Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
The Knox School (Australia)
The Knox School is an independent, co-educational, non-denominational day school, located in the eastern Melbourne suburb of Wantirna South, Australia. The school is a member of the Eastern Independent Schools of Melbourne association. There are 600+ students at the school and class sizes are capped at 24 students.. 2017 fees range from $11,915 to $22,990 p.a. The Knox School was founded as Knoxfield College in February 1982; the school took over the campus from Taylors College at 220 Burwood Highway. The first principal was Dulcie Flinn, of the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Melbourne. From 1982 to 1985 there were eight portable classrooms – five for the Junior School and three for the Senior School. In 1985 Stage II building work was done; the second principal was Baxter Holly. Under Holly's leadership, Knoxfield College developed Stage III, including the Performing Arts Centre and the Art Gallery. 1987 saw the first Year 12 class. 1992 saw. That area is now the school's synthetic hockey pitch; this was opened in 1996.
The third principal was Tony Conabere. He was appointed in July 1995. 1996 was another year of building, including the Pre-Prep campus and Tew Field, as well as the adjoining Pavilion. In 1998 and 2000 the Knox School was ranked in Victoria's top ten schools, in 1998 won the gold medal for Assessment Practice. 2000 saw the renaming of the school to Knox Grammar, however only a year the school was further renamed to The Knox School after a "disagreement" with Knox Grammar School over the naming. In 2002 the Information Common was opened by the then-Governor of John Landy; this building incorporates four stories which include a library, many computer facilities, multimedia studio and numerous staff offices and front desk. In 2004 the fourth principal, Suzanne McChesney, was appointed. In that year the Philip Island Discovery Campus was purchased. In 2005, the Junior School Building was named the D. G. M. Flinn building after the School's first principal. 2006 saw the renaming of the Arts Centre to the Founders' Building, in honour of those who started the school.
In 2007 The Knox School celebrated its 25th anniversary, along with unofficially opening its new auditorium, beginning renovations to part of the Senior School, with renovations to the science labs and the conversion of the Year 12 Common Room into a hospitality kitchen, where students study the elective subject Food Technology and serves as a small café for the staff. The school contributed to the building of a crossing over Burwood Highway; the school developed sister school relationships with the Shonan Gauken school in Fujisawa, Japan. After ten and a half years as the principal of The Knox School, Suzanne McChesney was farewelled in a special assembly on 27 June 2014, her successor, Allan Shaw took up the position of principal on 7 July 2014. In September 2015, a $1.5 million refurbishment of the Year 7 Centre began. It was completed by the beginning of the school year in 2016. Significant building projects since 2014 have seen many classrooms and other rooms refurbished and a 30 Million Dollar building masterplan was ratified in December 2016.
The four Houses used for sporting and arts competitions and carnivals are "Chisholm", "Flinders", "Lawrence" and "Paterson". There are three sub-schools: Middle School and Senior College. Jackson Irvine, professional footballer who plays for EFL Championship club Hull City and the Socceroos Xander Speight, actor best known for his role as Parker in the ABC3 television series, Worst Year of My Life Again List of schools in Victoria The Knox School
Navy blue is a dark shade of the color blue. Navy blue got its name from the dark blue worn by officers in the British Royal Navy since 1748 and subsequently adopted by other navies around the world; when this color name, taken from the usual color of the uniforms of sailors came into use in the early 19th century, it was called marine blue, but the name of the color soon changed to navy blue. An early use of navy blue as a color name in English was in 1840 though the Oxford English Dictionary has a citation from 1813. In practice, actual blue uniforms of the United States Navy and other navies have become outright black in color, in order to combat fading. At right is displayed the color bright navy blue; this is the bright tone called "navy blue" by Crayola. This tone of navy blue was formulated as a Crayola color in 1958. Indigo dye is the color, called Añil in the Guía de coloraciones by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005, popular in the Hispanophone realm.
Indigo dye is the basis for all the historical navy blue colors, since in the 18th, 19th, early 20th century all navy uniforms were made by dyeing them with various shades of indigo dye. Displayed at the right is the color Peacoat, a dark shade of navy blue; the source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Cotton eXtended" color list, color #19-3920 TCX—Peacoat. At right is displayed the color purple navy. Purple navy is a color, used by some navies. "Purple navy" in this color terminology usage is regarded as a shade of indigo, a color which can be regarded as a tone of purple when using the common English definition of purple, i.e. a color between blue and red. The first recorded use of purple navy as a color name in English was in 1926; the source of this color is Dictionary of Color Names. The color Persian indigo is displayed at right. Another name for this color is regimental, because in the 19th century it was used by many nations for navy uniforms; the first recorded use of regimental as a color name in English was in 1912.
