Husby metro station
Husby is a station on the blue line of the Stockholm metro, located in the district of Husby, northern Stockholm. The station was inaugurated on 5 June 1977; the distance to Kungsträdgården is 15 km. Images of Husby
May 2013 Stockholm riots
On 19 May 2013, violent disturbances broke out in Husby, a suburb dominated by immigrants and second-generation immigrant residents, including a substantial number from Somalia, Eritrea and Iraq, in northern Stockholm, Sweden. The riots were in response to the shooting to death by police of an elderly man a Portuguese expatriate, armed with a puukko knife, after entering his apartment and allegedly trying to cover up the man's death; the Husby political group Megafonen published a blog post on 14 May, the day after the shooting, in which the deceased man was referred to as "non-white". Megafonen called for a demonstration against "police brutality" on 15 May, two days after the shooting, in the same post; the disturbances involved several hundred youths and resulted in the injury of at least seven police officers. On Tuesday 28 May, the Stockholm police reported that the situation was "back to normal" with no rioting, only a few burned-out cars, no reports of unrest in other Swedish towns either.
Stockholm has suffered disturbances of a similar nature in poor and segregated areas several times since 1975. In the 2010 Rinkeby riots up to 100 youths threw bricks, set fires and attacked the local police station in Rinkeby for two nights in a row; the disturbances began on the night of Sunday 19 May 2013, when youths started setting cars on fire in Husby. At least 100 vehicles were destroyed. A garage was set on fire, which forced the evacuation of an apartment block, a shopping center was vandalized; the police, called out at 10 pm, were stoned by youths, three officers were injured. Calm had returned by 5:30 am; the police estimated that about 50 to 60 youths had been involved in the riot, but no arrests were made. The disturbances continued on Monday 20 May. Rioters set fire to eleven cars and four waste containers and threw stones at the police and firefighters who were fighting the fire. Seven officers were injured; the police estimated that about 50 to 100 people had been involved in the day's disturbances, some of whom were as young as 12 or 13, but the majority were adults.
Calm had returned by 4 am. Seven people between the ages of 15 and 19 were arrested for assaulting public officials. Two were released and a third was found to be a minor. There was a smaller disturbance in southern Stockholm, but it is not known whether it was related to Husby; the trouble spread to Fittja, Kista and Tensta. On the night of Tuesday 21 May, the disturbances spread to Bredäng, Flemingsberg and Skarpnäck. Thirty cars were set on fire, the Jakobsberg police station and shopping center were vandalized. Eight people were arrested. Calm had returned by 3 am; the disturbances continued on 22 May. In Rinkeby 7 cars were burned. In Rågsved, a police station was burned down. In Hagsätra, the police were attacked at 10 pm, one police officer was injured. In Skogås, a restaurant was burned down and firefighters were attacked with stones. On Thursday, 23 May, at about 8 pm police were called to Rinkeby to a spot where five cars had been set on fire. Youths threw rocks and glass bottles at a Metro station in Vällingby, breaking windows on several Metro trains and threatening staff at the station before leaving the scene.
After midnight, several small fires were reported in Farsta. At least two schools, a police station and 15 cars were set ablaze. Thirteen people were arrested the following morning. By 24 May, the disturbances in Stockholm had subsided. Parents and volunteers patrolling. In the meantime, the disturbances had spread to other parts of Sweden, including Örebro, while the situation in Husby where the trouble originated was reported to be under the complete control of law enforcement officers. During the night, police arrested 18 right-wing extremists and confiscated their vehicle, full of weapons, only a few hours after they had joined the unrest. During the following weekend, Stockholm was calm, with little or no disturbances. On Monday 27 May, disturbances flared up again near Stockholm. Several cars belonging to local home care were set on fire in Lysekil in the west of Sweden. A preschool in Solna was set on fire as well, although the police could not confirm that the incident was related to the riots.
In Växjö in the district of Araby, several tyres were burned and stones were thrown at police. On Tuesday 28 May, Stockholm police reported that the situation was "back to normal" with no disturbances, only a few torched cars, no reported disturbances in other Swedish towns either. In total, 150 vehicles were set on fire—most belonging to immigrants—and total damages were at least 63m Swedish kronor. On the afternoon of Tuesday, 21 May, the Prime Minister of Sweden Fredrik Reinfeldt announced: "We've experienced two nights of serious unrest, vandalism and an intimidating atmosphere in Husby, there is a risk that it will continue. We have groups of young men who think that they should change society with violence. Let's be clear about this: this is not acceptable. We cannot be intimidated by violence."The Minister for Justice Beatrice Ask said a report should be filed detailing any incidents of mistreatment by police. Youths threw stones at police officers, which resulted in three injuries on the night of Sunday 19 May, seven on the following night.
