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Huronian glaciation

The Huronian glaciation was a glaciation that extended from 2.4 billion years ago to 2.1 Gya, during the Siderian and Rhyacian periods of the Paleoproterozoic era. The Huronian glaciation followed the Great Oxygenation Event, a time when increased atmospheric oxygen decreased atmospheric methane; the oxygen combined with the methane to form carbon dioxide and water, which do not retain heat as well as methane does. It is the oldest and longest ice age, occurring at a time when only simple, unicellular life existed on Earth; this ice age led to a mass extinction on Earth. In 1907, Arthur Philemon Coleman first inferred a "lower Huronian ice age" from analysis of a geological formation near Lake Huron; this formation consists of two non-glacial sediment deposits found between three horizons of glacial deposits of the Huronian Supergroup, deposited between 2.5 and 2.2 billion years ago. The Gowganda formation contains "the most widespread and most convincing glaciogenic deposits of this era", according to Eyles and Young.

Similar deposits are found in Michigan, the Black Hills, Canadian Northern Territories and Wyoming. Similar age deposits occur in the Griquatown Basin and Australia; the tectonic setting was one of a rifting continental margin. New continental crust would have resulted in chemical weathering; this weathering would pull CO2 out of the atmosphere, cooling the planet through the reduction in greenhouse effect. Before the Huronian Ice Age, most organisms were anaerobic, but around this time, the cyanobacteria evolved oxygenic photosynthesis; these bacteria were able to reproduce at exponential rates due to their new ecological niche, exploiting the abundant energy of the sunlight. Their photosynthesis produced oxygen as a waste product expelled into the air. At first, most of this oxygen was absorbed through the oxidation of surface iron and the decomposition of life forms. However, as the population of the cyanobacteria continued to grow, these oxygen sinks became saturated; as oxygen "polluted" the methane atmosphere, a mass extinction occurred of most life forms, which were anaerobic and to whom oxygen was toxic.

Methane turned from dominant in the atmosphere to a trace gas, as it was oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. A different atmosphere emerged, thinner, with less powerful greenhouse gases. Earth's temperature dropped because solar luminosity was lower at that time so the Earth was more vulnerable to a decline in greenhouse gases; the Huronian Ice Age is thought to be the first time Earth was covered in ice, to have stopped photosynthesis. Timeline of glaciation Snowball Earth

Stewarts & Lloyds

Stewarts & Lloyds was a steel tube manufacturer with its headquarters in Glasgow at 41 Oswald Street. The company was created in 1903 by the amalgamation of two of the largest iron and steel makers in Britain, A. & J. Stewart & Menzies Ltd, North Lanarkshire and Lloyd & Lloyd Ltd, England. A. & J. Stewart & Menzies Ltd. was founded as J. Stewart. Andrew Stewart was employed as a salesman by Eadies of Dalmarnock, South Lanarkshire, specialists in the manufacture of lap-welded and loose flange tubes. Stewart saw a market for gas pipe but the company would not acknowledge his proposals. In 1860, Andrew set up business as a maker of butt-welded and lap-welded tubes, establishing a small works at St. Enochs, taking his brother James into partnership in 1862; the company met with rapid success and in 1867 moved to a large site at Coatbridge, North Lanarkshire, where they built the Clyde Tube Works. In 1882 the company was incorporated with limited liability as J. Stewart Ltd.. In 1889 Andrew saw his sons set up their own business in Glasgow as tube manufacturers under the name of Stewart Brothers.

In a rationalisation of the tube making industry in Scotland, A. & J. Stewart Ltd merged with Stewart Brothers and the Clydesdale Iron & Steel Company becoming A. & J. Stewart & Clydesdale Ltd. but in 1898, the company took on another new name when it acquired the business of James Menzies & Company becoming A. & J. Stewart & Menzies Ltd. From 1 January 1903 the company merged with English counterparts Lloyd Ltd.. The history of Lloyd & Lloyd Ltd paralleled that of A. & J. Stewart, establishing itself as one of the largest iron and steel tube manufacturers in England, it was founded in 1859 by Samuel Lloyd and his cousin William Rigge Lloyd and their premises were at Nile Street, Birmingham. Over the next 40 years, they became the premier manufacturer of tubes in England; the Clydeside Tube Co. Ltd. makers of weldless tubes was acquired by Lloyd & Lloyd in 1900 and was brought into the 1903 merger. Samuel's son Albert William was a director of Lloyd & Lloyd when the merger with Stewarts & Menzies came about in 1903 and became a director of the newly formed company of Stewarts & Lloyds.

From the date of the merger, Samuel Lloyd had nothing to do Stewarts & Lloyds and concentrated on Lloyds Ironstone Company, with his son Samuel Janson Lloyd. Iron ore had been mined in the Corby, Northamptonshire area for some time, when Samuel Lloyd came to the village in 1880 and negotiated the purchase of the mineral rights for the Manor of Corby. Extraction commenced in the following year and the ore was transported by rail to the Albion Works in the West Midlands. Lloyds Ironstone Company, who erected two blast furnaces on the edge of the village in 1910, started iron production but the main problems was the extraction of the ore itself, the physical act of getting the ore from the ground was in need of mechanization and before the end of the 19th century a mechanical digger, with a bucket capable of holding 11 cubic yards arrived in the mines. To increase production further a steam shovel, after finishing work on the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, was brought to Corby, its bucket could hold nearly three times the amount of its smaller brother.

