Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace.
However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians and Samaritans. Israel hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016.
The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Islam
Betar fortress was an ancient, terraced farming village in the Judean highlands. The Betar fortress was the last standing Jewish fortress in the Bar Kochba revolt of the 2nd century CE, the site of historic Betar, next to the modern Palestinian village of Battir, southwest of Jerusalem, is known as Khirbet al-Yahud in Arabic. Today, the Israeli settlement and city Beitar Illit is located nearby, the city was the stronghold of Bar Kokhba, the leader of the Jewish Revolt under Hadrian. Hadrian sent against the city several of his Roman legions to capture the city, according to historical records, the city was besieged for three and a half years before it finally fell, and its defenders were put to death. The horrendous scene after the capture could be best described as a massacre. A stone inscription bearing Latin characters and discovered near the city shows that the Fifth Macedonian Legion, the destruction of Betar in 135 put an end to the last great Jewish revolt against Rome, and effectively quashed any Jewish hopes for self-governance in that period.
Accounts of the event in Talmudic and Midrashic writings thus reflect and amplify its importance in the Jewish psyche, the best known is from the Babylonian Talmud, Gittin 57a-b, Through the shaft of a litter Bethar was destroyed. It was the custom when a boy was born to plant a tree and when a girl was born to plant a pine tree, and when they married, the tree was cut down. One day the daughter of the Emperor was passing when the shaft of her litter broke, so they lopped some branches off a cedar tree, the Jews thereupon fell upon them and beat them. They reported to the Emperor that the Jews were rebelling, and he hath cut off in fierce anger all the horn of Israel. Do you think this was near, What is signified by the verse, Mine eye affecteth my soul, because of all the daughters of my city. Such hyperbolic speech was used only to emphasize the horrendous scene after the capture of the city, and the ensuing massacre of its inhabitants. If you should come to take account, you would find that they amounted to three-hundred measures.
”Rabban Gamliel said, “Five-hundred schools were in Betar. Hadrian had prohibited their burial, and so all the bodies remained above ground, many years Hadrians successor, allowed the dead to be afforded a decent burial. Mevo Betar David Ussishkin, Archaeological Soundings at Betar, Bar-Kochbas Last Stronghold, in, journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University 20 66ff. Other Midrashic sources can be seen here
Israel Antiquities Authority
The Israel Antiquities Authority is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities. The IAA regulates excavation and conservation, and promotes research, the director-general is Shuka Dorfmann and its offices are housed in the Rockefeller Museum. The Israel Antiquities Authority plans to move into a new building for The National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel in Jerusalem, the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums of the Ministry of Education was founded on July 26,1948, after the establishment of the State of Israel. It took over the functions of the Department of Antiquities of the British Mandate in Israel, its activities were based on the British Mandate Department of Antiquities ordinances. IDAM was the authority responsible for the Israels antiquities and for the administration of small museums. It published the results of excavations in three journals, Booklet of the Department of Antiquities Hebrew, now defunct, still published, and Hadashot Arkheologiyot --still published, online.
IDAM funded and managed the Archaeological Survey of Israel and published the results of its work in maps covering 10 km² of the State of Israel, the Israel Antiquities Authority was created from the IDAM by the Knesset in a 1990 statute. Amir Drori became its first director, the Jay and Jeanie Schottenstein National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel is the future building of the IAA, aiming to concentrate all centralized administrative offices into one structure. The campus is planned on 20,000 square meters between the Israel Museum and the Bible Lands Museum in Jerusalem by Architect Moshe Safdie, unlike their peers around the world, the team in Israel is barred by Israeli law from working with human remains. Israel Antiquities Authority - official website, eisenbrauns - Official distributor for IAA publications in North America The Jay and Jeanie Schottenstein National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel on the Israel Antiquities Authority website
A dugout or dug-out, known as a pit-house, earth lodge, is a shelter for humans or domesticated animals and livestock based on a hole or depression dug into the ground. Dugouts can be recessed into the earth, with a flat roof covered by ground. They can be semi-recessed, with a wood or sod roof standing out. These structures are one of the most ancient types of housing known to archeologists. Dugouts may be temporary shelters constructed as an aid to specific activities, e. g. concealment, first driven underground by enemies who invaded their country, the Berbers of Matmâta found underground homes the best defense against summer heat. Burra in South Australias Mid-North region was the site of the famous Monster Mine, census data from 1851 shows that nearly 80 percent of the workers living in the dugouts were miners, with probably the majority being Cornish. Floods and the Victorian gold rush ended the large scale use of dugouts in Burra. Coober Pedy is a small town in northern South Australia,846 kilometres north of Adelaide on the Stuart Highway.