The police adopted a policy of non-intervention during the disturbances, explaining that their goal was to "do as little as possible". Seven youths were arrested on Monday night, eight were arrested on 21 May. Ulf Johansson, deputy police chief for Stockholm County, stated on 23 May that "every injury is a tragedy, every burned-out car is a failure for s
Akalla is a district in Rinkeby-Kista borough, Sweden. Akalla has 8,153 inhabitants as of December 31, 2007, in which immigrants from Iran, make up 64% of the population. Akalla is located on the blue metro line. Modern Akalla, with its concrete apartment buildings, as well as smaller houses, was constructed in the mid-1970s as a part of the Million Programme; the suburb is built close to, named after an old farm from the 17th century. The name of Akalla is known from 1323. Between 1905 and 1970, the area was used by the Swedish army as training grounds; the street names in Akalla are Finland related. The main street is called Sibeliusgången, in honour of the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius, it is reserved for pedestrians only. Today, Akalla is known to be a great suburb for families. Right outside Akalla is Barkarby Airport, until its closure in 2010 Sweden's oldest active airport. Akalla metro station
A runestone is a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock. The tradition began in the 4th century and lasted into the 12th century, but most of the runestones date from the late Viking Age. Most runestones are located in Scandinavia, but there are scattered runestones in locations that were visited by Norsemen during the Viking Age. Runestones are memorials to dead men. Runestones were brightly coloured when erected, though this is no longer evident as the colour has worn off. Most Runestones are found in present day Sweden; the tradition of raising stones that had runic inscriptions first appeared in the 4th and 5th century, in Norway and Sweden, these early runestones were placed next to graves. The earliest Danish runestones appeared in the 8th and 9th centuries, there are about 50 runestones from the Migration Period in Scandinavia. Most runestones were erected during the period 950-1100 CE, they were raised in Sweden, to a lesser degree in Denmark and Norway.
The tradition is mentioned in both Ynglinga saga and Hávamál: For men of consequence a mound should be raised to their memory, for all other warriors, distinguished for manhood a standing stone, a custom that remained long after Odin's time. —The Ynglinga saga What may have increased the spread of runestones was an event in Denmark in the 960s. King Harald Bluetooth had just been baptised and in order to mark the arrival of a new order and a new age, he commanded the construction of a runestone; the inscription reads King Haraldr ordered this monument made in memory of Gormr, his father, in memory of Þyrvé, his mother. The runestone has three sides. On one side, there is an animal, the prototype of the runic animals that would be engraved on runestones, on another side there is Denmark's oldest depiction of Jesus. Shortly after this stone had been made, something happened in Scandinavia's runic tradition. Scores of chieftains and powerful Norse clans consciously tried to imitate King Harald, from Denmark a runestone wave spread northwards through Sweden.
In most districts, the fad died out after a generation, but, in the central Swedish provinces of Uppland and Södermanland, the fashion lasted into the 12th century. There are about 3,000 runestones among the about 6,000 runic inscriptions in Scandinavia. There are runestones in other parts of the world as the tradition of raising runestones followed the Norsemen wherever they went, from the Isle of Man in the west to the Black Sea in the east, from Jämtland in the north to Schleswig in the south; the runestones are unevenly distributed in Scandinavia: Denmark has 250 runestones, Norway has 50 while Iceland has none. Sweden has as many as between 2,500 depending on definition; the Swedish district of Uppland has the highest concentration with as many as 1,196 inscriptions in stone, whereas Södermanland is second with 391. Outside of Scandinavia, the Isle of Man stands out with its 30 runestones from the 9th century and early 11th century. Scattered runestones have been found in England, Ireland and the Faroe Islands.
With the exception of the runestone on Berezan', there are no runestones in Eastern Europe, due to a lack of available stones and the fact that the local population did not treat the foreigners' stones with much respect. Runestones were placed on selected spots in the landscape, such as assembly locations, bridge constructions, fords. In medieval churches, there are runestones that have been inserted as construction material, it is debated whether they were part of the church location or had been moved there. In southern Scania, runestones can be tied to large estates that had churches constructed on their land. In the Mälaren Valley, the runestones appear to be placed so that they mark essential parts of the domains of an estate, such as courtyard, grave field, borders to neighbouring estates. Runestones appear as single monuments and more as pairs. In some cases, they are part of larger monuments together with other raised stones. However, although scholars know where 95% of all runestones were discovered, only about 40% were discovered in their original location.
The remainder have been found in churches, bridges, graves and water routes. On the other hand, scholars agree that the stones were not moved far from their original sites. In many districts, 50% of the stone inscriptions have traces of Christianity, but, in Uppland, which has the highest concentration of runic inscriptions in the world, about 70% of the 1,196 stone inscriptions are explicitly Christian, shown by engraved crosses or added Christian prayers, only a few runestones are not Christian. Scholars have suggested that the reason why so many Christian runestones were raised in Uppland is that the district was the focal point in the conflict between Norse paganism and the newly Christianized King of Sweden, it is possible that the chieftains tried to demonstrate their allegiance to the king and to display their Christian faith to the world and to God by adding Christian crosses and prayers on their runestones. What speaks against this theory is the fact that Norway, Götaland did not have any corresponding development in the runestone tradition.
Moreover, not a single runestone declares. Additionally, the runestones appear to show. According to another theory, it was a social fashion, popular among
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma