Tropical cyclone naming
Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere. Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred; the credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907.
This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean. Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred; the credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes have subsequently been introduced for the North Atlantic, Central and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.
At present, tropical cyclones are named by one of eleven warning centers and retain their names throughout their lifetimes to facilitate the effective communication of forecasts and storm-related hazards to the general public. This is important when multiple storms are occurring in the same ocean basin. Names are assigned in order from predetermined lists, once they produce one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h. However, standards vary from basin to basin, with some systems named in the Western Pacific when they develop into tropical depressions or enter PAGASA's area of responsibility. Within the Southern Hemisphere, systems must be characterized by a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named. Any member of the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane and tropical cyclone committees can request that the name of a tropical cyclone be retired or withdrawn from the various tropical cyclone naming lists. A name is retired or withdrawn if a consensus or majority of members agree that the system has acquired a special notoriety, such as causing a large number of deaths and amounts of damage, impact, or for other special reasons.
A replacement name is submitted to the committee concerned and voted upon, but these names can be rejected and replaced with another name for various reasons: these reasons include the spelling and pronunciation of the name, the similarity to the name of a recent tropical cyclone or on another list of names, the length of the name for modern communication channels such as social media. PAGASA retires the names of significant tropical cyclones when they have caused at least ₱1 billion in damage or have caused at least 300 deaths. Within the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn. There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the first letters A—W used, skipping Q and U, alternating between male and female names; the names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee meeting.
If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet. Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean, there are two warning centers that assign names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn. Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center, while tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee; the current naming scheme began with one year before the Atlantic basin. As with the Atlantic basin, it uses alternating women's and men's names, includes some Spanish and a few French names. Before only women's names were used.
Because Eastern Pacific hurricanes threaten western Mexico and Central America, the lists contain more Spanish names than the Atlantic lists. When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to
The eye is a region of calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a circular area 30–65 km in diameter, it is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm. In strong tropical cyclones, the eye is characterized by light winds and clear skies, surrounded on all sides by a towering, symmetric eyewall. In weaker tropical cyclones, the eye is less well defined and can be covered by the central dense overcast, an area of high, thick clouds that show up brightly on satellite imagery. Weaker or disorganized storms may feature an eyewall that does not encircle the eye or have an eye that features heavy rain. In all storms, the eye is the location of the storm's minimum barometric pressure—where the atmospheric pressure at sea level is the lowest. A typical tropical cyclone will have an eye of 30–65 km across situated at the geometric center of the storm.
The eye may be clear or have spotty low clouds, it may be filled with low- and mid-level clouds, or it may be obscured by the central dense overcast. There is, however little wind and rain near the center; this is in stark contrast to conditions in the eyewall. Due to the mechanics of a tropical cyclone, the eye and the air directly above it are warmer than their surroundings. While quite symmetric, eyes can be oblong and irregular in weakening storms. A large ragged eye is a non-circular eye which appears fragmented, is an indicator of a weak or weakening tropical cyclone. An open eye is an eye which can be circular, but the eyewall does not encircle the eye indicating a weakening, moisture-deprived cyclone. Both of these observations are used to estimate the intensity of tropical cyclones via Dvorak analysis. Eyewalls are circular. While typical mature storms have eyes that are a few dozen miles across intensifying storms can develop an small and circular eye, sometimes referred to as a pinhole eye.
Storms with pinhole eyes are prone to large fluctuations in intensity, provide difficulties and frustrations for forecasters. Small/minuscule eyes—those less than 10 nmi across—often trigger eyewall replacement cycles, where a new eyewall begins to form outside the original eyewall; this can take place anywhere from fifteen to hundreds of kilometers outside the inner eye. The storm develops two concentric eyewalls, or an "eye within an eye". In most cases, the outer eyewall begins to contract soon after its formation, which chokes off the inner eye and leaves a much larger but more stable eye. While the replacement cycle tends to weaken storms as it occurs, the new eyewall can contract quickly after the old eyewall dissipates, allowing the storm to re-strengthen; this may trigger another re-strengthen cycle of eyewall replacement. Eyes can range in size from 370 km to a mere 3.7 km across. While it is uncommon for storms with large eyes to become intense, it does occur in annular hurricanes. Hurricane Isabel was the eleventh most powerful North Atlantic hurricane in recorded history, sustained a large, 65–80 km -wide eye for a period of several days.
