Often it refers to those submerged ridges, banks, or bars that rise near enough to the surface of a body of water as to constitute a danger to navigation. Shoals are known as sandbanks, sandbars, or gravelbars, two or more shoals that are either separated by shared troughs or interconnected by past and or present sedimentary and hydrographic processes are referred to as a shoal complex. The term shoal is used in a number of ways that can be similar or quite different from how it is used in the geologic, geomorphic. Shoals are characteristically long and narrow ridges and they can develop where a stream, river, or ocean current promotes deposition of sediment and granular material, resulting in localized shallowing of the water. Marine shoals develop either by the in place drowning of barrier islands as the result of sea level rise or by the erosion. Shoals can appear as a coastal landform in the sea, where they are classified as a type of bank, or as fluvial landforms in rivers, streams. A shoal–sandbar may seasonally separate a smaller body of water from the sea, such as, Marine lagoons Brackish water estuaries Freshwater seasonal stream and river mouths and deltas.
They are typically composed of sand, although they could be of any matter that the moving water has access to and is capable of shifting around. Wave shoaling is the process when surface waves move towards shallow water, such as a beach, they slow down, their wave height increases and this behavior is called shoaling, and the waves are said to shoal. The waves may or may not build to the point where they break, depending on how large they were to begin with, in particular, waves shoal as they pass over submerged sandbanks or reefs. This can be treacherous for boats and ships, shoaling can diffract waves, so the waves change direction. For example, if waves pass over a bank which is shallower at one end than the other. Thus the wave fronts will refract, changing direction like light passing through a prism, refraction occurs as waves move towards a beach if the waves come in at an angle to the beach, or if the beach slopes more gradually at one end than the other. Sandbars, known as a trough bars, form where the waves are breaking, sometimes this occurs seaward of a trough.
Sand carried by the moving bottom current is deposited where the current reaches the wave break. Other longshore bars may lie further offshore, representing the point of even larger waves. A harbor or river bar is a sedimentary deposit formed at an entrance or river mouth by. Where beaches are suitably mobile, or the river’s suspended and/or bed loads are large enough, deposition can build up a sandbar that completely blocks a river mouth and damming the river
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California. As of 2013 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated Santa Cruzs population at 62,864, Santa Cruz is known for its moderate climate, the natural beauty of its coastline, redwood forests, alternative community lifestyles, and socially liberal leanings. The present-day site of Santa Cruz was the location of Spanish settlement beginning in 1791, including Mission Santa Cruz, following the Mexican–American War of 1846–48, California became the 31st state in 1850. The City of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1866 and chartered in April 1876, important early industries included lumber, gunpowder and agriculture. Late in the 19th century, Santa Cruz established itself as a resort community. Prior to the arrival of Spanish soldiers and colonists in the late 18th century, the diverse and numerous tribes of this region were earlier referred to by the Spanish as Coastanoan. The term Ohlone has been used in place of Costanoan since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature.
Awaswa was one of the eight Coastanoan languages and made up a tribe of Native Americas living in Western Santa Cruz County, the Awaswas tribe was made up of no more than one thousand people and their language is now extinct. The only remnants of their language are three local place names, Aptos and Zayante, and the name of a native shellfish - abalone. The majority of Ohlone or Coastanoan tribes had no written language, within fifty years of the Spaniards arrival, the Ohlone or Coastanoan culture and way of life had virtually disappeared in the Bay area. The party forded the river and camped nearby on October 17,1769, franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, This river was named San Lorenzo. Next morning, the set out again, and Crespi noted that. Santa Cruz was the mission to be founded in California. The creek, lost the name, and is today as Laurel Creek because it parallels Laurel Street. It is the feeder of Neary Lagoon. One of only three towns established in California during the Spanish colonial period, the Villa was located across the San Lorenzo River.