In 1918, Samuel Lloyd died and control passed to Samuel Janson Lloyd, who brokered a merger with Alfred Hickman & Sons, of Bilston in 1919 who, in turn, were absorbed into the Stewarts & Lloyds group of companies in 1920, thus bringing the Corby site under Stewarts & Lloyds control. The newly merged company, now named Stewarts & Lloyds Ltd set about to establish its position and extending its interests. In 1908 the company became colliery owners when they acquired the control of Robert Addie & Sons Ltd. although this interest was sold in 1924. Before the outbreak of the First World War the company bought the British Welding Co of Motherwell, manufacturers of hydraulic welded tubes and established a new works at Tollcross, Glasgow. Following the end of the war the company gained control of the North Lincolnshire Iron Co. Ltd. followed shortly afterwards by Alfred Hickman, steel makers and their subsidiaries. Increasing the sphere of the company continued in the latter 1920s, gaining 70% control of the Victaulic Company Limited in the UK Ltd, producers of “Victaulic” joints and Johnson couplings for pipelines, the Pothero Steel Tube Co Ltd and the Birmingham steelworks of John Russell & Company.

Further colliery interests were acquired, when in 1923 the company gained control of Kilnhurst Colliery in the South Yorkshire coalfield, although this was sub-leased to Sheffield steelmakers John Brown & Co. This interest was sold, along with its adjoining brickworks, to the Tinsley Park Colliery Company of Sheffield in 1936. In 1930, Stewarts & Lloyds Ltd entered into an agreement with Tube Investments Ltd, of Abingdon, which controlled a large number of tube making firms in the Midlands. Although this was to “facilitate exchange of information and technology” it resulted in S & L gaining a half interest in the Bromford Tube Co of Erdington, acquiring the other half in 1945. From the late 1800s, both founding companies had been represented in Australia as distributors of tube. Growing demand in Australia led to the formation of a jointly owned company with Broken Hill Proprietary to be known as Buttweld Pty Ltd, the establishment of Australia's first tubemaking plant at Newcastle in 1935.

This company became Tubemakers of Australia. The company decided to move to Corby, Northamptonshire in November 1932, enabling them to make use o

Piotrków Governorate

Piotrków Governorate was an administrative unit of the Congress Poland. Its capital was in Piotrków Trybunalski, it was created in 1867, split off from parts of Warsaw Governorates. It consisted of uzeyds of Będzin, Częstochowa, Radomsko and Łódź. By the Imperial census of 1897. In bold are languages spoken by more people than the state language. William Henry Beable, "Governments or Provinces of the Former Russian Empire: Piotrkov", Russian Gazetteer and Guide, London: Russian Outlook – via Open Library

Herr's Island Railroad Bridge

The Herr's Island Railroad Bridge known as the West Penn Railroad Bridge, is a truss bridge across the Allegheny River in the Unoted States between the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Troy Hill and Herrs Island. The bridge was built in 1890 by the Western Pennsylvania Railroad to gain access to Herr's Island, it left the main line on the mainland by means of a curving red brick viaduct and three plate girder spans over River Avenue and the B&O before crossing the back channel on a Whipple truss to reach the stockyards and warehouses on the island. In 1903, the West Penn was purchased by the Pennsylvania Railroad; the bridge was strengthened and raised in the same year to match the raised land level on the island. Between 1970 and 1990, the brick viaduct and three plate girder spans were removed. In 1999, about a decade after the redevelopment of the island with condominiums and a business park, the bridge was re-decked and reopened as part of the Three Rivers Heritage Trail. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Pennsylvania List of crossings of the Allegheny River Herr's Island Railroad Bridge at pghbridges.com Historic American Engineering Record No.

PA-443, "West Penn Bridge, Pennsylvania Railroad, spanning Allegheny River, Allegheny County, PA", 22 photos, 11 data pages, 3 photo caption pages

Sangvi Surya

Sangvi Surya is a village in Parner taluka in Ahmednagar district of state of Maharashtra, India. The Village Sangvi Surya is 10 km away from the famous village Nighoj, wherein Goddess Malagasy Temple is famous; the population of Sangvi Surya is about 3000 to 3500. About 30% of total population lives in Mumbai for employment prospects. Peoples are educated and have various occupations such as Government Personnel, Own Businesses and in Private Sectors; the majority of the population in the village is Hindu. Farming as primary occupation. Most of Population stayed in the City like Mumbai. Once in a year all the people come together for the Festival called Jatra of Shah Sikandar Baba in the month of December. For this festival people travel from cities such as Mumbai; this Festival is organized in such a way that large crowds enjoy it. Parner Taluka Villages in Parner Taluka

David S. Walker Library

The David S. Walker Library was a private subscription library in Tallahassee, Florida, it was organized as the University Library in 1883. It is now a historic library building named for Governor David S. Walker, the eighth governor of Florida, who served from 1865 through 1868, it is located 209 East Park Avenue. On June 22, 1976, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the library building is one of 65 Leon County properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2018, it has no book collection nor has for many years, nor has it any library function, since the founding of the LeRoy Collins Leon County Public Library in 1956; the library building has served as the meeting place for the board of Springtime Tallahassee since 1977. David Shelby Walker was a native of Kentucky when he moved to Tallahassee, Florida in 1837, he served as the eighth governor of Florida. Walker was elected governor of Florida; the country was recovering from the aftermath of the Civil War and so it was a tough time in office.

Despite the turmoil, Walker's efforts to establish public education in Florida were a great achievement. While Walker was in office, in 1884, he offered two rooms for a library in a building. Donations were raised by the community to buy books and create a reading room, open to the public. After Walker's death, the building was sold and Walker's wife donated the lot to the library association and the building was named in honor of Walker and his support for education and libraries; the Walker Library served as a library from 1903 to 1956, after which the library moved to the Columns. Carnegie Library at FAMU LeRoy Collins Leon County Public Library Leon County listings at National Register of Historic Places Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Leon County listings David S. Walker Library