"Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale, today known across the Western world. The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection Grimms' Fairy Tales, it was titled in German: Sneewittchen and numbered as Tale 53. The name Sneewittchen was Low German and in the first version it was translated with Schneeweißchen; the Grimms completed their final revision of the story in 1854. The fairy tale features such elements as the magic mirror, the poisoned apple, the glass coffin, the characters of the Evil Queen and the Seven Dwarfs; the seven dwarfs were first given individual names in the 1912 Broadway play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and given different names in Walt Disney's 1937 film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Grimm story, referred to as "Snow White", should not be confused with the story of "Snow-White and Rose-Red", another fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. In the Aarne–Thompson folklore classification, tales of this kind are grouped together as type 709, Snow White.
Others of this kind include "Bella Venezia", "Myrsina", "Nourie Hadig", "Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree", "The Young Slave", "La petite Toute-Belle". At the beginning of the story, a queen sits sewing at an open window during a winter snowfall when she pricks her finger with her needle, causing three drops of red blood to drip onto the freshly fallen white snow on the black windowsill, she says to herself, "How I wish that I had a daughter that had skin as white as snow, lips as red as blood, hair as black as ebony." Some time the queen gives birth to a baby daughter whom she names Snow White, but the queen dies in childbirth a short while later. A year Snow White's father, the king, marries again, his new wife is beautiful, but she is a vain and wicked woman. The new queen possesses a magic mirror, which she asks every morning, "Magic mirror on the wall, the fairest one of all?" The mirror always tells the queen. The queen is always pleased with that, but as Snow White grows up, she becomes more beautiful each day and more beautiful than her stepmother.
When the queen asks her mirror, it tells her. This gives the queen a great shock, she becomes envious, from that moment on, her heart turns against Snow White, whom the queen grows to hate with time. The angry queen orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the forest to be killed; as proof that Snow White is dead, the queen demands that he returns with her heart, which she will consume in order to become immortal. The huntsman succeeds in taking Snow White into the forest, but after raising his knife, he finds himself unable to kill her when Snow White finds out about her stepmother's plan, tearfully begging "Spare me this mockery of justice! I will run away into the forest and never come home again!". The huntsman reluctantly agrees to spare Snow White and lets her go, bringing the queen the heart of a wild animal instead. After wandering through the forest for hours, Snow White discovers a tiny cottage belonging to a group of seven dwarfs. Since no one is at home, she eats some of the tiny meals, drinks some of their wine, tests all the beds.
The last bed is comfortable enough for her and she falls asleep. When the dwarfs return home, they become aware that there is a burglar in their house, because everything in their home is in disorder. Prowling about frantically, they discover the sleeping Snow White, she wakes up and explains to them what happened, the dwarfs take pity on her and let her stay with them in exchange for housekeeping. They warn her to be careful when alone at home and to let no one in while they are working in the mountains. Meanwhile, the queen, believing that Snow White is dead, asks her mirror once again: "Magic mirror on the wall, the fairest one of all?" The mirror tells her. The queen is furious when she learns that Snow White is still alive because of the huntsman, decides to kill the girl herself with three attempts. First, the queen appears at the dwarfs' cottage, disguised as an old peddler, offers Snow White colorful, silky laced bodices as a present. Next, the queen dresses as a comb seller and convinces Snow White to take a beautiful comb as a present.