Most residents live in caves excavated into the hillsides to avoid the summer temperatures. White Cliffs, New South Wales is similar, in terms of climate, housing, in north China, especially on the Loess Plateau, caves called yaodongs dug into hillsides have been the traditional dwellings from early times. The advantage of a yaodong over a house is that it needs little heating in winter. An estimated 40 million people in northern China live in a yaodong, many people live in semi-recessed dugout houses in north-western China where hot summer and cold winters prevail. In the Early Jōmon period of Japanese pre-history complex pit houses were the most commonly used method of housing at the time, the well-preserved cave towns of Crimea are Mangup-Kale, Eski-Kermen and Chufut-Kale. The settlement of Mangup-Kale dates back to the 3rd century AD and was fortified by Justinian I in the mid 6th century and it was inhabited and governed primarily by Crimean Goths, and became the center of their autonomous principality.
The last inhabitants, a community of Karaims, abandoned the site in the 1790s. In Iceland, since time immemorial and well into the 20th century, most houses were dug down, with turf or sod walls built up and roofs made of timber. Turf was used because timber was scarce and expensive, and stone not practical before the advent of concrete, Matera has gained international fame for its ancient town, the Sassi di Matera, which is UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. The Sassi are houses dug into the rock itself, known locally as Tufo
Beit Guvrin National Park
Archaeological artifacts unearthed at the site include a large Jewish cemetery, a Roman-Byzantine amphitheater, a Byzantine church, public baths and burial caves. The earliest written record of Maresha was as a city in ancient Judah, the Hebrew Bible mentions among other episodes that Rehoboam fortified it against Egyptian attack. After the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah the city of Maresha became part of the Edomite kingdom, in the late Persian period a Sidonian community settled in Maresha, and the city is mentioned in the Zenon Papyri. During the Maccabean Revolt, Maresha was a base for attacks against Judea, after Hasmonean king, John Hyrcanus I captured and destroyed Maresha in 112 BCE, the region of Idumea remained under Hasmonean control. In 40 BC the Parthians devastated completely the strong city, after which it was never rebuilt, beth Gabra or Beit Guvrin succeeded Maresha as the main town of the area. Sources from the Byzantine Period mention both Christian and Jewish personalities living in the city, Maresha was first excavated in 1898-1900 by Bliss and Macalister, who uncovered a planned and fortified Hellenistic city encircled by a town wall with towers.
Two Hellenistic and one Israelite stratum were identified by them on the mound, many of the ancient citys olive presses and water cisterns can still be seen. Both Maresha and Beit Guvrin/Eleutheropolis were excavated after 1989 and 1992 respectively by the Israeli archaeologist Amos Kloner, the Sidonian burial caves were the family tomb of Apollophanes, the leader of the Sidonian community in Beit Guvrin. The Sidonian caves are the ones that are painted inside. The caves were burial caves for the Greek and Edumite inhabitants of Beit Guvrin, the first and largest cave has paintings of animals and mythic, above the niches where the corpses were laid. A cock crows to scare away demons, the three-headed dog Cerberus guards the entrance to the underworld, the Tomb of the Musicians is decorated with a painting showing a man playing the flute and a woman playing the harp. There are about 800 bell-shaped caves located in the area, many of the caves are linked via an underground network of passageways that connect groups of 40–50 caves.
The largest bell caves are in the east part of the park and they were dug during the Early Arab Period for chalk to cover roads. There are numerous caves within the park grounds and events are held in one of them. They are large and easily accessible, saint Annes church was first built in the Byzantine period and rebuilt by the Crusaders in the 12th century. The ruin is known in Arabic as Khirbet Sandahanna, the nearby tell of Maresha being called Tell Sandahanna, the freestanding remains of the apse are well preserved. The remains of a Roman amphitheater were uncovered in the mid-1990s, the amphitheater was built in the 2nd century, on the northwestern outskirts of Beit Guvrin. This amphitheater, in which gladiatorial contests took place, could seat about 3,500 spectators and it had a walled arena of packed earth, with subterranean galleries
The Jewish War
The Jewish War or Judean War, referred to in English as The Wars of the Jews, is a book written by Josephus, a Roman-Jewish historian of the 1st century. The next five books detail the unfolding of the war, under Roman generals Vespasian and Titus, the book was written about 75 AD, originally in Josephuss paternal tongue - either Aramaic or Hebrew- though this version has not survived. It was translated into Greek, probably under the supervision of Josephus himself, the current Greek edition does not appear to be a translation, but must be considered a new edition, a complete re-working of the first writing and likely a considerable expansion. The text survives in an Old Slavonic version, as well as Hebrew which contains material not found in the Greek version, H. Leeming and K. Leeming, Josephus Jewish War and Its Slavonic Version, A Synoptic Comparison. Ancient Judaism & Early Christianity, notes on the Old Slavonic Josephus Hear a discussion and analysis of this monograph, on an episode of the radio series Invitation to Learning.
