Darjeeling tea is a tea grown in the Darjeeling district in West Bengal and exported and known. It is processed as black, green and oolong tea; when properly brewed, it yields a light-coloured infusion with a floral aroma. The flavour can include a tinge of astringent tannic characteristics and a musky spiciness sometimes described as "muscatel". Unlike most Indian teas, Darjeeling tea is made from the small-leaved Chinese variety of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, rather than the large-leaved Assam plant. Traditionally, Darjeeling tea is made as black tea. After the enactment of Geographical Indications of Goods in 2003, Darjeeling tea became the first Indian product to receive a GI tag, in 2004–05 through the Indian Patent Office. Production has long been affected by disagreements between labour. Tea planting in the Indian district of Darjeeling began in 1841 by Archibald Campbell, a civil surgeon of the Indian Medical Service. Campbell was transferred as superintendent of Darjeeling in 1839 from Nepal.
In 1841, he brought seeds of the Chinese tea plant from Kumaun and began to experiment with tea planting in Darjeeling. The British government established tea nurseries during that period. Commercial development began during the 1850s. In 1856, the Alubari tea garden was opened by the Kurseong and Darjeeling Tea company, followed by others. According to the Tea Board of India, "Darjeeling Tea" can only refer to tea, cultivated, produced and processed in tea gardens in the hilly areas of Sadar Subdivision, only hilly areas of Kalimpong Subdivision consisting of Samabeong Tea Estate, Ambiok Tea Estate, Mission Hill Tea Estate and Kumai Tea Estate, Kurseong Subdivision excluding the areas in jurisdiction list 20, 21, 23, 24, 29, 31 and 33 comprising Siliguri subdivision of New Chumta Tea Estate and Marionbari Tea Estate of Kurseong Police Station in Kurseong Subdivision of the District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal, India grown on picturesque steep slopes up to 4000 ft; when brewed, tea grown and processed in this area has a distinctive occurring aroma and taste, with light tea liquor.
Adulteration and falsification are serious problems in the global tea trade. To combat this situation, the Tea Board of India administers the Darjeeling certification mark and logo. Protection of this tea designation is similar in scope to the protected designation of origin used by the EU for many European cheeses. According to the Tea Board, Darjeeling tea cannot be grown or manufactured anywhere else in the world, a labeling restriction similar to the E. U. protections for Champagne and Jamón ibérico. Traditionally, Darjeeling teas are classified as a type of black tea. However, the modern Darjeeling style employs a hard wither, which in turn causes an incomplete oxidation for many of the best teas of this designation, which technically makes them a form of oolong. Many Darjeeling teas appear to be a blend of teas oxidized to levels of green and black. First flush is harvested in mid-March following spring rains, has a gentle light colour and mild astringency. In between is harvested between the two "flush" periods.
Second flush is harvested in June and produces an amber, full bodied, muscatel-flavoured cup. Monsoon or rains tea is harvested in the monsoon between second flush and autumnal, is less withered more oxidized, sold at lower prices, it is exported, used in masala chai. Autumnal flush is harvested in the autumn after the rainy season, has somewhat less delicate flavour and less spicy tones, but fuller body and darker colour; the white variant of Darjeeling tea has a delicate aroma and brews to a pale golden colour with a mellow taste and a hint of sweetness. Darjeeling white tea leaves are fluffy and light; the tea is hand-picked and rolled withered in the sun, making it a rare tea. It is grown in the cold climate of Darjeeling at altitudes up to 2000 metres. Darjeeling oolong is lighter than usual Darjeeling black tea during first flush, as it is semioxidized; the cup looks infusion remains green. Darjeeling oolong in second flush is more accepted worldwide, it is more thick in cup and dark orange in liquor with distinct muscatel flavours.
