The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
William McChord Hurt is an American actor. He began acting on stage in the 1970s. Hurt made his film debut in 1980 as a troubled scientist in Ken Russell's science-fiction feature Altered States, for which he received a Golden Globe nomination for New Star of the Year, he subsequently played a leading role, as a lawyer who succumbs to the temptations of Kathleen Turner, in the neo-noir Body Heat. He played another leading role, in Gorky Park. In 1985, Hurt garnered critical acclaim and multiple acting awards, including an Academy Award and a BAFTA Award for Best Actor, for Kiss of the Spider Woman, he received another two Academy Award nominations for his lead performances in Children of a Lesser God and Broadcast News. Hurt remained an active stage actor throughout the 1980s, appearing in Off-Broadway productions, including Henry V, Fifth of July, Richard II and A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hurt received his first Tony Award nomination in 1985 for the Broadway production of Hurlyburly. After playing a diversity of character roles in the following decade, Hurt earned his fourth Academy Award nomination for his supporting performance in David Cronenberg's crime thriller A History of Violence.
Other notable films in recent years have included A. I. Artificial Intelligence, The Village, The Good Shepherd, Mr. Brooks, Into the Wild, Robin Hood and his role as Thunderbolt Ross in The Incredible Hulk, Captain America: Civil War and Avengers: Infinity War. Hurt was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Claire Isabel, who worked at Time Inc. and Alfred McChord Hurt, who worked for the State Department. With his father, he lived in Lahore and Khartoum. After his parents divorced, his mother married Henry Luce III during Hurt's childhood. Hurt graduated from Middlesex School in 1968 where he was vice president of the Dramatics Club and had the lead role in several school plays, his high school yearbook predicted: "With characteristics such as these, you might see him on Broadway." Hurt attended Tufts University and studied theology, but turned instead to acting and joined the Juilliard School. Two of his classmates there were Robin Williams. Hurt began his career in stage productions, only acting in films.
From 1977 to 1989, he was a member of the acting company at Circle Repertory Company. He won an Obie Award for his debut appearance there in Corinne Jacker's My Life, won a 1978 Theatre World Award for his performances in Fifth of July, Ulysses in Traction, Lulu. In 1979, Hurt played Hamlet under the direction of Marshall W. Mason opposite Lindsay Crouse and Beatrice Straight, his first major film role was in the science-fiction film Altered States where his performance as an obsessed scientist gained him wide recognition. His performance with Richard Crenna, Ted Danson and newcomer Kathleen Turner in Lawrence Kasdan's neo-noir classic Body Heat elevated Hurt to stardom, he also co-starred in The Big Chill, he appeared in the thriller Gorky Park opposite Lee Marvin. He received the Best Male Performance Prize at the Cannes Film Festival and the Academy Award for Best Actor for Kiss of the Spider Woman in 1985, he has received three additional Oscar nominations: Best Actor for Children of a Lesser God and Broadcast News and Best Supporting Actor for A History Of Violence.
Hurt starred in Tuck Everlasting as Angus Tuck. Cast as an intellectual, Hurt has starred as such in films such as Lost in Space, but has been effective in other kinds of role, as in I Love You to Death and David Cronenberg's psychological drama A History of Violence, where in less than 10 minutes of screen time he plays the creepy mob boss, Richie Cusack. In 2005, Hurt played a mysterious government operative in Stephen Gaghan's ensemble drama about the politics of big oil, Syriana. Hurt was in the miniseries adaptation of Stephen King's Nightmares and Dreamscapes, in a piece entitled Battleground, he plays Renshaw, a hitman who receives a package from the widow of a toymaker he had killed, unaware of what is waiting inside for him. He appeared in the cast of Vanya, an adaptation of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya, at the Artists Repertory Theatre in Portland, Oregon. In June 2007, Marvel Studios announced Hurt would portray the Hulk character General "Thunderbolt" Ross in 2008's The Incredible Hulk alongside Edward Norton, Liv Tyler and Tim Roth.