Loeb Classical Library Josephus Volume 2 The Jewish War Books 1-3 Loeb Classical Library Josephus Volume 3 The Jewish War Books 4-7
A wine press is a device used to extract juice from crushed grapes during wine making. There are a number of different styles of presses that are used by wine makers, each style of press exerts controlled pressure in order to free the juice from the fruit. The pressure must be controlled, especially grapes, in order to avoid crushing the seeds. Wine was being made at least as long ago as 6000 BC, in 2011, a basket press consists of a large basket filled with the crushed grapes. Pressure is applied through a plate that is forced down onto the fruit, the mechanism to lower the plate is often either a screw or a hydraulic device. The juice flows through openings in the basket, the basket style press was the first type of mechanized press to be developed, and its basic design has not changed in nearly 1000 years. A horizontal screw press works using the principle as the basket press. Instead of a plate being brought down to put pressure on the grapes, plates from either side of a cylinder are brought together to squeeze the grapes.
Generally the volume of grapes handled is significantly greater than that of a basket press, a bladder press consists of a large cylinder, closed at each end, into which the fruit is loaded. To press the grapes, a large bladder expands and pushes the grapes against the sides, the juice flows out through small openings in the cylinder. The cylinder rotates during the process to help homogenize the pressure that is placed on the grapes, a continuous screw press differs from the above presses in that it does not process a single batch of grapes at a time. Instead it uses an Archimedes screw to continuously force grapes up against the wall of the device, juice is extracted, and the pomace continues through to the end where it is extracted. This style of press is used to produce table wines. Flash release is a used in wine pressing. The technique allows for an extraction of phenolic compounds
A synagogue, spelled synagog, is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a hall for prayer, and may have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall. Some have a room for Torah study, called the beith midrash beis medrash —בית מדרש. Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh reading and assembly, halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews assemble. Worship can be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together, halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. The synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem, israelis use the Hebrew term beyt knesset. Jews of Ashkenazi descent have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul in everyday speech, Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews generally use the term kal. Spanish Jews call the synagogue a sinagoga and Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga, persian Jews and some Karaite Jews use the non-Hebrew term kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic, and some Arab Jews use kenis.
Reform and some Conservative Jews use the word temple, the Greek word synagogue is used in English, to cover the preceding possibilities. The all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol as he offered the days sacrifices and prayed for his success. During the Babylonian captivity the Men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers, prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, and there were no standard prayers that were recited. Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era and this contributed to the continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. A synagogue dating from between 75 and 50 BCE has been uncovered at a Hasmonean-era winter palace near Jericho, more than a dozen Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists.
Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue, there is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. In fact, the influence from local religious buildings can often be seen in synagogue arches, domes. Historically, synagogues were built in the architectural style of their time. Thus, the synagogue in Kaifeng, China looked very like Chinese temples of that region and era, with its outer wall, the styles of the earliest synagogues resembled the temples of other sects of the eastern Roman Empire. The surviving synagogues of medieval Spain are embellished with mudéjar plasterwork, the surviving medieval synagogues in Budapest and Prague are typical Gothic structures
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrians Wall, which marked the limit of Britannia. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus, philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family, although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with roots in Hispania. His predecessor, was a cousin of Hadrians father. Trajan did not designate an heir officially, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajans wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian travelled to every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and he used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism, and this led to the establishment of one of the most popular cults of ancient times.