The China type oolong has rare muscatel flavour and sells somewhere around US$40–200 per kg. Clonal oolong has distinct flowery or spicy taste, so is not as well-accepted as Darjeeling oolong worldwide. Not all Darjeeling gardens are qualified to produce Darjeeling oolong. Old China bush. Clonal type is required – at least 25% at high altitude. Average temperatures should remain between 20 °C throughout the season. Lower-elevation gardens can produce teas of similar appearance, but the flavour differs greatl
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Jin Jun Mei tea
Jin Jun Mei is a lapsang souchong black tea from Wuyishan City, Fujian Province, China. It is made from two small shoots plucked in early spring from the plant's stem which are subsequently oxidised and roasted to giving a tea that has a sweet and flowery flavour with a long lasting sweet after-taste; the brew is bright reddish in colour. In China, this variety of tea is viewed as one of the most prestigious of all teas, its price varies depending on the quality, ranging from US$2 to US$25 per gram. In his classic treatise on tea "Way of Tea", Ka Xing describes it as "a tea for the media rituals is considered to be self-cultivation a way through the tea and enjoy tea, enhance friendship, Maxim virtue, learning etiquette, it is beneficial one kind and beauty ceremony." However, the eminent tea scholar notes that despite the inflated market value, the tea has no significant nutritional value
Lapsang souchong, sometimes referred to as smoked tea, is a black tea, from the mountainous Wuyi region in the province of Fujian in China. It is distinct from other types of tea, as the leaves are traditionally smoke-dried over pinewood fires, imparting a distinctive flavor of smoky pine. Xiǎozhǒng or Siu2 zung2 refers to the larger, coarser tea leaves. Lapsang souchong is a member of the Bohea family of teas, but is not an Oolong tea, as most Bohea teas are.. Lapsang souchong from the original source is expensive because of increasing demand for this variety of tea, as Wuyi is a small area; the story goes that the tea was created during the Qing era when the passage of armies delayed the annual drying of the tea leaves in the Wuyi Mountain. Eager to satisfy demand, the tea producers sped up the process by drying the leaves over fires made from local pines. According to some sources, Lapsang souchong is the first black tea in history earlier than Keemun tea. After the lapsang souchong tea was used for producing black tea called Min Hong, people started to move the tea bush to different places, such as Keemun and Ceylon.
“Souchong” refers to the fourth and fifth leaves of the tea plant, further away from the more prized bud of the tea plant. These leaves have fewer aromatic compounds. Smoking provides a way to create a marketable product from these less desirable leaves; the leaves are roasted in a bamboo basket called a hōnglóng, heated over burning firewood, which contributes to the dried longan aroma and smoky flavour. Pinewood is used as the firewood for lapsang souchong and imparts the characteristic resiny aroma and taste; the aroma of lapsang souchong is derived from a variety of chemical compounds. The two most abundant constituents of the aroma are α-terpineol. Many of the compounds making up the aroma of lapsang souchong, including longifolene, originate only in the pine smoke and are not found in other kinds of tea. Lapsang souchong is noted for its rich aromas and flavours which include pine resin, smoked paprika, hints of dried longan, the evocation of peated whiskey, it is common for rather brewed Lapsang Souchong tea to lack the bitterness common with other tea varieties.
Lapsang souchong has a high reputation outside China. It was drunk by Winston Churchill and Gary Snyder, who referred to it in Mountains and Rivers Without End; when told that his Captain Picard character from Star Trek: The Next Generation would drink a lot of tea, Sir Patrick Stewart suggested that he drink Lapsang souchong, but the producers were afraid the audience wouldn't know what that was, so the character drank Earl Grey tea instead. In the movie Phantom Thread, Daniel Day Lewis' character orders a pot of Lapsang souchong tea at a hotel restaurant. In the movie Casino Royale, David Niven's character orders a pot of jasmine tea from his assistant, which he clarifies as Lapsang souchong. In the book The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt, the main character, Theo, is served Lapsang souchong tea by Hobie, a cabinetmaker. In the song Beautiful World on his album Man @ Work, Colin Hay mentions liking to drink Lapsang souchong. Lapsang souchong tea is given a nod in James A. Michener's novel CENTENNIAL.