Tropical cyclones form from large, disorganized areas of disturbed weather in tropical regions. As more thunderstorms form and gather, the storm develops rainbands which start rotating around a common center; as the storm gains strength, a ring of stronger convection forms at a certain distance from the rotational center of the developing storm. Since stronger thunderstorms and heavier rain mark areas of stronger updrafts, the barometric pressure at the surface begins to drop, air begins to build up in the upper levels of the cyclone; this results in the formation of an upper level anticyclone, or an area of high atmospheric pressure above the central dense overcast. Most of this built up air flows outward anticyclonically above the tropical cyclone. Outside the forming eye, the anticyclone at the upper levels of the atmosphere enhances the flow towards the center of the cyclone, pushing air towards the eyewall and causing a positive feedback loop. However, a small portion of the built-up air, instead of flowing outward, flows inward towards the center of the storm.
This causes air pressure to build further, to the point where the weight of the air counteracts the strength of the updrafts in the center of the storm. Air begins to descend in the center of the storm, creating a rain-free area—a newly formed eye. There are many aspects of this process. Scientists do not know why a ring of convection forms around the center of circulation instead of on top of it, or why the upper-level anticyclone only ejects a portion of the excess air above the storm. Many theories exist as to the exact process by which the eye forms: all, known for sure is that the eye is necessary for tropical cyclones to achieve high wind speeds; the formation of an eye is always an indicator of increasing tropical cyclone organisation and strength. Because of this, forecasters watch developing storms for signs of eye formation. For storms with a clear eye, detection of the eye is as simple as looking at pictures from a weather satellite. However, for storms with a filled eye, or an eye covered by the central dense ove
Homosassa is a census-designated place in Citrus County, United States. The population was 2,578 at the 2010 census. Homosassa is derived from a Seminole Indian name meaning either "river of fishes" or "pepper ridge". In 1851, David Levy Yulee established a 5,000-acre sugar plantation on the Homosassa River, close to the current town of Homosassa; the plantation was worked by 1,000 slaves, but Yulee was an absentee owner, spending most of his time in Fernandina. Among the crops raised were sugar cane and citrus; the Yulee Groves were one of the first in Florida to grow sweet oranges budded from sour orange stock. The mill, steam-driven, operated from 1851 to 1864 and produced sugar and molasses, the last of, part of the rum-making process. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Yulee was imprisoned, the slaves were freed, the site was abandoned; the remains of the plantation are preserved at the Yulee Sugar Mill Ruins Historic State Park. Homosassa is home to Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, home to large numbers of "migratory" manatees, which frequent the area due to its springs and warm waters.
The park a has been known to have Florida panthers, black bears, red wolves and flamingos. The park is home to Lu, a famous hippopotamus known for his performances in many movies for the past 40 years; the park hosts an underwater viewing platform, known as the "fish bowl", where visitors can see manatees and fish swimming in the large spring from which the Homosassa River begins. The Wildlife Park helps spread awareness about the dangers of boating around areas inhabited by manatees as well as the destructive effects of polluting the environment; the park is one of the few major attractions of the area, which has a large retiree population and a low level of activity compared to major tourist regions of Florida. The Homosassa and Halls rivers run through the area, it is common to see manatees surface near the area's waterfront restaurants and bars. Homosassa is located in southwestern Citrus County, to the west of U. S. Routes 19 and 98; the CDP extends west on both sides of the Homosassa River to a network of marshes and islands that lead to the Gulf of Mexico.
The original settlement of Homosassa is located on the south side of the Homosassa River, 3 miles west of Homosassa Springs by either West Fishbowl Drive or West Yulee Drive. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.3 square miles, of which 7.8 square miles is land and 0.54 square miles, or 6.30%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,294 people, 1,128 households, 771 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 288.7 people per square mile. There were 1,602 housing units at an average density of 201.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.65% White, 0.04% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.04% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.05% of the population. There were 1,128 households out of which 12.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 3.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were non-families.
27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.38. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 10.6% under the age of 18, 3.3% from 18 to 24, 15.5% from 25 to 44, 35.4% from 45 to 64, 35.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 58 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $38,696, the median income for a family was $41,513. Males had a median income of $29,044 versus $21,755 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,135. About 10.5% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. The CDP is served by Citrus County Schools. Homosassa Elementary School is in the community. Residents are zoned to Homosassa Elementary, Crystal River Middle School in Crystal River, Crystal River High School in Crystal River.