Hurt reprised his role in Captain America: Avengers: Infinity War. He appeared in the true story of Christopher McCandless, he appeared as President Henry Ashton in the 2008 action-thriller Vantage Point. Hurt played Mr. Brooks's alter ego in Mr. Brooks starring Kevin Costner. In 2009, Hurt became a series regular on the FX series Damages playing a corporate whistleblower opposite Glenn Close and Marcia Gay Harden. For his role in the series, Hurt earned a 2009 Primetime Emmy Award nomination in the "Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series" category. Hurt's 2009 Sundance film The Yellow Handkerchief was released in theaters on February 26, 2010 by Samuel Goldwyn Films, he was in the Thailand-based 2011 thriller Hellgate alongside Cary Elwes and Paula Taylor, directed by John Penney. In September 2010, Hurt played United States Secretary of the Treasury Henry Paulson in the HBO film Too Big to Fail, an adaptation of Andrew Ross Sorkin's book, he starred as Captain Ahab in the 2011 television
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Anna Hélène Paquin is a New Zealand-Canadian actress. She was born in Manitoba and brought up in Wellington, New Zealand, before moving to Los Angeles during her youth, she completed a year before leaving to focus on her acting career. As a child, she played the role of Flora McGrath in Jane Campion's romantic drama film The Piano, despite having had little acting experience. For her performance, she received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress at the age of 11, making her the second-youngest winner in Oscar history. Paquin was a successful child actress, receiving multiple Young Artist Award nominations for her roles in Fly Away Home, The Member of the Wedding, A Walk on the Moon, was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture for appearing in Cameron Crowe's comedy-drama film Almost Famous, she played mutant superheroine Rogue in multiple films of the X-Men franchise and was nominated for a Saturn Award for her performance in the first installment.
Paquin played the lead role of Sookie Stackhouse in the HBO vampire drama television series True Blood. For her performance in the series, Paquin won the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series – Drama in 2009, was nominated for an additional Golden Globe Award in 2010, as well as three Saturn Awards and a Screen Actors Guild Award in 2010. Among other accolades, Paquin has been nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award for her work on the 2007 television film Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee and a Golden Globe Award for her work on the 2009 television film The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler. Paquin was born in Winnipeg, Canada, the daughter of Mary Paquin, an English teacher and native of Wellington, New Zealand, Brian Paquin, a high school Physical Education teacher from Canada. Paquin has two older siblings: Andrew, a director, Katya, whose partner is the Green Party of New Zealand's former co-leader Russel Norman.
Paquin is of Dutch and Irish descent. Paquin's family moved to New Zealand, her musical childhood hobbies in New Zealand included playing the viola and piano. She participated in gymnastics, ballet and downhill skiing, though she did not have any hobbies related to acting. While in New Zealand, Paquin attended Raphael House Rudolf Steiner School in Lower Hutt until she was 9 years old Hutt Intermediate School. Having begun her secondary education in Wellington at Wellington Girls' College, she completed her high school diploma at Windward School in Los Angeles, after moving to the U. S. with her mother following her parents' divorce. She graduated from Windward School in June 2000 and completed the school's Community Service requirement by working in a soup kitchen and at a Special Education Centre, she studied at Columbia University for one year but has since been on a leave of absence to continue her acting career. Director Jane Campion was looking for a little girl to play a main role in The Piano, set to film in New Zealand, a newspaper advertisement was run announcing an open audition.
Paquin's sister went to try out with a friend. When Campion met Paquin—whose only acting experience had been as a skunk in a school play—she was impressed with the nine-year-old's performance of the monologue about Flora's father, she was chosen from among the 5000 candidates; when The Piano was released in 1993 it was lauded by critics, won prizes at a number of film festivals, became a popular film among a wide audience. Paquin's debut performance in the film earned her the 1993 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress at the age of 11, making her the second-youngest Oscar winner in history, behind Tatum O'Neal; the Piano was made as a small independent film and wasn't expected to be known, Paquin and her family did not plan to continue to pursue acting. However, she was invited to the William Morris Agency, she kept receiving offers for new roles, she systematically rejected them, but she did appear in three commercials for the phone company MCI in 1994. She made a series of television commercials for Manitoba Telecom Systems in her birth city of Winnipeg.
She appeared as a voice in an audiobook entitled The Magnificent Nose in 1994. In 1996, she appeared in two films; the first role was as young Jane in Jane Eyre. The other was a lead part in Fly Away Home playing a young girl who, after her mother dies, moves in with her father and finds solace in taking care of orphaned goslings; as a teenager, she had roles in films, including A Walk on the Moon, Hurlyburly, She's All That and Almost Famous as well as the English dub of Castle in the Sky. Paquin played the mutant superheroine Rogue in the Marvel Comics movie X-Men in 2000, its sequel X2 in 2003, its third installment, X-Men: The Last Stand, in 2006. Between 2006 and 2007, she starred in, as well as executive-produced Blue State; the film is made by a production company formed by her and her brother, Andrew Paquin. In November 2006, she completed the film Margaret, released in 2011, she played Elaine Goodale in HBO's made-for-TV film Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, based on Dee Brown's best-seller.
