Rheged was one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, during the post-Roman era and Early Middle Ages. It is recorded in several poetic and bardic sources, although its borders are not described in any of them. A recent archaeological discovery suggests that its stronghold was located in what is now Galloway in Scotland rather than, as was speculated, being in Cumbria. Rheged extended into Lancashire and other parts of northern England. In some sources, Rheged is intimately associated with his family, its inhabitants spoke Cumbric, a Brittonic dialect related to Old Welsh. The name Rheged appears as an epithet of a certain Urien in a number of early Welsh poems and royal genealogies, his victories over the Anglian chieftains of Bernicia in the second half of the 6th century are recorded by Nennius and celebrated by the bard Taliesin, who calls him "Ruler of Rheged". He is thus placed squarely in the North of Britain and specifically in Westmorland when referred to as "Ruler of Llwyfenydd".
Legend associates Urien with the city of Carlisle, only twenty-five miles away. Although it is possible that Rheged was a stronghold, it was not uncommon for sub-Roman monarchs to use their kingdom's name as an epithet, it is accepted, that Rheged was a kingdom covering a large part of modern Cumbria. Place-name evidence, e.g. Dunragit α suggests that, at least in one period of its history, Rheged included Dumfries and Galloway. Recent archaeological excavations at Trusty's Hill, a vitrified fort near Gatehouse of Fleet, the analysis of its artefacts in the context of other sites and their artefacts have led to claims that the kingdom was centred on Galloway early in the 7th century. More problematic interpretations suggest that it could have reached as far south as Rochdale in Greater Manchester, recorded in the Domesday Book as Recedham; the River Roch on which Rochdale stands was recorded in the 13th century as Rachet. Such names may derive from Old English reced "hall or house". However, no other place names originating from this Old English element exist, which makes this derivation unlikely.
If they are not of English origin, these place-names may incorporate the element'Rheged' because they lay on or near its borders. Urien's kingdom stretched eastward at one time, as he was "Ruler of Catraeth"; the traditional royal genealogy of Urien and his successors traces their ancestry back to Coel Hen, considered by many to be a mythical figure. All of those listed below may have ruled in Rheged, but only three of their number can be verified from external sources: Meirchion Gul, father of Cynfarch Cynfarch Oer known as Cynfarch fab Meirchion and Cynfarch Gul, father of Urien Urien Rheged, about whom survive eight songs of Taliesin Owain celebrated for having fought the Bernicians, he is recorded in Welsh sources as having baptised Edwin of Northumbria, however, he may have stood sponsor at the baptism, thus becoming Edwin's godfather. Royth, son of Rhun, the last king of Rheged. A second royal genealogy exists for a line of kings, descended from Cynfarch Oer's brother: Elidir Lydanwyn.
According to Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd Elidir's son, Llywarch Hen, was a ruler in North Britain in the 6th century. He was driven from his territory by princely in-fighting after Urien's death and was in old age associated with Powys. However, it is possible, because of internal inconsistencies, that the poetry connected to Powys was associated with Llywarch's name at a probably 9th century, date. Llywarch is referred to in some poems as king of South Rheged, in others as king of Argoed, suggesting that the two regions were the same. Searching for Llywarch's kingdom has led some historians to propose that Rheged may have been divided between sons, resulting in northern and southern successor states; the connections of the family of Llywarch and Urien with Powys has suggested to some, on grounds of proximity, that the area of modern Lancashire may have been their original home. After Bernicia united with Deira to become the kingdom of Northumbria, Rheged was annexed by Northumbria, some time before AD 730.
There was a royal marriage between Prince Oswiu of Northumbria and the Rhegedian princess Rieinmelth, granddaughter of Rum in 638, so it is possible that it was a peaceful takeover, both kingdoms being inherited by the same man. After Rheged was incorporated into Northumbria, the old Cumbric language was replaced by Old English, Cumbric surviving only in remote upland communities. Around the year 900, after the power of Northumbria was destroyed by Viking incursions and settlement, large areas west of the Pennines fell without apparent warfare under the control of the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, with Leeds recorded as being on the border between the Britons and the Norse Kingdom of York; this may have represented the political assertion of lingering British culture in the region. The area of Cumbria remained under the control of Strath
Edwin of Northumbria
Edwin known as Eadwine or Æduinus, was the King of Deira and Bernicia – which became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death. He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627. Edwin seems to have had two siblings, his sister Acha was married to king of neighbouring Bernicia. An otherwise unknown sibling fathered Hereric, who in turn fathered Abbess Hilda of Whitby and Hereswith, wife to Æthelric, the brother of king Anna of East Anglia; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported. The exact identity of Æthelric is uncertain, he may have been a brother of Ælle, an elder brother of Edwin, an otherwise unknown Deiran noble, or the father of Æthelfrith. Æthelfrith himself appears to have been king of "Northumbria"—both Deira and Bernicia—by no than 604. During the reign of Æthelfrith, Edwin was an exile; the location of his early exile as a child is not known, but late traditions, reported by Reginald of Durham and Geoffrey of Monmouth, place Edwin in the kingdom of Gwynedd, fostered by king Cadfan ap Iago, so allowing biblical parallels to be drawn from the struggle between Edwin and his supposed foster-brother Cadwallon.
