Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Newaygo County, Michigan
Newaygo County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 48,460; the county seat is White Cloud. The county was created in 1840, was organized in 1851, it was either named for an Ojibwe leader who signed the Treaty of Saginaw in 1819 or for an Algonquian word meaning "much water". According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 862 square miles, of which 813 square miles is land and 48 square miles is covered by water; the county is considered to be part of West Michigan. The county has more than 230 natural lakes; the combined total length of all the county's rivers and streams exceeds 350 miles. Three huge dams, Croton and Newaygo, were built at the beginning of the 20th century; the Hardy Dam is the largest earthen dam east of the Mississippi. Over half of the county is in the Manistee National Forest. Muskegon River Pere Marquette River Rogue River White River M-20 – runs east-west through center of county. Passes Hesperia and White Cloud.
M-37 – runs north-south through center of county. Passes Bitely, White Cloud, Newaygo and Ashland. M-82 – runs east-west through southern part of county. Passes Newaygo. M-120 – runs the length of county's west line. Passes Hesperia. Manistee National Forest As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 47,874 people, 17,599 households, 12,935 families in the county; the population density was 57 people per square mile. There were 23,202 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.80% White, 1.12% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.63% from other races, 1.48% from two or more races. 3.85% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.5% were of English ancestry, 20.5% were of German ancestry, 14.4% were of Dutch ancestry, 8.1% were of Irish ancestry and 5.0% were of Polish ancestry according to the 2010 American Community Survey. 95.7% spoke English and 3.2% Spanish as their first language.
There were 17,599 households out of which 35.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.20% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 22.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.13. The county population contained 29.10% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 12.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,130, the median income for a family was $42,498. Males had a median income of $35,549 versus $22,738 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,976. About 9.00% of families and 11.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over.
The Catholic church – 3,242 members The Christian Reformed Church in North America – 7 congregations and 2,056 members The United Methodist Church – 7 congregations and 1,600 members The Reformed Church in America – 3 congregations and 1,000 members The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints - 1 meetinghouse in the county. Newaygo County is considered to be part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Grand Rapids. Tourism is the most important economic activity in Newaygo County. Secondly is a blend of small manufacturing. International baby food manufacturer Gerber Products Company is the county's largest employer with 1,300 employees. Newaygo County has a large number of summer cottage residents. Fishermen can find many steelhead in the spring and salmon in the fall within the county's rivers and streams. Camping, cross country skiing, birding and ORVing is common in the Manistee National Forest. Newaygo County has been Republican since the Civil War era. Since 1884, the Republican Party nominee has carried the county vote in 91% of the national presidential elections.
Newaygo County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. In Newaygo County there are 16 locations that the State Historic Preservation Office has designated as historical. Two of the sixteen have been listed with the National Register of Historic Places: Fremont Grant Newaygo White Cloud Hesperia Bitely Brunswick Riverview Woodland Park Michigan State Historic Sites in Newaygo County National Register of Historic Places listings in Newaygo County MI "Bibliography on Newaygo County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. County of Newaygo Newaygo County Convention and Visitors Bureau Newaygo County Economic Development Office Newaygo County Road Commission Newaygo County Regional Educational Service Agency District Health Department #10 Recycling for Newaygo County
Cadillac is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan, located in Haring Township. The city is the county seat of Wexford County; the population was 10,355 at the 2010 census. The city is situated at the junction of US 131, M-55 and M-115; the geographic center of Michigan is five miles north-northwest of Cadillac. Cadillac became the county seat after the so-called "Battle of Manton," in which a show of force was involved in enforcing a controversial decision to move the county seat from Manton. Although European explorers and traders visited the area since the 18th century, permanent white communities were not established until some time later. Initial settlements were connected with the logging industry. In 1871, Cadillac's first sawmill began operations. Called the Pioneer Mill, it was built by John R. Yale; that same year, George A. Mitchell, a prominent Cadillac banker and railroad entrepreneur, Adam Gallinger, a local carpenter, formed the Clam Lake Canal Improvement and Construction Company. Two years the Clam Lake Canal was constructed between Big and Little Clam lakes, present-day Lakes Mitchell and Cadillac.