Displayed at right is the color space cadet. Space cadet is one of the colors on the Resene Color List, a color list popular in Australia and New Zealand; the color was formulated in 2007. This color is a formulation of an impression of the color that cadets in space navy training would wear; the color navy was one of the original 16 HTML/CSS colors formulated for standardized computer display in the late 1980s. In many world navies, including the United States Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy, uniforms which are called navy blue are, in actuality, colored black, as the uniforms became darker to counter fading; the Canadian Forces Dress Instructions specify that "'navy blue' is a tone of black".. Navy Blue is the name of an album by Diane Renay. Navy blue is used by numerous professional and collegiate sports teams: Air Force blue Azure Blue lagoon List of colors Midnight blue Royal blue Sky blue
Mount Lilydale Mercy College
Mount Lilydale Mercy College is a Roman Catholic co-educational secondary school located in the Melbourne suburbs of Lilydale, Australia, founded by the Sisters of Mercy in 1896. The College serves the needs over 1,500 students; the Institute of the Sisters of Mercy was founded by Catherine McAuley in 1831 in Ireland. The Sisters took as their special concerns the education of girls, visitation of the sick in their homes, the protection of distressed women of good character, their attention was on local needs and they soon came to be called the ‘walking nuns’ as they were seen on their way to and from their visitations. Before Catherine died in 1841, there were Sisters of Mercy working in twelve towns in Ireland and two in England; the Sisters at that time were involved in school-based and adult education, the care of the sick in hospitals, the establishment of homes for orphans, the aged and disadvantaged. Fifteen years in 1846, the first Sisters of Mercy arrived in Perth from Ireland. One of these pioneering women was Ursula Frayne who brought with her the vision of Catherine that they should be living witnesses of God's mercy in a new world.
The Sisters of Mercy continue to provide education, health care, social services and ministries across 43 countries today. In 1990, Pope John Paul II declared Catherine McAuley "Venerable". Click herefor more information on Catherine McAuley and the work underway to have her declared a Saint. Following the establishment of a convent at Mansfield in 1846, a branch house was opened in Lilydale in 1896; when the Sisters arrived in January of that year, neither the convent nor school had been prepared for them, but the local Parish Priest vacated his presbytery and, for the first four months, school was carried out in the basement of the presbytery. There were four nuns in charge at Lilydale, namely Mother Patrick Maguire, Mother Agnes Ryan, Sister Brigid Bradshaw and Sister Catherine Ford; the Parish Priest, Rev A Hennessy bought a property of 33 acres and on 15 November 1896, the foundation stone of the convent and the boarding school was laid. As soon as the first stage of the building was ready, the Sisters took up residence on what is now known as Mount Lilydale Mercy College.
The number of pupils increased and volunteer Sisters from Ireland were soon called for. In 1905, Mount Lilydale College, was granted primary registration. In 1938, the high school received full recognition as a secondary college. From these beginnings, the College flourished as a primary, secondary and day school for students. In 1944, a two-roomed junior school was built nearby. Both were demolished for construction of the existing College. In April 1962, in November 1965, the present north and south wings of the McAuley Campus were opened. In February 1964, the tennis courts were laid, opened by Archbishop Knox; the Library and Science block were constructed in 1970. At that time, this new building marked the last stage of the development of Mount Lilydale Catholic Girls’ College, which, in 1974, boasted 339 secondary and 95 primary students, including 21 boarders. During 1973 a committee was formed to address the need for development of a boys’ secondary school to meet the growing demands in the area.
The magnanimous and courageous decision was taken by the Sisters of Mercy to retain the presence of the Sisters of Mercy and for Mount Lilydale College to become coeducational. Boarders ceased living at the College in 1974 and in February 1975 the first boys were enrolled and the primary section of the College began to be phased out. On 17 November 1976, Bishop Perkins opened and blessed the first extension required for this new phase of the College development. During the past 41 years there has been a major transformation in the College facilities with further building works proposed as a result of the new College Master Plan. Mount Lilydale Mercy College accepts students from Year 7 to Year 12. Philip Morison is the Principal of Mount Lilydale Mercy College and is responsible for representing the College and for providing strategic leadership and management; the Learning and Teaching Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Learning and Teaching is responsible for Faculties, Library Services, eLearning, Learning Services and Learning & Teaching policy.