In a passage set at the annual rendezvous in the Rocky Mountains, central character Alexander McKeag discovers the tea via an English trader, upon tasting it, pronounces the tea to be "better than whisky." In "The Bane Chronicles" the high warlock, Magnus Bane, soaks in a cool bath while sipping lapsang souchong tea. It is mentioned in other books throughout the "Mortal Instruments" series; the novellas are co-written by Clare, Maureen Johnson, Sarah Rees Brennan. List of smoked foods Black tea
Qilan is a mild Wuyi oolong tea. It has an obvious nutty aroma. Huang Mei Gui Babelcarp on Qi Lan
Shui Jin Gui tea
Shui Jin Gui is a characteristic Wuyi Oolong tea, whose name means Golden Marine Turtle. The tea produces a bright green color when steeped and is much greener than most other Wuyi Oolong teas, it is one of the four famous bushes of a Si Da Ming Cong. Huang Mei Gui Si Da Ming Cong
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to East Asia. After water, it is the most consumed drink in the world. There are many different types of tea. Tea originated in Southwest China during the Shang dynasty. An early credible record of tea drinking dates to the 3rd century AD, in a medical text written by Hua Tuo, it was popularized as a recreational drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty, tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century. During the 17th century, drinking tea became fashionable among Britons, who started large-scale production and commercialization of the plant in India. Combined and India supplied 62% of the world's tea in 2016; the term herbal tea refers to drinks not made from Camellia sinensis: infusions of fruit, leaves, or other parts of the plant, such as steeps of rosehip, chamomile, or rooibos.
These are sometimes called tisanes or herbal infusions to prevent confusion with tea made from the tea plant. The Chinese character for tea is 茶 written with an extra stroke as 荼, acquired its current form during the Tang Dynasty; the word is pronounced differently in the different varieties of Chinese, such as chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese, ta and te in Min Chinese. One suggestion is that the different pronunciations may have arisen from the different words for tea in ancient China, for example tú may have given rise to tê. There were other ancient words for tea, it has been proposed that the Chinese words for tea, tu, cha and ming, may have been borrowed from the Austro-Asiatic languages of people who inhabited southwest China. Most Chinese languages, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, pronounce it along the lines of cha, but Hokkien and Teochew Chinese varieties along the Southern coast of China pronounce it like teh; these two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world.
Starting in the early 17th century, the Dutch played a dominant role in the early European tea trade via the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch borrowed the word for "tea" from Min Chinese, either through trade directly from Hokkien speakers in Formosa where they had established a port, or from Malay traders in Bantam, Java; the Dutch introduced to other European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, including English tea, French thé, Spanish té, German Tee. This pronunciation is the most common form worldwide; the Cha pronunciation came from the Cantonese chàh of Guangzhou and the ports of Hong Kong and Macau, which were major points of contact with the Portuguese traders who settled Macau in the 16th century. The Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation "chá", spread it to India. However, the Korean and Japanese pronunciations of cha were not from Cantonese, but were borrowed into Korean and Japanese during earlier periods of Chinese history. A third form, the widespread chai, came from Persian چای chay.
Both the châ and chây forms are found in Persian dictionaries. They are derived from the Northern Chinese pronunciation of chá, which passed overland to Central Asia and Persia, where it picked up the Persian grammatical suffix -yi before passing on to Russian as чай, Arabic as شاي, Urdu as چائے chay, Hindi as चाय chāy, Turkish as çay, etc; the few exceptions of words for tea that do not fall into the three broad groups of te, cha and chai are from the minor languages from the botanical homeland of the tea plant from which the Chinese words for tea might have been borrowed originally. English has all three forms: char, attested from the 16th century. However, the form chai refers to a black tea mixed with sugar or honey and milk in contemporary English. Tea plants are native to East Asia, originated in the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China. Chinese tea Chinese Western Yunnan Assam tea Indian Assam tea Chinese Southern Yunnan Assam teaChinese type tea may have originated in southern China with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives.
However, since there are no known wild populations of this tea, the precise location of its origin is speculative. Given their genetic differences forming distinct clades, Chinese Assam type tea may have two different parentages – one being found in southern Yunnan and the other in western Yunnan. Many types of Southern Yunnan assam tea have been hybridized with the related species Camellia taliensis. Unlike Southern Yunnan Assam tea, Western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam type tea. Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both may have originated from the same parent plant in the area where southwestern China, Indo-Burma