Sawmill owners used the canal to transport timber from Big Clam Lake to the mills and railroad sites—the G. R. & I. Railroad had reached the area in 1872 -- in Cadillac. Cadillac was named Clam Lake and was incorporated as a village in 1874. George Mitchell was elected the first mayor; the village was incorporated as a city in 1877 and renamed Cadillac, after Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, a Frenchman who made the first permanent settlement at Detroit in 1701. The Wexford County seat of government located in Sherman, was moved to Manton in 1881, as the result of a compromise between the feuding residents of Cadillac and Sherman. Cadillac partisans, won the county seat by county-wide vote in April 1882; the day following the election a sheriff's posse left the city for Manton by special train to seize the county records. After arriving and collecting a portion of the materials, however, an angry crowd confronted the Cadillac men and drove them from the town; when the sheriff returned to Cadillac, a force consisting of several hundred armed men was assembled.
The Sheriff's force, some of whom may have been intoxicated, traveled back to Manton to seize the remaining records. Although Manton residents confronted the Cadillac men and barricaded the courthouse, the posse seized the documents and, in dubious glory, returned to Cadillac. In 1878, Ephraim Shay perfected his Shay locomotive, effective in its ability to climb steep grades, maneuver sharp turns and manage imperfections in railroad tracks. Cadillac was home to the Michigan Iron Works Company, which manufactured the Shay locomotive for a short time in the early 1880s, it was however the lumber industry that continued to dominate the city, drawing in a large immigrant labor force, most of whom were Swedish. In 1899, the Cadillac Club formed, the forerunner of the Cadillac Area Chamber of Commerce. Various manufacturing firms found success in Cadillac. By the early 20th century, with the lumber depleted, the timber industry was in decline. Industrial development soon dominated the local economy, it continues to do so today.
Cadillac's range of industries includes the manufacture of pleasure boats, automotive parts, water-well components, vacuum cleaners, rubber products. In 1936, the U. S. Forest Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps created the Caberfae Ski Area, which led to promotion of the area as a tourist center. Caberfae remains as the oldest ski resort in the midwest. Tourism has since become an important sector of Cadillac's economy. In the summer, tourists travel to the city for boating, hiking, mountain biking and camping. During the fall and color tours are popular; the winter is the busiest season. The North American Snowmobile Festival is held on frozen Lake Cadillac every winter. Thirsty's, a gas station on M-55 west of Cadillac, was the home of Samantha or "Sam The Bear" from the 1970s through the late 1990s, when Sam died of old age. Sam was the only brown bear in captivity in the US at the time to hibernate naturally. Sam lived in a large cage in front of the gas station and was fed ice cream cones by tourists every summer.
In October 1975 the rock group Kiss visited Cadillac and performed at the Cadillac High School gymnasium. They played the concert to honor the Cadillac High School football team. In previous years, the team had compiled a record of sixteen consecutive victories, but the 1974 squad opened the season with two losses; the assistant coach, Jim Neff, an English teacher and rock'n'roll fan, thought to inspire the team by playing Kiss music in the locker room. He connected the team's game plan, K-I-S-S or "Keep It Simple Stupid", with the band; the team went on to win their conference co-championship. After learning of their association with the team's success, the band decided to visit the school and play for the homecoming game. Cadillac maintains a number of state historic landmarks. Most are marked with a green "Michigan Historical Marker" sign that includes a description of the landmark. There are six markers within the city limits:'Cadillac Carnegie Library,"Charles T. Mitchell House,"Clam Lake Canal,"Cobbs & Mitchell Building,"Cobbs & Mitchell No. 1' and the'Shay Locomotive,', pictured at the right.
Two more are in the near Cadillac area ('Caberfae Ski Resort' and'Greenwood Disc
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are designed for the sport. Modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion, aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow, it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.
The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð. Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxing ` anling, in. Early historical evidence includes Procopius's description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as "ski running samis". Birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimsson's 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Good's practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis; the Gulating law stated that "No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land." Cross-country skiing evolved from a utilitarian means of transportation to being a worldwide recreational activity and sport, which branched out into other forms of skiing starting in the mid-1800s. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis; the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.
Traditional skis, used for snow travel in Norway and elsewhere into the 1800s comprised one short ski with a natural fur traction surface, the andor, one long for gliding, the langski—one being up to 100 cm longer than the other—allowing skiers to propel themselves with a scooter motion. This combination has a long history among the Sami people. Skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century; these troops were able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry. The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, the Danish-Norwegian army included specialized skiing battalions from 1747—details of military ski exercises from 1767 are on record. Skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary: Norwegian immigrants used skis in the US midwest from around 1836.