The nearest public library, the Homosassa Public Library of Citrus Libraries, located in Homosassa Springs. Citrus County Visitors & Convention Bureau Homosassa Springs Wildlife Park
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service is an agency of the United States federal government, tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration branch of the Department of Commerce, is headquartered in Silver Spring, within the Washington metropolitan area; the agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970. The NWS performs its primary task through a collection of national and regional centers, 122 local Weather Forecast Offices; as the NWS is an agency of the U. S. federal government, most of its products are in available free of charge. In 1870, the Weather Bureau of the United States was established through a joint resolution of Congress signed by President Ulysses S. Grant with a mission to "provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories...and for giving notice on the northern Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms."
The agency was placed under the Secretary of War as Congress felt "military discipline would secure the greatest promptness and accuracy in the required observations." Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the U. S. Army Signal Service under Brigadier General Albert J. Myer. General Myer gave the National Weather Service its first name: The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce. Cleveland Abbe – who began developing probabilistic forecasts using daily weather data sent by the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and Western Union, which he convinced to back the collection of such information in 1869 – was appointed as the Bureau's first chief meteorologist. In his earlier role as the civilian assistant to the chief of the Signal Service, Abbe urged the Department of War to research weather conditions to provide a scientific basis behind the forecasts. While a debate went on between the Signal Service and Congress over whether the forecasting of weather conditions should be handled by civilian agencies or the Signal Service's existing forecast office, a Congressional committee was formed to oversee the matter, recommending that the office's operations be transferred to the Department of War following a two-year investigation.
The agency first became a civilian enterprise in 1890, when it became part of the Department of Agriculture. Under the oversight of that branch, the Bureau began issuing flood warnings and fire weather forecasts, issued the first daily national surface weather maps; the first Weather Bureau radiosonde was launched in Massachusetts in 1937, which prompted a switch from routine aircraft observation to radiosondes within two years. The Bureau prohibited the word "tornado" from being used in any of its weather products out of concern for inciting panic until 1938, when it began disseminating tornado warnings to emergency management personnel; the Bureau would be moved to the Department of Commerce in 1940. On July 12, 1950, bureau chief Francis W. Reichelderfer lifted the agency's ban on public tornado alerts in a Circular Letter, noting to all first order stations that "Weather Bureau employees should avoid statements that can be interpreted as a negation of the Bureau's willingness or ability to make tornado forecasts", that a "good probability of verification" exist when issuing such forecasts due to the difficulty in predicting tornadic activity.
However it would not be until it faced criticism for continuing to refuse to provide public tornado warnings and preventing the release of the USAF Severe Weather Warning Center's tornado forecasts beyond military personnel that the Bureau issued its first experimental public tornado forecasts in March 1952. In 1957, the Bureau began using radars for short-term forecasting of local storms and hydrological events, using modified versions of those used by Navy aircraft to create the WSR-57, with a network of WSR systems being deployed nationwide through the early 1960s; the Weather Bureau became part of the Environmental Science Services Administration when that agency was formed in August 1966. The Environmental Science Services Administration was renamed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on October 1, 1970, with the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act. At this time, the Weather Bureau became the National Weather Service. NEXRAD, a system of Doppler radars deployed to improve the detection and warning time of severe local storms, replaced the WSR-57 and WSR-74 systems between 1988 and 1997.
Bob Glahn has written a comprehensive history of the first hundred years of the National Weather Service. The NWS, through a variety of sub-organizations, issues different forecasts to users, including the general public. Although, throughout history, text forecasts have been the means of product dissemination, the NWS has been using more forecast products of a digital, gridded, im
The Fujiwhara effect, sometimes referred to as the Fujiwara effect, Fujiwara interaction or binary interaction, is a phenomenon that occurs when two nearby cyclonic vortices orbit each other and close the distance between the circulations of their corresponding low-pressure areas. The effect is named after Sakuhei Fujiwhara, the Japanese meteorologist who described the effect. Binary interaction of smaller circulations can cause the development of a larger cyclone, or cause two cyclones to merge into one. Extratropical cyclones engage in binary interaction when within 2,000 kilometres of one another, while tropical cyclones interact within 1,400 kilometres of each other; when cyclones are in proximity of one another, their centers will begin orbiting cyclonically about a point between the two systems due to their cyclonic wind circulations. The two vortices will be attracted to each other, spiral into the center point and merge, it has not been agreed upon whether this is due to the divergent portion of the wind or vorticity advection.