Hadrian spent a deal of time with the military, he usually wore military attire and even dined. He ordered rigorous military training and drilling and made use of reports of attacks to keep the army on alert. On his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajans conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 138 Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on the condition that he adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his own heirs and they would eventually succeed Antoninus as co-emperors. Hadrian died the year at Baiae. In Hadrians time, there was already an established convention that one could not write a contemporary Roman imperial history for fear of competing with the emperors themselves. Information on the history of Hadrians reign comes mostly from later. A general account of his reign is Book 69 of the early 3rd century Roman History by Cassius Dio and his original Greek text of this book is lost, what survives is a brief, much later, Byzantine-era abridgment by the 11th century monk Xiphilinius.
He selected from Dios account of Hadrians reign based on his religious interests
Judea or Judæa is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel. As a consequence of the Bar Kokhba revolt, in 135 CE the region was renamed and merged with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina by the victorious Roman Emperor Hadrian, a large part of Judea was included in Jordanian West Bank between 1948 and 1967. The name Judea is a Greek and Roman adaptation of the name Judah, nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah. Judea was sometimes used as the name for the entire region, in 200 CE Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by Eusebius, described Nazara as a village in Judea. Judea was the used by English-speakers until the Jordanian occupation of the area in 1948. Jordan called the area ad-difa’a al-gharbiya, yehuda is the Hebrew term used for the area in modern Israel since the region was captured and occupied by Israel in 1967. The classical Roman-Jewish historian Josephus wrote, In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anuath and this is the northern boundary of Judea.
The southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa. The city Jerusalem is situated in the middle, on which account some have, with sagacity enough. This country begins at Mount Libanus, and the fountains of Jordan, and reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias and its inhabitants are a mixture of Jews and Syrians. And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, Judea is a mountainous region, part of which is considered a desert. It varies greatly in height, rising to an altitude of 1,020 m in the south at Mount Hebron,30 km southwest of Jerusalem, and descending to as much as 400 m below sea level in the east of the region. The climate, moves between Mediterranean in the west and desert climate in the east, with a strip of steppe climate in the middle, major urban areas in the region include Jerusalem, Gush Etzion and Hebron. Geographers divide Judea into several regions, the Hebron hills, the Jerusalem saddle, the Bethel hills and the Judean desert east of Jerusalem, the hills are distinct for their anticline structure.
In ancient times the hills were forested, and the Bible records agriculture, animals are still grazed today, with shepherds moving them between the low ground to the hilltops as summer approaches, while the slopes are still layered with centuries-old stone terracing. The Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended in the devastation of vast areas of the Judaean countryside, the Northern Kingdom was conquered into the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 720 BCE. Judea is central to much of the narrative of the Torah, with the Patriarchs Abraham, the Babylonian Empire fell to the conquests of Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. Judea lost its independence to the Romans in the 1st century BCE, by becoming first a tributary kingdom, a province, queen Alexandra Salome had recently died, and a civil war broke out between her sons, Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II
A columbarium is a place for the respectful and usually public storage of cinerary urns. The term comes from the Latin columba and originally referred to compartmentalized housing for doves, Roman columbaria were often built partly or completely underground. The Columbarium of Pomponius Hylas is an ancient Roman example, rich in frescoes, todays columbaria can be either free standing units, or part of a mausoleum or another building. Some manufacturers produce columbaria that are built entirely off-site and brought to the cemetery by a large truck, examples of these are the columbaria in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris and Golders Green Crematorium in London. In other cases, columbaria are built into church structures, one example is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which houses a number of columbarium niches in the mausoleum built into the lower levels of the Cathedral. The construction of columbaria within churches is particularly widespread in the Czechoslovak Hussite Church, an example can be seen at the Church of St Nicolas in Old Town Square.
In the Roman Catholic Church, although traditional burial is still preferred, as a result, columbaria can be found within some Catholic cemeteries. Columbaria are often similar in form to traditional Buddhist temples. In Buddhism, ashes of the deceased may be placed in a columbarium (in Chinese, a naguta, in Japanese, a nokotsudo and this practice allows for the family of the deceased to visit the temple for the conduct of traditional memorials and ancestor rites. In the Bet Guvrin area several series of caves dug into soft rock were found. There were several theories about their use, for ritual burial, for growing pigeons to be used for ritual sacrifice. One such cave had been covered by a close to the time of its original usage. This cave had no ashes found in it, but no pigeon droppings, among the archaeologic finds on Masada, a columbarium tower foundation remains. Catacomb Cemetery Charnel house Crypt Grave Ossuary Reliquary Tomb Photographs and commentary on ancient Roman columbaria Columbarium