Last, the queen, disguising herself as a poor woman, offers Snow White a poisoned apple. This time, the dwarfs are unable to revive Snow White. Assuming that she is dead, they place her in a glass casket; some time a prince stumbles upon Snow White lying in her glass coffin during a hunting trip. After hearing her story from the seven dwarfs, the Prince is allowed to take Snow White to her proper resting place. While Snow White is being transported by the prince, one of his servants trips and loses his balance; this causes the piece of poisoned apple to dislodge from Snow White's throat. (In the first edition, Snow White is carried to the palace without mishap. But a servant, frustrated by the inconvenience caused by the princ
The Muppet Show (comics)
The Muppet Show is comic book based on the variety television series The Muppet Show and featuring The Muppets. The series was written and drawn by Roger Langridge and published by Boom Kids!, an imprint of Boom! Studios. In 2011, the Boom! License with Disney Publishing Worldwide expired. Disney's own comic book publishing subsidiary, Marvel Comics, renamed the series Muppets and published four issues in 2012. Roger Langridge made a special preview for the comic, to be used in the Disney Adventures magazine, cancelled in November 2007. Preview Special - The show is about to start and Kermit the Frog thinks the guest star hasn't shown up yet, when Kermit hears a knock at the door; when he opens the door, he finds a baby. The show continues; the "baby" reveals that he's not a baby, but the scheduled guest star is Babyface Magee, Midget Acrobat. He'd been left ga-ga, regaining consciousness only minutes ago; the culprit responsible turned out to be Sweetums in an attempt to take Babyface Magee's spot.
Sweetums is found on-stage singing during the closing number where he reveals that his mommy is in the audience, he wanted to surprise her. Kermit the Frog tries to think of a way to give Sweetums something to do that doesn't involve singing, soon hires him to throw bricks at hecklers. Characters - Kermit the Frog, Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear, Gonzo the Great, Scooter and Waldorf, Bunsen Honeydew, The Rodent Doo-Wop All-Stars, Babyface Magee, Sweetums' Mommy, Mildred Huxtetter, Janice, Link Hogthrob, Dr. Julius Strangepork, Pigs, Generic Muppet Monsters, Bird Dancers, Bert from Sesame StreetThe first two story arcs are renumbered from One, this was changed after the second story arc. Issue #1: Kermit's Story - When Kermit receives a mysterious letter and starts strumming an old tune on his banjo, Robin realizes that his uncle misses the swamp. With their beloved leader down in the dumps, the whole Muppet gang does its best to try to improve Kermit's spirit; the cast tries to cheer Kermit up, but in the end, it's Robin's insistence that his uncle play through to the end of The "Pond Where I Was Born" on his banjo that helps Kermit realize that though the theater is his home now, the pond will always be a part of me.
Wherever I should roam. Other sketches include a "Muppet News Flash," a new musical number called "Bang, Boom and Pow," a cooking segment with the Swedish Chef, "Pigs in Space." Characters - Kermit the Frog, Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear, Gonzo the Great, Robin the Frog, The Muppet Newsman and Waldorf, the Medium, Floyd Pepper, Four Little Hop-Toads, Rowlf the Dog, the Zimmer Twins, Male Koozebanian Creature, Female Koozebanian Creature, Swedish Chef, Sam Eagle, Link Hogthrob, Dr. Julius Strangepork, Zoot Issue #2: Fozzie's Story - When the Cheese Manufacturers' Convention sours on Fozzie Bear's comedy act, he tries to reinvent himself by looking to the past for inspiration, his Shakespearean homage ends in tragedy, his music hall routine lands him in "Veterinarian's Hospital" when Miss Piggy finds out that Kermit has canceled her "Suffragette, Crepe Suzette" number for it, a slapstick performance conceived by Gonzo leaves him with nothing but pie on his face. But when Rowlf suggests during a last-ditch Beatnik sketch that Fozzie just be himself, the bear succeeds, bringing Statler and Waldorf to tears of laughter!
Other sketches include a musical number called "In My Merry Oldsmobile" by Johnnie Steele and Lucille, "The Ubiquitous Quilp," and "Pigs in Space." Characters - Fozzie Bear, Kermit the Frog, Gonzo the Great, Miss Piggy, Rowlf the Dog and Waldorf, Bunsen Honeydew, Janice, Johnnie Steele and Lucille, Humorous Cheese, the Ubiquitous Quilp, Rats, Link Hogthrob, Dr. Julius Strangepork Issue #3: Gonzo's Story - Osbert J. Smedley, the theater's insurance agent, comes to the theater for some routine questioning. A busy Kermit has Scooter answer Smedley's questions. Mr. Smedley needs to know what species everybody in the theater is, but Scooter's not sure what Gonzo is. Scooter asks Gonzo what he is, but Gonzo states that he's never thought about it before. Scooter asks around, nobody else is sure. Rizzo comes to the conclusion that Gonzo is a "Gonzo". Scooter gives Smedley the answer, but after realising who Gonzo is, he realizes that having Gonzo in the theater would raise the premium up to five thousand percent.