The Mission Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Mission is responsible for Religious Education, Ministry and Justice. The Organisation Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Organisation is responsible for Staff, Human Resources, Professional Learning & Development, Health & Safety and Compliance; the Pastoral Care Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Pastoral Care is responsible for Student Leadership, Student Wellbeing, Student Management, the Counseling Service, Extra-Curricular Programs and Pastoral Care Policy. The Corporate Services Portfolio, led by the Director of Business, is composed of Finance, Health & Safety, Human Resources, Information Technology, Properties & Facilities and Administrative Services; the Development and Communications Portfolio, led by the Director of Development and Communications is responsible for marketing, communications, alumni relations and fundraising. Mount Lilydale Mercy College offers the Victorian Certificate of Education to students at Year 11 and 12 Level.
High achieving Year 10 students are given the opportunity to undertake one VCE subject at Year 11 level. Mount Lilydale Mercy College offers an extensive range of VCE subjects all of which are run each year due to the large size of the school; the Victorian Certificate of Applied iLearning is offered to Year 11 and 12 Students at the I
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Mount Scopus Memorial College
Mount Scopus Memorial College known as Mount Scopus College, is an independent co-educational Modern Orthodox Jewish day school located in the Melbourne suburb of Burwood, Australia. Mount Scopus Memorial College opened on St Kilda Road in Melbourne, Australia in 1949, taking its name from Mount Scopus in Jerusalem, which remained under Israeli control after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Mount Scopus College was the first co-educational Jewish day school in Melbourne serving a student population of 143, it was established to meet the educational needs of the influx of Holocaust refugees to the Melbourne community. In 1953, the college moved to a larger campus in Burwood, designed by Melbourne's leading Jewish architect Anatol Kagan in association with Dr. Ernest Fooks. There are campuses in St Kilda East and Caulfield South; until 1996 there was a branch in Kew. Mount Scopus College is known for outstanding Victorian Certificate of Education results throughout Victoria, it is listed as one of the top schools in the state and indeed was the highest performing school in Victoria in 2009.
The school ranks among the top 10 in the state for academic performance and is one of the state's most expensive private day schools. The principal of Mount Scopus Memorial College is Rabbi James Kennard, who replaced Hilton Rubin in 2007. Previous principals have included Abraham Feiglin, Max Wahlhaus, Aleksander Ranoschy, Dr. Steven Lorch and Rabbi William Altshul. Mount Scopus College was the first of the Melbourne Jewish Day Schools to take part in the Sherut Leumi program; every year, four Israeli women are sent to Mount Scopus as part of their Israeli National Service. They are a major component of Scopus' informal Jewish Studies team. Mount Scopus offers an Ulpan program. In 2007 and 2010, more than half of the school's tenth graders took part in this program; the performing arts are considered an important part of school life at Mount Scopus Memorial College. Mount Scopus Memorial College is an IB school. Drama and Dance electives are available to students years 8–12. Theatre Studies is taught in VCE with excellent results.
Music is taught from primary through to VCE, with an instrumental program available to students years 2–12. The performing arts calendar includes an annual College Musical, Senior School Play, VCE Theatre Studies Play, Middle-school House Plays, Primary Musical, multiple Music Soirees and an'Idol' singing competition; some recent productions include Bye Bye Birdie, Bugsy Malone, The Wizard of Oz, Seussical and the Technicolor Dreamcoat, Disney's High School Musical, The Sound of Music, The Crucible, The Outsiders, Disney's Beauty and the Beast, Oliver!, Little Shop of Horrors. The 2012 production of Metamorphoses was awarded the Lyrebird Youth Awards for Best Production, Best Director – Evie Gawenda, Best Lighting and Best interpretation of script through the use of Multimedia – Evie Gawenda and Gideon Szental. Peter Alexander – fashion designer Neal Ashkanasy – emotional intelligence researcher Michael Danby MP – Federal politician, Member for Melbourne Ports Geoffrey Edelsten – Entrepreneur Alan Finkel – Former Chancellor of Monash University, Australia's chief scientist Josh Frydenberg MP – Member for Kooyong in the Australian House of Representatives and Treasurer of Australia Deborah Glass - Victorian Ombudsman Michael Gudinski – music industry and entertainment entrepreneur Michelle Haber – cancer researcher attended Moriah College Janet Hiller – epidemiologist Ariel Kaplan – The Saddle Club actress Dena Kaplan – actress Michael Klinger – professional cricketer and former Australian Under 19's cricket captain Solomon Lew – business mogul Eva Orner – filmmaker and Academy Award winner Elliot Perlman – award-winning novelist, script-writer and barrister Mark Regev – spokesman for the Israeli Prime Minister Leon Sterling – Dean of the Faculty of Information and Communication Technologies at Swinburne University of Technology David Zalcberg – Australian table tennis player List of high schools in Victoria Judaism in Australia Mount Scopus Memorial College website
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s