Its original main street is now North Branciforte Avenue, Villa de Branciforte lost its civic status, and in 1905 the area was annexed into the City of Santa Cruz. In the 1820s, newly independent Mexico assumed control of the area, following the secularization of the Mission in 1834, the community that had grown up around the Mission was renamed Pueblo de Figueroa
Carpinteria /kɑːrpᵻntəˈriːə/ is a small oceanside city located in southeastern Santa Barbara County, east of Santa Barbara and northwest of Ventura. The population was 13,040 at the 2010 census, Carpinteria Beach is known for its gentle slope and calm waves in selected sandy areas but good surfing swells in some of the more rocky areas. Seals and sea lions can be seen in the area December through May at the rookery in the nearby Carpinteria Bluffs, tidepools contain starfish, sea anemones, snails and sea urchins. A marathon-length round trip north of the rookery along the beach to Stearns Wharf in Santa Barbara is possible, a popular campground is located adjacent to the beach. There is bird watching at Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve, established in 1977, the Waldholme Torrey Pine, largest known Torrey pine tree on earth, is located in downtown Carpinteria. Since 1987, the California Avocado Festival has been held in Carpinteria on the first weekend of October, the Santa Barbara Polo Club, one of the main equestrian polo fields in the country, is located in Carpinteria.
The city is home to Hollandia Produce, an organic produce company with 70 employees. Lynda. com, a software training company ranked as one of the fastest-growing private companies in the U. S. had its headquarters in Carpinteria. The company was purchased by LinkedIn in 2015 for $1.5 billion, in 1769, the Spanish Portola expedition came west along the beach from the previous nights encampment at Rincon. The explorers found a native village on the point of land where Carpinteria Pier is today. The party camped nearby on August 17, fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary travelling with the expedition, noted that Not far from the town we saw some springs of pitch. The Indians have many canoes, and at the time were building one, the Chumash people used the naturally occurring surface asphalt to seal their canoes, known as Tomols. Petroleum seeps are still visible along the bluffs at Tar Pits Park on the campground beach of Carpinteria State Beach. The three closest drilling platforms visible from the shore are within the Carpinteria Offshore Oil Field, the 50th-largest field in California, Carpinteria is located several miles east of the city of Santa Barbara.
Nearby is the community of Summerland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 9.2 square miles. The city is located almost entirely on a plain in between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Immediately to the north of Carpinteria lie foothills and the Santa Ynez Mountains, between the foothills and the populated area of the city is an agricultural zone
The shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus, is a skate in the family Rhinobatidae. It becomes mature at a seven to eight years old. Males are between 90 and 100 cm long, while females are around 99 cm at that age, the ray can live up to 11 years, and full-grown sizes are around 120 cm for males, and females reach 137 cm. They range from central California south to the Gulf of California and genetic variations occur in the mitochondrial DNA in those found in the Gulf of California, evidencing their isolation from the rest. Because of this, the conservation of species must be carefully managed to preserve the biological diversity. The shovelnose is considered to be a primitively developed ray, with features of both sharks and rays. Rhinobatos productus has magnetic particles in its vestibular receptors, and the magnetic particles believed to be exogenous in origin, the magnetic particles spatial arrangement may aid in the sensitivity of the receptors to movements. The visual system of the shovelnose is more extensive and developed than other Elasmobranchii, almost the entire dorsal and ventral hypothalamus is connected to the visual system, but still maintains a similar lack of differentiation as with sharks.
This species has had one documented case of an attack on a diver when a male guitarfish was interrupted during mating, because of the tooth structure of the guitarfish, this attack could have resulted in a gumming at worst. The shovelnose guitarfish was first considered to be a shark because of its dorsal fins shape
Newport Beach, California
Newport Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, United States. Its population was 85,287 at the 2010 census, Newport Beach is home to Newport Harbor. The citys median family income and property values consistently place high in national rankings, the Upper Bay of Newport is a canyon, which was carved by a stream in the Pleistocene period. The lower bay of Newport was formed by sand that was brought along by ocean currents. Before settlers reached the coasts of California, the Newport area, Indian shells and relics can still be found today scattered throughout the area. Though, throughout the 1800s, settlers began to settle the area due to the availability of land, the State of California sold acre-plots of land for $1 a piece in the Newport area. James Irvine, after hearing the news, quickly traveled from his home in San Francisco to the San Joaquin Ranch. In 1905 city development increased when Pacific Electric Railway established a southern terminus in Newport connecting the beach with downtown Los Angeles, in 1906, the scattered settlements were incorporated as the City of Newport Beach.
Settlements filled in on the Peninsula, West Newport, Newport Island, Balboa Island, in 1923 Corona del Mar was annexed and in 2002 Newport Coast, East Santa Ana Heights and San Joaquin Hills, were annexed. In 2008, after a battle with the city of Costa Mesa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 53.0 square miles. 23.8 square miles of it is land and 29.2 square miles of it is water. Areas of Newport Beach include Corona del Mar, Balboa Island, Balboa Peninsula, Lido Peninsula, Newport Coast, San Joaquin Hills, and Santa Ana Heights, Newport Harbor is a semi-artificial harbor that was formed by dredging Newport Bay estuary during the early 1900s. Newport Harbor once supported maritime industries such as boatbuilding and commercial fishing and its shores are occupied mostly by private homes and private docks. With approximately 9,000 boats, Newport Harbor is one of the largest recreational boat harbors on the U. S. west coast and its a popular destination for all boating activities, including sailing, rowing, canoeing and paddleboarding.
Newport Bay is divided by the Pacific Coast Highway bridge, which is too low for most sailboats, North of the bridge is referred to as Upper Newport Bay, or the Back Bay. South of the bridge is commonly called Lower Newport Bay, or Newport Harbor, however the Back Bay has harbor facilities, especially the marina and launch ramp at The Dunes. The north end of the Newport Harbor channels around Lido Island have a number of business centers and were at one time used by the fishing fleets as their home
Russian River (California)
The Russian River, a southward-flowing river, drains 1,485 square miles of Sonoma and Mendocino counties in Northern California. With an annual discharge of approximately 1,600,000 acre feet, it is the second-largest river flowing through the nine-county Greater San Francisco Bay Area. The Russian River springs from the Laughlin Range about 5 mi east of Willits in Mendocino County. It flows generally southward to Redwood Valley, past Calpella, from there the Russian River flows south, past Ukiah and Hopland, and crosses into Sonoma County just north of Cloverdale. Closely paralleled by U. S. Route 101, it descends into the Alexander Valley and it flows south past Cloverdale and Geyserville. East of Healdsburg, Maacama Creek joins the Russian River, after it makes a series of sweeping bends, the Healdsburg Memorial Bridge carries Old Redwood Highway over the river just upstream of U. S. Route 101s Healdsburg crossing. It receives water from Lake Sonoma via Dry Creek, the river turns westward, where it is spanned by the Wohler Bridge, and it is joined by Mark West Creek north of Forestville, followed by Green Valley Creek to the south.
The river passes Rio Nido and Guerneville, in that area, State Route 116 parallels the river, bordering it past Guernewood Park and Monte Rio. Austin Creek enters from the north before the River passes through Duncans Mills, State Route 1 crosses over the river before it flows into the Pacific Ocean between Jenner and Goat Rock Beach. The Russian River estuary is recognized for protection by the California Bays, the mouth is about 60 mi north of the San Francisco Bays Golden Gate bridge. The lower Russian River is a spring, summer. It is very safe at that time for swimming and boating, the river is dangerous in the winter, with swift current and muddy water. The geographer R. S. Holway wrote of the Russian River in his paper The Russian River, the Russian River was one of several rivers draining westward from the Mayacamas Mountains through the Mendocino Plateau to the sea, a region lifted up by tectonic forces. The Navarro River drained from the Cobb Mountain area, while the Russian River drained from the Mt.
St. Helena area, being at a lower elevation, the Russian River began cutting north into the drainage area of the Navarro River. Eroding up a line in Alexander Valley, the Russian River intersected the Navarro River just north of Cloverdale. In one fell swoop, the Russian River took Big Sulphur Creek, the high valleys were eroded into rocky canyons for ten miles north of Cloverdale and for five miles east of Cloverdale. After establishing a connection to Clear Lake, the Russian River was beheaded from Clear Lake by a slide, now Clear Lake flows into the Sacramento River. The river incised a canyon into Fitch Mountain at an early time, the Russian River was prevented from flowing south into San Pablo Bay, due to a 113-foot high ridge at Cotati
Huntington Beach Fire Department
The Huntington Beach Fire Department provides fire protection and emergency medical services for the city of Huntington Beach, California. In addition to services, the HBFD provides medical transport via a fleet of five ambulances. Each ambulance is staffed by two three-year limited term EMTs and the department transports over 10,000 patients annually, the Huntington Beach Fire Department was formed as an organization in 1909 with 20 volunteers. John Tinsley, became the first fire chief, the first fire engine was a 1923 Seagrave purchased in 1922. The Marine Safety Division of the HBFD is responsible for patrolling the 3.5 miles of shoreline along Huntington Beach, the staffing levels vary from just five lifeguards during the offseason to as many as 65 during the summer. The division staffs 30 lifeguard towers along the beach as well as Tower Zero on the Huntington Beach Pier
Santa Ana River
The Santa Ana River is the largest river entirely within Southern California in the United States. Its drainage basin spans four counties, the Santa Ana River is 96 miles long, and drains a watershed of 2,650 square miles. For its size the Santa Ana drainage basin is quite diverse and it ranges from high peaks of inland mountains in the north and east, to the hot, dry interior and semi-desert basin, to flat coastal plains in the west. Its climates range from dry alpine to chaparral and desert, relatively little water actually flows in the river or most of its tributaries. One of its largest tributaries, the San Jacinto River, rarely reaches the Santa Ana except in wet years. The relative lack of vegetation makes the river prone to flash flooding, even so, a wide variety of animal and plant life has always been dependent on the river. People have lived on the Santa Ana River for at least 9,000 years, there were four distinct indigenous groups in the area, all of which depended heavily on the river for their livelihoods.