Gonzo assures a nervous Smedley that his act is risk-free, offers to let Smedley test out his act, which would involve Smedley getting inside a cannon. A frightened Smedley claims that there was an error and that the insurance company owes the theater thirty-two cents, rushes off just before the big finale, which ends up sending Gonzo to the hospital. At the hospital, Scooter begs Gonzo to tell him. Gonzo's reply: "I'm an artist." Other sketches include "Chicken Lake" by Gonzo and the chickens, "Bear on Patrol", "Gumshoe McGurk, Private Eye" with Gonzo in the title role, "Pigs in Space," "Twinkle Twinkle Little Rat" with Gonzo and the rats, "Extravagonzo!". Characters - Gonzo the Great, Kermit the Frog, Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear, Rizzo the Rat, Camilla the Chicken and Waldorf, Osbert J. Smedley, Sam the Eagle, The Masked Phantom and her nephew, Link Hogthrob, Bunsen Honeydew, The Swedish Chef, Floyd Pepper, Beaker, Dr. Julius Strangepork, Space Bug, Rats Issue #4: Piggy's Story - The guest star is Madame Rhonda, a psychic.
She gives fortunes to various Muppets backstage. When she reads Miss Piggy's fortune, she tells her that sh
Emma Swan is a fictional character in ABC's television series Once Upon a Time. She is portrayed by Jennifer Morrison, by Abby Ross as a teenager, Mckenna Grace as a child. Emma first appeared in the series's pilot as a bail bond agent in Boston, Massachusetts until she meets her biological son Henry, whom she gave up for adoption 10 years before, learns she is the daughter of Snow White and Prince Charming. Henry urges Emma to go to the fictional town of Storybrooke, Maine, to break a curse enacted by the Evil Queen and to restore the fairy tale characters' happy endings; the daughter of Snow White and Prince Charming, an ex-bail bonds collector, town sheriff of Storybrooke and Henry Mills' biological mother. Morrison described her character at the beginning of the first season as "broken and worldly". During the fourth season finale, "Operation Mongoose", Emma absorbs the power of the Dark One into herself to save Storybrooke In order to create a dark version of Emma, Morrison explained that "In order to build Dark Emma, I've been doing a bunch of research there with some of their mythology books and old fairy tale books and just looking back through the history of swans and the etymology of'Swan'" and explained that Emma's rate of evolution "challenged on a daily basis".
Emma became the primary antagonist of the fifth season's first half, until the end of the season's eighth episode when her real plans are revealed. Morrison's portrayal of Emma has received praise, with some reviewers noting a feminist twist in the depiction of fairy tales and a strong female lead, she is loosely based on the title character of the fairy tale "The Ugly Duckling", a swan, lost and raised by ducks, before finding its birth family and recognizing its true nature, while her Dark One side is loosely based on Odile the Black Swan from the ballet Swan Lake. It is revealed in the Season 6 episode "Tougher Than the Rest" that she chose the last name Swan when she was young after a friend mentioned that story. In early stages of the conception of the character, Emma's name was Anna, she was supposed to have three children, but she ended up having just Henry. In the original script of the Pilot, she is described as "Late 20s. Beautiful, with great strength behind classic features, but not quite at home in her skin."It was reported that actress Katee Sackhoff auditioned five times for the role of Emma, but according to her, the producers wanted Morrison to play the part, she accepted a role in the television series Longmire.
