner stepped in as temporary director for the rest of the out-of-town run. Camelot moved to Boston, but still running well over the intended length; the production team tried to find another director phoning José Ferrer, who could not undertake the job. Lerner and Loewe disagreed on how to proceed with the show, as Loewe did not want to make any major changes without Hart's guidance. Lerner wrote: "God knows what would have happened had it not been for Richard Burton." Accepting cuts and changes, he radiated a "geniality" and calmed the fears of the cast. Guenevere's song "Before I Gaze at You Again" was given to Andrews at the last minute before the first New York preview, which provoked her famous quote, "Of course, but do try to get it to me the night before." After the show opened on Broadway, Hart was released from the hospital, he and Lerner began cutting the play further.
Two songs, "Then You May Take Me To the Fair" and "Fie on Goodness," were cut a few months into the run. The New York critics' reviews of the original production were mixed. However, Ed Sullivan approached Lerner and Loewe to create a segment for his television variety program, celebrating the fifth anniversary of My Fair Lady, they decided to do little from their previous hit and instead to perform four highlights from Camelot. The show stimulated ticket sales, Camelot achieved an unprecedented advance sale of three and a half million dollars. Robert Goulet received favorable reviews, most notably for his rendition of the show-stopping romantic ballad "If Ever I Would Leave You", which became his signature song. After Camelot's run, Goulet appeared on The Danny Thomas Show and The Ed Sullivan Show, which made him a household name among American audiences; the show's original cast recording was favorite bedtime listening for President John F. Kennedy, Lerner's classmate at Harvard University.
Kennedy's favorite lines were in the final number: Since Camelot has been associated with the Kennedy Administration. The obstacles encountered in producing Camelot were hard on the creative partnership of Lerner and Loewe, the show turned out to be one of their last collaborations. Camelot was Hart's last Broadway show, he died of a heart attack in Palm Springs, California, on December 20, 1961. King Arthur is hiding in a tree. Merlyn the Magician, his wise tutor, calls Arthur down to warn the young king that he must learn to think for himself. Merlyn, who lives backwards in time and remembers the future as well as the past, knows he will soon be separated from Arthur. Merlyn chides him for his unkingly behavior. Arthur left alone, ponders both his subjects and his own feelings about the intended nuptials. Arthur scampers up the tree again. Guenevere, Arthur's intended bride, comes to the woods, she does not li