The river was first crossed by Europeans in 1769, when it received its name from members of the Spanish Portola expedition. Because it is one of the largest water sources in the four-county region, many large ranchos developed alongside the river and one of its major tributaries, Santiago Creek. This period of growth culminated in the establishment of large cities on the river, including Santa Ana and Anaheim. In the early 20th century, devastating floods poured down the Santa Ana River, leading to much of the river being channelized and dammed in recent times. The Santa Ana River rises in Santa Ana Canyon in the southern San Bernardino Mountains, as it passes through the urban area, it receives City Creek from the right and enters a flood control channel flanked by earthen levees on both sides. Not long after the confluence with City Creek, Lytle Creek enters from the right, from there, the Santa Ana flows southwest, and after passing through the city of Riverside, it discharges into the normally dry flood control reservoir formed by Prado Dam.
Two major tributaries of the river join in the area, Chino Creek from the right. Temescal Creek drains the largest area of all the tributaries, because it provides the outflow from Lake Elsinore and it is one of the longest, at 32 miles in length. Except during the wettest years, Temescal Creek contains little or no water because Lake Elsinore is not high enough to overflow, the river roughly bisects the county as it flows southwest towards the ocean. The river is entirely diverted into spreading grounds for groundwater recharge of the aquifer of north Orange County. Downstream of there, the river serves only for control and waste drainage purposes
Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, in 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a geographic designation. Californias north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco, though, Northern California usually refers to the states northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, the term is applied to the area north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains.
Because of Californias large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well, the state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast while the region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the economic, scientific. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is Home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, Northern Californias largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto.
The 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any area in California. The states larger cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown, in 1542, beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, in 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of todays San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored Californias coast as far north as Monterey Bay, other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established.
The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast, the mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776
California State Route 39
State Route 39 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California that travels through Orange and Los Angeles counties. Its southern terminus is at Pacific Coast Highway, in Huntington Beach and this route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. However, it is not a scenic highway as designated by Caltrans, at Beach Boulevards northerly terminus, Whittier Boulevard, Route 39 turns east to the intersection of Whittier Boulevard with Harbor Boulevard, taking over a former segment of Route 72. Route 72 remains on Whittier Boulevard west of Beach Boulevard, although defined to be a continuous route, there is a break in adopted Route 39 at the intersection of Whittier Boulevard with Harbor Boulevard, where an END39 sign appears. The California Streets and Highways Code defines the continuation of Route 39 as Harbor Boulevard to the vicinity of Fullerton Road, the planned alignment of Route 39 continues its northward progress on Azusa Avenue to the northwest in Hacienda Heights.
Adopted Route 39 resumes and signs for Route 39 appear on Azusa Avenue after the junction with the San Bernardino Freeway, the adopted route continues for 1. 0-mile to the Covina/West Covina city limit,0. 1-mile north of Grovecenter Street. From 0. 1-mile north of Grovecenter Street to the limit of Azusa,0. 7-mile northeast of Rock Springs Way. However, to aid motorists wishing to continue on Route 39 and it is noted that the portion of Route 39 within West Covina was relinquished to that city in accordance with Section 339 of the California Streets and Highways Code in 2005. In the city of Azusa from just north of Interstate 210 to just north of Sierra Madre Ave, former Route 39 is a couplet, northbound traffic is on Azusa Ave. southbound traffic is on San Gabriel Ave. At the north limit of Azusa, adopted Route 39 begins again as San Gabriel Canyon Road, a replacement of the section north of East Fork Road, in the next canyon to the east, was partly built in 1936 and 1961, but was never completed.