In the end, Morrison was hired for the part of Emma. Morrison explained her character as someone who "help her son Henry whom she abandoned when he was a baby and who seems like he's a little bit dysfunctional", but noted that Emma does not start out believing in the fairytale universe. Morrison has described Emma as being like an overgrown teenager who does not know how to properly do certain things, like eating or taking care of herself. Morrison said that when she does not know what to do with Emma, she thinks, "What a 14-year-old boy would do?" Morrison has stated that Emma is loosely based on "The Ugly Duckling", that Emma's last name Swan is derived from this fairy tale. According to the creators of the series, the name Swan is "very symbolic and fairy tale name and it just felt right for her and for the journey we are creating for Emma."After Emma became the "Dark One" at the end of the fourth season of the series, Morrison began doing research with mythology books and old fairy tale books, looking back through the history of swans and the etymology of'Swan' to prepare for this new trait of her character.
For Morrison, it is a great opportunity to now play a villain and it is challenging for her to portray a character, evolving. Emma is the daughter of Snow White and Prince Charming, older sister to Prince Neal and mother to Henry Daniel Mills; when Snow White becomes pregnant, Geppetto forms a magical wardrobe for her and Charming, after Rumplestiltskin informs them that their daughter is the key to breaking the Evil Queen's curse in 28 years. Emma is born shortly after and placed in the wardrobe along with Pinocchio travelling to the new land. In the real world, Emma grows up in foster care, bouncing from various families, one including Ingrid, the Snow Queen; as a teenager, Emma becomes a petty criminal with Neal Cassidy. They plan to start a new life in Tallahassee, until Neal is persuaded by August Booth to turn Emma over to the police, to protect her destiny. Emma is jailed giving birth to Henry, whom she gives up for adoption to give him a better life. After some time in prison, Emma becomes a bail bond agent.
On her 28th birthday, a ten-year-old Henry Mills arrives in Boston. Disbelieving him, she returns him home to Regina in Storybrooke, who becomes worried that Emma wants to be in Henry's life. Regina's repeated warnings to leave town and keep out of Henry's life make. In Storybrooke, Emma wants Henry to let go of his theories of the curse, but plays along, she moves in with Mary Margaret, unaware that they are related, Sheriff Graham appoints Emma his deputy as the two form an attraction, until Regina crushes his heart, causing him to die in Emma's arms. Emma is soon elected sheriff, assisting in the arrest of Mary Margaret for the alleged murder of Kathryn Nolan until she is found alive; when August Booth arrives in Storybrooke revealing her destiny of breaking the curse, a pressured Emma decides to leave the town, not wanting Henry to suffer from her and Regina's feud. Regina, attempts to poison Emma, though Henry
Happily Ever After (1990 film)
Ever After is a 1990 American animated musical fantasy film written by Robby London and Martha Moran, directed by John Howley, starring Irene Cara, Malcolm McDowell, Edward Asner, Carol Channing, Dom DeLuise and Phyllis Diller. Its story is a continuation of the fairy tale "Snow White", wherein the titular heroine and the Prince are about to be married, but the late evil Queen's brother Lord Maliss appears to seek revenge upon them; the film replaces the Dwarfs with their female cousins, called the Dwarfelles. Ever After is unrelated to Filmation's fellow A Snow White Christmas, a television animated film, the company's earlier Snow White sequel, it was troubled by severe legal problems with The Walt Disney Company, had a poor financial and critical reception, resulting in the bankruptcy of Filmation. A video game adaptation was released in 1994; the film starts as the Looking Glass recaps the story of "Snow White". The wicked Queen has been vanquished, the kingdom is now at peace as Snow White and the Prince prepare to marry.