Norwegian immigrant "Snowshoe Thompson" transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at a target while skiing at "top speed", downhill racing among trees, downhill racing on large slopes without falling, "long racing" on "flat ground". An early record of a public ski competition occurred in Tromsø, 1843. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in groomed tracks in the shortest possible time".
In Norway, ski touring competitions are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is within age intervals. A new technique, skate skiing, was experimented with early in the 20th Century, but was not adopted until the 1980s. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing; this technique was used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. It became widespread during the 1980s after the success of Bill Koch in 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the skating style. Norwegian skier Ove Aunli started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Finnish skier, Pauli Siitonen, developed a one-sided variant of the style in the 1970s, leaving one ski in the track while skating to the side with the other one during endurance events. While the noun ski originates from the Norwegian language, unlike the English skiing there is no corresponding verb in Norwegian.
Fridtjov Nansen, for instance, describes the crossing of Greenland as På ski over Grønland "On skis across Greenland", while the English edition of the report was titled, The first crossing of Greenland. Nansen referred to the activity o
Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels, focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. It is a popular activity, there are millions of boaters worldwide. Recreational boats fall into several broad categories, additional subcategories. Broad categories include dinghies, paddlesports boats, daysailers and cruising and racing sailboats; the National Marine Manufacturers Association, the organization that establishes several of the standards that are used in the marine industry in the United States, defines 32 types of boats, demonstrating the diversity of boat types and their specialization. In addition to those standards all boats employ the same basic principles of hydrodynamics. Boating activities are as varied as the boats and boaters who participate, new ways of enjoying the water are being discovered. Broad categories include the following: Paddlesports include ears and oceangoing types covered-cockpit kayaks.
Canoes are popular on lakes and rivers due to efficiency on the water. They are easy to portage, or carry overland around obstructions like rapids, or just down to the water from a car or cabin. Kayaks can be found on calm inland waters, whitewater rivers, along the coasts in the oceans. Known for their maneuverability and seaworthiness, kayaks take many shapes depending on their desired use. Rowing craft are popular for fishing, as a tender to a larger vessel, or as a competitive sport. Rowing shells are long and narrow, are intended to convert as much of the rower's muscle power as possible into speed; the ratio of length of waterline to beam has much importance in marine mechanics and design.. Row boats or dinghies are oar powered, restricted to protected waters. Rowboats are heavy craft compared to other has Sailing can be either competitive, as in collegiate dinghy racing, or purely recreational as when sailing on a lake with family or friends. Small sailboats are made from fiberglass, will have wood, aluminum, or carbon-fiber spars, a sloop rig.
Racing dinghies and skiffs tend to be lighter, have more sail area, may use a trapeze to allow one or both crewmembers to suspend themselves over the water for additional stability. Daysailers tend to be wider across the beam and have greater accommodation space at the expense of speed. Cruising sailboats have more width, but performance climbs as they tend to be much longer with a starting over-all length of at least 25 feet re-balancing the dynamic ratio between length of waterline and beam width. Freshwater fishing boats account for 1/3 of all registered boats in the U. S. and most all other types of boats end up being used as fishing boats on occasion. The boating industry has developed freshwater fishing boat designs that are species-specific to allow anglers the greatest advantage when fishing for walleye, trout, etcetera, as well as generic fishing craft. Watersport Boats or skiboats are high-powered Go-Fast boats is designed for activities where a participant is towed behind the boat such as waterskiing and parasailing.
Variations on the ubiquitous waterski include wakeboards, water-skiing, inflatable towables, wake surfing. To some degree, the nature of these boating activities influences boat design. Waterski boats are intended to hold a precise course at an accurate speed with a flat wake for slalom skiing runs. Wakeboard boats run at slower speeds, have various methods including ballast and negative lift foils to force the stern in the water, thereby creating a large and "jumpable" wake. Saltwater fishing boats vary in length and are once again specialized for various species of fish. Flats boats, for example, are used in protected, shallow waters, have shallow draft. Sportfishing boats range from 25 to 80 feet or more, can be powered by large outboard engines or inboard diesels. Fishing boats in colder climates may have more space dedicated to cuddy cabins and wheelhouses, while boats in warmer climates are to be open. Cruising boats applies to both power and sailboats, refers to trips from local weekend passages to lengthy voyages, is a lifestyle.