The section includes one bridge and two tunnels, it was never used by automobile or truck traffic. It continued east with US60,70, and 99 to Azusa Avenue where it turned north to follow the present alignment as described beginning in the paragraph of the preceding section. The Hacienda Glendora segment can still be seen as Route 39 on some maps, due to complaints of nearby residents due to the increased volume of traffic, a straighter, wider stub was built slightly to the east, and was named Harbor Boulevard. The new Harbor Boulevard became opened to the early in 1992. The original winding Fullerton Road segment still exists but no longer serves as the primary passage and it is now strictly a residential street. The EIR will take three years to complete, according to California Department of Transportation officials, the first, building two retaining walls near the city of Azusa from Old San Gabriel Canyon Road to approximately four miles south of SR-2, could begin in mid-2009. Abandoning the route would not be cost-effective for Caltrans due, among other reasons.
There are proposals to move the closed gate north two miles to a popular trailhead, people heading to Mount Waterman must currently travel west to Pasadena and join the Angeles Crest Highway in La Cañada Flintridge - a nearly two-hour trip
Lake Perris is an artificial lake completed in 1973. It is the terminus of the California State Water Project. The park offers a variety of recreational activities, because of this and the lakes proximity to major population centers, it is very crowded during the summer months. The Yai Heki Regional Indian Museum tells the story of the monumental State Water Project and focuses on the culture, Lake Perris is 1,560 feet above sea level and is ringed by hills and small mountains. It impounds 131,400 acre feet of water behind a 2-mile long,128 foot tall, the untended areas of Lake Perris may seem rocky and barren at first glance, but harbor a variety of natural wonders. An artificial reef exists on the floor made of old tires. The reef was created to provide a habitat for fish, the predominant plant community, coastal sage scrub, is host to a variety of birds and wildlife. Mule deer, bobcats, rabbits, gopher snakes and rattlesnakes may sometimes be seen by day, more frequently seen are a wide variety of lizards, water fowl, and birds of prey.
Beautiful displays of wildflowers occur during the season, generally November through April. Conditions are somewhat shadier on hillsides that face north or northwest so that plants such as chamise, penstemon. Riparian areas near springs and seeps, and on east and south lakes include willows, elderberry, more than a hundred species of birds have been spotted at Lake Perris. Many are migratory, and stop at the park briefly during their travels, loggerhead shrikes, California thrashers, wrens, hummingbirds, golden eagles, several varieties of hawks and even bald eagles may be seen. Many varieties of waterfowl use the lake including pintails, teals, shovelers, various geese, black-necked stilts, killdeer, kingfishers and herons are attracted to the water’s edge. The lake has become a hotspot for freshwater game fishing, largemouth bass, spotted bass, rainbow trout, channel catfish, black crappie, red ear sunfish and carp are all present in the lake. As the climate is a one, the California Department of Fish.
The trout usually only bite in the months after the DFG plants. Day and night and owls are frequently seen hunting for prey, the bike trail offers an easy and convenient way to see some of the birds and other wildlife of Lake Perris. Early morning or dusk are the best times, ranger-led hikes are conducted during the spring and early summer months
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is the 36th most populous city in the United States and the 7th most populous in California. It is located on the Pacific Coast of the United States, as of 2010, its population was 462,257. Long Beach is the second largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the worlds largest shipping ports. The city maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore, manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the corner of Los Angeles County. Downtown Long Beach is approximately 22 miles south of Downtown Los Angeles, indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, and several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group were the Tongva people and they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city.
Tevaaxaanga was a settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuunga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the century due to missionization, political change. In 1784 the Spanish Empires King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto, the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was originally part of the Rancho San Pedro and its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto. In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England and he built what is now known as the Los Cerritos Ranch House, a still-standing adobe which is a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County.
Both Temple and his house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an attempt to establish a colony. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, to manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyns brother Jotham Bixby, the Father of Long Beach. Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company