Meanwhile, back at the castle of the Queen, her animal minions celebrate their freedom by throwing a party for themselves. The Queen's evil wizard brother, Lord Maliss, arrives at the castle, looking for his sister. After learning about the Queen's demise, he vows to avenge her death. In the process, he transforms into a dragon and takes control of the castle, while Scowl the owl starts training his companion, a purple bat named Batso, on how to be evil; the next day, Snow White and the Prince are in the meadow picking flowers for their wedding, when Lord Maliss, in his dragon form, begins attacking Snow White and the Prince as they are traveling to the cottage of the Seven Dwarfs. He targets the Prince. Snow White reaches the cottage and meets the Dwarves' female cousins, the Seven "Dwarfelles": Muddy, Blossom, Critterina and Thunderella; the Dwarves have left the cottage after they bought another mine in a different kingdom, but the Dwarfelles gladly assist Snow White, taking her to visit Mother Nature at Rainbow Falls.
Mother Nature has given the Dwarfelles individual powers to assist her. Lord Maliss attacks them, but Mother Nature shoots him with lightning, causing him to crash and return to his human form. Before leaving, Lord Maliss informs Snow White. Snow White and the Dwarfelles travel to Lord Maliss' castle in the Realm of Doom, along the way encountering a strange cloaked humanoid known as the Shadow Man. Lord Maliss sends his horned wolves after the group, they manage to escape with the help of the Shadow Man. Lord Maliss is furious at this failure and transforms into his dragon form capturing Snow White himself and taking her to the castle; the Dwarfelles sneak into the castle as well. In the castle, Snow White is reunited with her Prince, who begins acting strangely, takes her through a secret passage to escape; when Snow White realizes that he is not the real Prince but is Lord Maliss in disguise, he attempts to throw a magical red cloak on Snow White to petrify her into stone. He succeeds, but is attacked by the Shadow Man, whom he overpowers and kills.
The Dwarfelles attack Lord Maliss as well, but fail and become petrified themselves. The only one unharmed is Thunderella, who gains control of her powers and assists Snow White to subdue Lord Maliss; the cloak is thrown on him and Lord Maliss is petrified in mid-transition between his human and dragon form. As the sun shines onto the castle, the Dwarfelles are restored back to their normal selves; the Shadow Man wakes up and he turns out to be the Prince. The Prince reveals that Lord Maliss had cast a spell on him and he has been watching over Snow White during her journey, guarding her with his life. Mother Nature decides to let the Dwarfelles keep their powers because they have proven themselves by working together as one, she allows them to attend Snow White's wedding. In the end, Mother Nature takes in Scowl to be trained as her new apprentices. Snow White and the Prince are reunited, as the two of them share a kiss, begin to live ever after. Irene Cara as Snow White: the beautiful princess, now engaged to the Prince.
Malcolm McDowell as Lord Maliss: the now-dead wicked Queen's vengeful brother. Phyllis Diller as Mother Nature: a comedic woman who controls nature, she gave the Seven Dwarfelles their powers. Michael Horton as the Prince: Snow White's fiance who defeated the wicked Queen and, kidnapped by Lord Maliss. Dom DeLuise as the Looking Glass: a smart-aleck mirror who does the bidding of Lord Maliss. Carol Channing as Muddy: a Dwarfelle who has power over the earth and the bossy leader of the Seven Dwarfelles. Zsa Zsa Gabor as Blossom: a Dwarfelle who has power over plants and flowers. Linda Gary as: Marina: a Dwarfelle who has power over all lakes and rivers. Critterina: a Dwarfelle who has power over animals. Jonathan Harris as the Sunflower: Mother Nature's rude assistant. Sally Kellerman as Sunburn: a Dwarfelle who has power over sunlight and a foul temper. Tracey Ullman as: Moonbeam: a Dwarfelle who has power over the night. Thunderella: a Dwarfelle who has power over the weather including thunder and lightning.