When the two vortices are of unequal size, the larger vortex will tend to dominate the interaction, the smaller vortex will orbit around it. The effect is named after Sakuhei Fujiwhara, the Japanese meteorologist who described it in a 1921 paper about the motion of vortices in water. Tropical cyclones can form when smaller circulations within the Intertropical Convergence Zone merge; the effect is mentioned in relation to the motion of tropical cyclones, although the final merging of the two storms is uncommon. The effect becomes noticeable. Rotation rates within binary pairs accelerate when tropical cyclones close within 650 kilometres of each other. Merger of the two systems becomes realized. Hurricane Iris of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season interacted with Hurricane Humberto, before interacting with and absorbing Tropical Storm Karen on September 3. In 2005, the remnant low of Tropical Depression Thirteen moved northward and northeastward around a non-tropical low located to the north of the system.
It strengthened into Tropical Storm Lee. Thereafter, Lee weakened back to a tropical depression as it moved northeastward and northwestward around the eastern side of the non-tropical low and absorbed the non-tropical low. In the same year, Alpha was absorbed by Wilma. In 2018, Hurricane Helene steered the weaker Tropical Storm Joyce. Helene moved to the north towards Europe; this interaction may have led to Tropical Storm Joyce's eventual demise. In 1974, Hurricanes Kirsten and Ione interacted in a Fujiwara interaction, as Ione was pulled northeast, while Kirsten was pulled to the northwest. In the same year, Hurricanes Francesca and Gretchen interacted with each other, until they merged on July 19. In 1993, Hurricane Hilary absorbed the weaker Tropical Storm Irwin; that same year, Tropical Storm Max was absorbed by a larger Tropical Storm Norma. In 2001, Hurricane Gil absorbed Tropical Storm Henriette but associated convection dissipated during the merger and did not return afterwards. In 2005, Tropical Storm Lidia was absorbed by Hurricane Max.
In 2014, Hurricane Karina traveled west, but was steered back east by an interaction with Hurricane Lowell. It weakened, its remnants were absorbed by Hurricane Marie. In 2017, Hurricanes Hilary and Irwin interacted. Hilary stopped Irwin's westward movement, caused Irwin to turn northward. In 2018, Hurricane John absorbed Tropical Storm Ileana. In September 1994, Typhoon Pat and Tropical Storm Ruth completed a full orbit around their centroid before collapsing into a single cyclone. In August 1997, Tropical Storm Yule merged with Tropical Depression 16W. In October 2009, Typhoon Parma interacted with Typhoon Melor. Parma was moving through the South China Sea but made recurved to the southeast, so it made its second and third landfall over northern Luzon. In addition, due to the interaction with Melor, Parma weakened, becoming a tropical storm by October 4. In November 2009, Typhoon Nida become a powerful typhoon. In August 2010, a Fujiwara interaction occurred between Tropical Storm Namtheun and Severe Tropical Storm Lionrock.
Namtheun turned southwestward. Namtheun weakened into a tropical depression in the Taiwan Strait and was absorbed by Lionrock. In August 2012, a Fujiwhara interaction occurred between Typhoon Bolaven. Tembin was moving west, while Bolaven caused Tembin to turn east, resulting in a counter-clockwise loop of Tembin which caused torrential rain in Southern Taiwan. In August 2013, Severe Tropical Storm Pewa absorbed Tropical Storm Unala. In August 2016, a Fujiwhara interaction occurred between Typhoons Lionrock. Lionrock was moving west-southwest, while Mindulle caused Lionrock to turn east, resulting in Lionrock being spun to the south of Japan. In July 2017, Typhoon Noru absorbed Tropical Storm Kulap. In the same month, a Fujiwhara interaction occurred between Typhoon Nesat and Tropical Storm Haitang. Nesat caused Haitang to turn northeastward, but the remnants of Nesat were absorbed by Haitang over Fujian. In 2008, Tropical Cyclone Fame began orbiting Tropical Cyclone Gula with the stronger storm, absorbing Fame.
In 2012, Cyclone Giovanna and Tropical Storm Hilwa interacted in a Fujiwara interaction.