In 2007, she played the role of Laurie in the horror film Trick'r Treat, released in 2009. Paquin was cast as waitress Sookie Stackhouse in the HBO series True Blood in 2008, her first role in a TV series; the show is based on The Southern Vampire Mysteries series of novels by Charlaine Harris, set in the fictional town of Bon Temps, Louisiana. While working on
Christopher Walken is an American actor, director and playwright who has appeared in more than 100 films and television shows. Walken has had roles in films such as Annie Hall, The Deer Hunter, The Dogs of War, The Dead Zone, A View to a Kill, Batman Returns, True Romance, Pulp Fiction, Vendetta, Sleepy Hollow, Catch Me If You Can, Seven Psychopaths, the first three Prophecy films, The Jungle Book, Irreplaceable You, as well as music videos by many popular recording artists, he has received a number of awards and nominations, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Deer Hunter. He was nominated for the same award and won BAFTA and Screen Actors Guild Awards for Catch Me If You Can. Walken's films have grossed more than $1 billion in the United States. A two-time Tony Award nominee, he has played the lead in the Shakespeare plays Hamlet, Macbeth and Juliet, Coriolanus, he is a popular guest-host of Saturday Night Live. His most notable roles on the show include record producer Bruce Dickinson in the "More Cowbell" sketch.
He has appeared in Hallmark Hall of Fame's Sarah and Tall, which earned him a Primetime Emmy Award nomination. Walken debuted as screenwriter with the 2001 short film Popcorn Shrimp, he wrote and played the lead role in a 1995 play about his idol, Elvis Presley, titled Him. Christopher Walken was born Ronald Walken on March 31, 1943, in Astoria, New York, the son of Rosalie, a Scottish immigrant from Glasgow, Paul Wälken, a German immigrant from Gelsenkirchen who owned and operated Walken's Bakery in Astoria. Walken was named after actor Ronald Colman, he was raised Methodist. He and his brothers and Glenn, were child actors on television in the 1950s, influenced by their mother's dreams of stardom; when he was 15, a girlfriend showed him a magazine photo of Elvis Presley, Walken said, "This guy looked like a Greek god. I saw him on television. I loved everything about him." He has not changed it since. As a teenager, he worked as a lion tamer in a circus, he attended Hofstra University but dropped out after one year, having gotten the role of Clayton Dutch Miller in an off-Broadway revival of Best Foot Forward alongside Liza Minnelli.
Walken trained as a dancer at the Washington Dance Studio before moving on to dramatic stage roles and film. As a child, Walken appeared on screen as an extra in numerous anthology series and variety shows during the Golden Age of Television. After appearing in a sketch with Martin and Lewis on The Colgate Comedy Hour, Walken decided to become an actor, he landed a regular role in the 1953 television show The Wonderful John Acton as the show's narrator. During this time, he was credited as Ronnie Walken. Over the next two years, he appeared on television and had a thriving career in theatre. From 1954 to 1956, Walken and his brother Glenn originated the role of Michael Bauer on the soap opera The Guiding Light. In 1963, he appeared. In 1966, Walken played the role of King Philip of France in the Broadway premiere of The Lion in Winter. In 1968 he played Lysander in A Midsummer Night's Dream and Romeo in Romeo and Juliet at the Stratford Festival in Canada. In 1969, Walken guest-starred in Hawaii Five-O as Navy SP Walt Kramer.
In 1964, he changed his first name to Christopher at the suggestion of Monique van Vooren, who had a nightclub act in which Walken was a dancer and who believed the name suited him better than Ronnie, which he was credited as until then. He prefers to be known informally as Chris instead of Christopher. Walken made his feature film debut with a small role opposite Sean Connery in Sidney Lumet's The Anderson Tapes. In 1972's The Mind Snatchers a.k.a. The Happiness Cage, Walken played his first starring role. In this science fiction film, which deals with mind control and normalization, he plays a sociopathic U. S. soldier stationed in Germany. Paul Mazursky's 1976 film Next Stop, Greenwich Village had Walken, under the name "Chris Walken", playing fictional poet and ladies' man Robert Fulmer. In Woody Allen's 1977 film Annie Hall, Walken played the homicidal and borderline crazy brother of Annie Hall. In 1977, Walken had a minor role as Eli Wallach's partner in The Sentinel. In 1978, he appeared in Shoot a western filmed in 1976 that costarred Margot Kidder.