Frank Welker as Batso the Bat: a timid bat, Scowl's b
Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics
Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics known as Grimm Masterpiece Theater in the original version, is a Japanese anime anthology series by Nippon Animation. The episodes are adaptations of a variety of folk and fairy tales, not limited to Grimm's Fairy Tales. Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics comprises two series; the first series, known in Japan as Grimm Masterpiece Theater, aired from October 21, 1987 to March 30, 1988, for a total of 24 episodes. The second series, known in Japan as New Grimm Masterpiece Theater, aired between October 2, 1988 and March 26, 1989, totaling 23 episodes, it was localized under the series' English name. The fairy tale anthology was broadcast in North America by Nickelodeon and in local stations throughout Latin America. Mitsuko Horie - Narrator, Princess Briar Rose, Rapunzel Sanji Hase - Donkey Kenichi Ogata - Cat Ryusei Nakao - Rooster, Hedgehog Osamu Katou - Head Thief Ritsuo Sawa - Lacky Mami Koyama - Hansel Chieko Honda - Gretel Miyoko Asō - Witch, Witch Shigeru Chiba - Frog Prince Ichirô Nagai - King, Puss in Boots, Old Woodsman Kazue Komiya - Queen Masami Kikuchi - Prince, Joringel Kōhei Miyauchi - King Hiromi Tsuru - Jorinde Yuriko Yamamoto - Rosa Mayumi Tanaka - Rudolf Noriko Uemura - Mrs. Hedgehog Chika Sakamoto - Hedgehog Son Kōzō Shioya - Hare Banjou Ginga Bin Shimada Chikao Ohtsuka Hiroshi Izawa Jouji Yanami Kaneto Shiozawa Katsunosuke Hori Kayoko Fujii Kazuhiko Inoue Nana Yamaguchi Norio Wakamoto Sakiko Tamagawa Sumi Shimamoto Takuzou Kamiyama Tesshô Genda Toshiko Fujita Yoku Shioya Yoshino Takamori Robert Axelrod - Hare Gregg Berger - Maria's Father Rebecca Forstadt - Rose-Red Barbara Goodson - Melora Harte - Steve Kramer - Big Bad Wolf, Wolf Ted Layman - Puss in Boots Dave Mallow - Bear/Prince Melanie MacQueen - Leonard Pyke - Narrator Mike Reynolds - Huntsman Philece Sampler - Brianne Siddall - Dan Woren - Tom Wyner - Robert Axelrod - Script Adaptation, Writer Melora Harte - Script Adaptation, Writer Steve Kramer - Writer Morgan Lofting - Script Adaptation, Writer Kerrigan Mahan - Director Dave Mallow - Script Adaptation, Writer Edie Mirman - Writer Kevin Newson - Assistant Engineer Tony Oliver - Script Supervisor, Script Adaptation, Writer Scott Page-Pagter - Voice Director, ADR Engineer Eric S. Rollman - Post-Production Supervisor Haim Saban - Executive Producer David Walsh - Voice Director, ADR Engineer Jeff Winkless - Script Adaptation, Writer Tom Wyner - Director In Japan, for both seasons, the series used two theme songs.
Incidental music used in the Japanese version was composed by Hideo Shimazu. The theme tune and incidental music used in the English dub were both composed by Haim Saban and Shuki Levy. Most of the incidental music was in fact recycled from the earlier VHS series My Favorite Fairy Tales. Limited episodes were produced in NTSC VHS by Saban International and distributed by Starmaker Entertainment Inc. and Hi-Tops Video/Fisher-Price in 1990 and Video Treasures/HGV Video Productions in 1992. Those volumes included: Beauty and the Beast The Six Who Went Far Hansel & Gretel Briar Rose Brother & Sister The Coat of Many Colors Jorinda and Joringel King Grizzlebeard Marriage of Mrs. Fox Mother Holle Old Sultan The Spirit in the Bottle The Frog Prince The Man of Iron The Secret Heart The Six Swans The Water of Life Grimm Brothers' Scary Fairy Tales Snow White CinderellaA few episodes were released to a single Region 2 DVD titled "Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics - Volume One" under distribution by Fox Kids and Maximum Entertainment in 2004.