While faster "express cruisers" can be used for multiple day trips, long voyages require a slower displacement boat with diesel power and greater stability and efficiency. Cruising sailboats range from 20 to 70 feet and more, have managed sailplans to allow small crews to sail them long distances; some cruising sailboats will have two masts to further reduce the size of individual sails and make it possible for a couple to handle larger boats. Diesel- powered Narrowboats are a popular mode of travel on the inland waterways of England. Racing and Regattas are common group activities in the sub-culture of boaters owning larger small
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
Iosco County, Michigan
Iosco County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 25,887; the county seat is Tawas City. Iosco is traditionally said to be a Native American word meaning "water of light." However, it was coined as a pseudo-Native American name by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an American geographer and ethnologist who served as the US Indian agent in Michigan in the late 19th century. He named several towns during the state's formative years; the county was created by the Michigan Legislature in 1840 as Kanotin County, renamed Iosco County in 1843. It was administered by a succession of other Michigan counties prior to the organization of county government in 1857. A majority of the population used to be Chippewa Indians, the area offered shelter from tall white pines, food from the river and lake. Iosco County was cut from a piece of land seded from the Chippewa Indians to the United States Government. In the 1800's when the lumber boom hit, many more people moved to the area.
The 400-acre Alabaster Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is associated with an operating gypsum open-pit mine south of Tawas City. The large company town included internal rail lines for transportation and a tramway extending over Lake Huron on long piers for loading gypsum onto ships. Started in 1862, the mine supplied gypsum for temporary buildings constructed in Chicago at the World Columbian Exposition of 1893. At present, two companies continue to mine gypsum in Iosco County. In 2009, Alabaster Township formed the non-profit Alabaster Wind Power Development Corp. to conduct the necessary 2-year studies of wind data at this site as a potential location for the development of wind turbines. It proposed using 10 large tramway platforms which extend more than 6,000 feet into the lake to gauge winds; the turbines could be built on the tramways. At the time, the federal government was offering subsidies for such studies and development of alternative energy projects.
According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,890 square miles, of which 549 square miles is land and 1,341 square miles is water. The county is considered to be part of Northern Michigan. In total, it covers about 6,361,837 acres. Lumberman's Monument Canoer's memorial 60 Lakes Area - Located near Hale Iargo Springs Tawas Point Light House - First lit in 1853 Tawas Bay Pine River – rises in Alcona County and flows into Iosco County, where it empties into Van Etten Lake at 44°29′38″N, 83°23′16″W northwest of Oscoda Au Sable River Tuttle Marsh Wildlife Area Van Etten Lake Tawas Lake Foote Dam Pond Au Sable State Forest – the Grayling Fire Management Unit consists of Alcona and Oscoda Counties, northern Iosco county. US 23 – known as the Sunrise Side Coastal Highway. M-55 – one of three cross-peninsular state highways, it begins in Tawas City at the junction with US 23. M-65 F-41 River Road National Scenic Byway – starts at M-65 and runs parallel with the Au Sable River for 23 miles eastward to US 23 in Oscoda, Michigan.
It is a designated National Scenic Byway. It passes the Lumberman's Monument. Alcona County - north Arenac County - southwest Ogemaw County - west Oscoda County - northwest Huron National Forest As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 27,339 people, 11,727 households, 7,857 families in the county. Most of the population is located on the shoreline along US-23,East Tawas, Tawas City, Oscoda County; the population density was 50 people per square mile. There were 20,432 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the county's racial makeup was 96.92% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 0.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.2% were of German, 12.3% English, 10.6% Irish, 9.9% American, 8.3% Polish and 7.1% French ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.4% spoke English and 1.0% Spanish as their first language. There were 11,727 households out of which 24.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were non-families.
28.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.79. The county population included 22.40% under the age of 18, 5.40% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 27.30% from 45 to 64, 21.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,321, the median income for a family was $37,452. Males had a median income of $30,338 versus $21,149 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,115. About 9.50% of families and 12.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.50% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget, with limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Iosco County has been reliably Republican from the beginning. Sin