Along with Nick Nolte and Burt Reynolds, Walken was considered by George Lucas for the part of Han Solo in Star Wars. In 1977, Walken starred in an episode of Kojak as Ben Wiley, a robber. Walken won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in Michael Cimino's 1978 film The Deer Hunter, he plays a young Pennsylvania steelworker, destroyed by the Vietnam War. To help achieve his character's gaunt appearance before the third act, Walken consumed only bananas and rice for a week. Walken's first film of the 1980s was the controversial Heaven's Gate directed by Cimino. Walken starred in the 1981 action adventure The Dogs of War, directed by John Irvin, he surprised many critics and filmgoers with his intricate tap-dancing striptease in Herbert Ross's musical Pennies from Heaven. In 1
The Real Thing (play)
The Real Thing is a play by Tom Stoppard, first performed in 1982. It examines the nature of honesty and uses various constructs, including a play within a play, to explore the theme of reality versus appearance; the play focuses on the relationship between Henry and Annie, an actress and member of a group fighting to free Brodie, a Scottish soldier imprisoned for burning a memorial wreath during a protest. Max: "40-ish" male actor who begins the play married to Annie. Acts in Henry's new play, House of Cards. Charlotte: "35-ish" female actor who begins the play married to Henry. Appears opposite Max in House of Cards. Henry: "40-ish" playwright who, at the beginning of the play, is married to Charlotte and conducting an affair with Annie. Both believe in love and yet approach it with cynicism. Annie: "30-ish" female actor who begins the play married to Max, she has been conducting an ongoing affair with Henry while working as an activist for Brodie, a soldier, arrested and imprisoned for setting fire to a wreath at the Cenotaph.
Billy: "22-ish" young actor who plays Giovanni to Annie's Annabella in'Tis Pity She's a Whore. Shows romantic interest in Annie. Debbie: "17" year old daughter of Charlotte and Henry who spends little time with them. Brodie: "25" year old soldier imprisoned for setting fire to the wreath at the Cenotaph. Annie takes him up as a cause. Setting: London in 1982 In the first scene, Max accuses his distant and travelling wife, Charlotte, of adultery. Upset, she leaves. In the second scene, Charlotte's personality appears to have changed and she is now married to a playwright named Henry; the audience is led to realize that Charlotte is an actress, the first scene was her performance in a play that Henry, her husband, wrote. In the play, the character of Max is played by the husband of a married couple with whom Henry and Charlotte are friends named Max; the scene reveals. She believes that Henry gives limited development to the female lead in order to show off his wit through the male lead's lines. Max and his wife Annie drop by for a social visit with Henry.
Without the benefit of Henry's dialogue, the real-life Max seems superficial. By contrast, his wife Annie is, according to the script, "very much like the woman Charlotte has ceased to be." Annie is a devoted activist on behalf of an imprisoned soldier, arrested for setting fire to the wreath on the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior. Henry mocks her as a sentimental do-gooder, but when Annie and Henry are left alone, the scene reveals that their fight was a performance: they are having an affair, she agrees to meet him on the pretext of visiting Brodie in prison. Max discovers the affair, Annie leaves him to be with Henry. Soon, Henry is reduced to writing television scripts, he struggles to write a play about his love for Annie, but finds it difficult to find the right language to express sincere emotion: he can vocalize his feelings but has difficulty expressing them in writing. Two years Henry's play about Annie remains unwritten. Annie asks him to ghost-write a play by the prisoner Brodie. Brodie's anarchist politics, anti-intellectualism, lack of writing ability are the antithesis of everything Henry values.
Annie discounts Henry's distaste and states. Henry defends the importance of beauty in language and skill in writing using an analogy with a cricket bat: good writing is like hitting a ball with a cricket bat. Henry accuses Annie of being attracted to Brodie, realizes his mistake; when Annie is cast in a production of'Tis Pity She's a Whore in Glasgow, she must be away from Henry for some time, Henry visits Charlotte and their daughter Debbie. The teenage Debbie declares that monogamy is a thing of a form of colonization. Henry cautions the girl against his own vice of making clever phrases for their own sake, but he is shaken by her cynicism. For her part, Charlotte breezily admits to multiple affairs during their marriage, tells him that his affair with Annie only caused trouble because he treated it romantically instead of as a source of fun. Henry returns home in a frenzy of jealousy and ransacks his and Annie's apartment searching for evidence of infidelity, his confrontation with Annie echoes the scene from the play he wrote, performed in the first act of The Real Thing, but Annie has more to say than his imaginary wife did.
She admits that she is having an emotional affair with her young co-star Billy, though she claims it is not a physical one. With pain, he does, her relationship with Billy seems to come to an end, but there remains a notable distance between her and Henry. Adding strain to the difficult relationship between Henry and Annie, Brodie is released from prison and visits them, he turns out to be a prize oaf, with all of Henry's arrogance and elitism, but none of the playwright's eloquence. He is critical of Henry's ghost work on his television play, makes several crass comments about Annie, it is revealed that Annie's crusade to free Brodie had not been based on a belief in the righteousness of his cause but rather on a sense of guilt over Brodie's intention in committing his crime, whi
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m