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
The Florida Keys are a coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost portion of the continental United States. They begin at the southeastern coast of the Florida peninsula, about 15 miles south of Miami, extend in a gentle arc south-southwest and westward to Key West, the westernmost of the inhabited islands, on to the uninhabited Dry Tortugas; the islands lie along the Florida Straits, dividing the Atlantic Ocean to the east from the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, defining one edge of Florida Bay. At the nearest point, the southern part of Key West is just 90 miles from Cuba; the Florida Keys are between 25.5 degrees North latitude. More than 95 percent of the land area lies in Monroe County, but a small portion extends northeast into Miami-Dade County, such as Totten Key; the total land area is 137.3 square miles. As of the 2010 census the population was 73,090 with an average density of 532.34 per square mile, although much of the population is concentrated in a few areas of much higher density, such as the city of Key West, which has 32% of the entire population of the Keys.
The US Census population estimate for 2014 is 77,136. The city of Key West is the county seat of Monroe County; the county consists of a section on the mainland, entirely in Everglades National Park, the Keys islands from Key Largo to the Dry Tortugas. The Keys were inhabited by the Calusa and Tequesta tribes, were charted by Juan Ponce de León in 1513. De León named the islands Los Martires. "Key" is derived from the Spanish word cayo. For many years, Key West was the largest town in Florida, it grew prosperous on wrecking revenues; the isolated outpost was well located for trade with Cuba and the Bahamas and was on the main trade route from New Orleans. Improved navigation led to fewer shipwrecks, Key West went into a decline in the late nineteenth century; the Keys were long accessible only by water. This changed with the completion of Henry Flagler's Overseas Railway in the early 1910s. Flagler, a major developer of Florida's Atlantic coast, extended his Florida East Coast Railway down to Key West with an ambitious series of oversea railroad trestles.
Three hurricanes disrupted the project in 1906, 1909, 1910. The worst hurricane to strike the U. S. made landfall near Islamorada in the Upper Keys on Labor Day, September 2. Winds were estimated to have gusted to 200 mph, raising a storm surge more than 17.5 feet above sea level that washed over the islands. More than 400 people were killed, though some estimates place the number of deaths at more than 600; the Labor Day Hurricane was one of only three hurricanes to make landfall at Category 5 strength on the U. S. coast since reliable weather records began. The other storms were Hurricane Andrew. In 1935, new bridges were under construction to connect a highway through the entire Keys. Hundreds of World War I veterans working on the roadway as part of a government relief program were housed in non-reinforced buildings in three construction camps in the Upper Keys; when the evacuation train failed to reach the camps before the storm, more than 200 veterans perished. Their deaths caused anger and charges of mismanagement.
The storm ended the 23-year run of the Overseas Railway. One of the longest bridges when it was built, the Seven Mile Bridge connects Knight's Key to Little Duck Key in the Lower Keys; the piling-supported concrete bridge is 35,862 6.79 miles long. The current bridge bypasses Pigeon Key, a small island that housed workers building Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway in the 1900s, that the original Seven Mile Bridge crossed. A 2.2-mile section of the old bridge remains for access to the island, although it was closed to vehicular traffic on March 4, 2008. The aging structure has been deemed unsafe by the Florida Department of Transportation. Costly repairs, estimated to be as much as $34 million, were expected to begin in July 2008. Monroe County was unable to secure a $17 million loan through the state infrastructure bank, delaying work for at least a year. On June 14, 2008, the old bridge section leading to Pigeon Key was closed to fishing as well. While still open to pedestrians—walking and jogging—if the bridge were closed altogether, only a ferry subsidized by FDOT and managed by the county would transport visitors to the island.
After the destruction of the Keys railway by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, the railroad bridges, including the Seven Mile Bridge, were converted to automobile roadways. This roadway, U. S. Highway 1, became the Overseas Highway. Today this unique highway allows travel through the tropical islands of the Florida Keys and view exotic plants and animals found nowhere else on the US mainland and the largest coral reef chain in the United States. Following the Cuban Revolution, many Cubans fled the Castro dictatorship to South Florida. Key West traditionally had strong links with its neighbor ninety miles south by water, large numbers of Cubans settled there; the Keys still attract Cubans leaving their home country, stories of "rafters" coming ashore are not uncommon. In 1982, the United States Border Patrol established a roadblock and inspection points on US Highway 1, stopping all northbound traffic returning to the mainland at Florida City