The episodes included were: Hansel and Gretel Little Red Riding Hood The Golden Goose Snow White And Rose Red Beauty and the BeastThe British newspapers Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror released the following episodes on promotional DVDs: Snow White Bluebeard The Frog Prince Rapunzel Rumpelstiltskin Cinderella Beauty and the Beast Puss N' Boots Little Red Riding Hood The Golden Goose Hansel and GretelThe original Japanese version of the series was released as a 5-disc DVD set in Region 2 with 10 episodes from the series. As with most of the Saban Entertainment library, the rights to the series are owned by The Walt Disney Company, through BVS International and FOX Kids Europe/Jetix International. Despite a large cult following, none of the English dub has been released on DVD in Region 1 and only limited episodes were released in Region 2. Grimm's Fairy Tales catalogue listing at the official Nippon Animation website. Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics on IMDb Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics at TV.com
The Brothers Grimm, Jacob Ludwig Karl and Wilhelm Carl, were German academics, cultural researchers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century. They were among the first and best-known collectors of folk tales, popularized traditional oral tale types such as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince", "The Goose-Girl", "Hansel and Gretel", "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Sleeping Beauty", "Snow White", their classic collection Children's and Household Tales, was published in two volumes, in 1812 and in 1815. The brothers were born in the town of Hanau in Hesse-Cassel and spent most of their childhood in the nearby town of Steinau, their father's death in 1796 affected the brothers for many years after. They attended the University of Marburg where they began a lifelong dedication to researching the early history of German language and literature, including German folktales; the rise of Romanticism during the 18th century had revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the Grimms and their colleagues represented a pure form of national literature and culture.
The Brothers Grimm established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies. Between the first edition of 1812-15, the seventh and final edition of 1857, they revised their collection many times, so that it grew from 156 stories to more than 200. In addition to collecting and editing folk tales, the brothers compiled German legends. Individually, they published a large body of literary scholarship. Together, in 1838 they began work on a massive historical German dictionary, which, in their lifetimes, they completed only as far as the word Frucht,'fruit'. Many of Grimms' folk tales have enjoyed enduring popularity; the tales are available in more than 100 languages and have been adapted by filmmakers including Lotte Reiniger and Walt Disney, with films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Sleeping Beauty. During the 1930s and 40s, the tales were used as propaganda by the Third Reich. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on 4 January 1785, his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm was born on 24 February 1786.
Both were born in Hanau, in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel within the Holy Roman Empire, to Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist, Dorothea Grimm née Zimmer, daughter of a Kassel city councilman. They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy. In 1791, the family moved to the countryside town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate; the family became prominent members of the community. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of country life"; the children were educated at home by private tutors, receiving strict instruction as Lutherans that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. They attended local schools. In 1796, Philipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house. Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, first lady-in-waiting at the court of William I, Elector of Hesse.
Jacob was the eldest living son, he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities for the next two years. The two boys adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious; the brothers left Steinau and their family in 1798 to attend the Friedrichsgymnasium in Kassel, arranged and paid for by their aunt. By they were without a male provider, forcing them to rely on each other, they became exceptionally close; the two brothers differed in temperament. Sharing a strong work ethic, they excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became acutely aware of their inferior social status relative to "high-born" students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class: Jacob in 1803 and Wilhelm in 1804. After graduation from the Friedrichsgymnasium, the brothers attended the University of Marburg; the university was small with about 200 students and there they became painfully aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally.
They were disqualified from admission because of their social standing and had to request dispensation to study law. Wealthier students received stipends, but the brothers were excluded from tuition aid, their poverty kept them from university social life. The brothers were inspired by their law professor Friedrich von Savigny, who awakened in them an interest in history and philology, they turned to studying medieval German literature, they shared Savigny's desire to see unification of the 200 German principalities into a single state. Through Savigny and his circle of friends—German romantics such as Clemens Brentano and Ludwig Achim von Arnim—the Grimms were introduced to the ideas of Johann Gottfried Herder, who thought that German literature should revert to