By the 610s he was in Mercia under the protection of king Cearl, whose daughter Cwenburg he married. By around 616, Edwin was in East Anglia under the protection of king Raedwald. Bede reports that Æthelfrith tried to have Raedwald murder his unwanted rival, that Raedwald intended to do so until his wife persuaded him otherwise with Divine prompting. Æthelfrith faced Raedwald in battle by the River Idle in 616, Æthelfrith was defeated. Raedwald's son Raegenhere may have been killed at this battle, but the exact date or manner of Raedwald's death are not known, he died between the years 616–627, the efficacy of Edwin’s kingship ostensibly depended on his fealty to Raedwald. Edwin was installed as king of Northumbria confirming Raedwald as bretwalda: Æthelfrith's sons went into exile in Irish Dál Riata and Pictland; that Edwin was able to take power not only in his native Deira but in Bernicia may have been due to his support from Raedwald, to whom he may have remained subject during the early part of his reign.
Edwin's reign marks an interruption of the otherwise consistent domination of Northumbria by the Bernicians and has been seen as "contrary to the prevailing tendency". With the death of Æthelfrith, of the powerful Æthelberht of Kent the same year and his client Edwin were well placed to dominate England, indeed Raedwald did so until his death a decade later. Edwin expelled Ceretic from the minor British kingdom of Elmet in either 616 or 626. Elmet had been subject to Mercia and to Edwin; the larger kingdom of Lindsey appears to have been taken over c. 625, after the death of king Raedwald. Edwin and Eadbald of Kent were allies at this time, Edwin arranged to marry Eadbald's sister Æthelburg. Bede notes that Eadbald would agree to marry his sister to Edwin only if he converted to Christianity; the marriage of Eadbald's Merovingian mother Bertha had resulted in the conversion of Kent and Æthelburg's would do the same in Northumbria. Edwin's expansion to the west may have begun early in his reign.
There is firm evidence of a war waged in the early 620s between Edwin and Fiachnae mac Báetáin of the Dál nAraidi, king of the Ulaid in Ireland. A lost poem is known to have existed recounting Fiachnae's campaigns against the Saxons, the Irish annals report the siege, or the storming, of Bamburgh in Bernicia in 623–624; this should be placed in the context of Edwin's designs on the Isle of Man, a target of Ulaid ambitions. Fiachnae's death in 626, at the hands of his namesake, Fiachnae mac Demmáin of the Dál Fiatach, the second Fiachnae's death a year in battle against the Dál Riata eased the way for Edwin's conquests in the Irish sea province; the routine of kingship in Edwin's time involved regular annual, wars with neighbours to obtain tribute and slaves. By Edwin's death, it is that these annual wars, unreported in the main, had extended the Northumbrian kingdoms from the Humber and the Mersey north to the Southern Uplands and the Cheviots; the royal household moved from one royal vill to the next, consuming the food renders given in tribute and the produce of the royal estates, dispensing justice, ensuring that royal authority remained visible throughout the land.
The royal sites in Edwin's time included Yeavering in Bernicia, where traces of a timber amphitheatre have been found. This "Roman" feature makes Bede's claim that Edwin was preceded by a standard-bearer carrying a "tufa" appear to be more than antiquarian curiosity, although whether the model for this practice was Roman or Frankish is unknown. Other royal sites included Campodunum in Elmet, Sancton in Deira, Goodmanham, the site where the pagan high priest Coifi destroyed the idols according to Bede. Edwin's realm included the former Roman cities of York and Carlisle, both appear to have been of some importance in the 7th century, although it is not clear whether urban life continued in this period; the account of Edwin's conversion offered by Bede turns on two events. The first, during Edwin's exile, tells; the second, following his marriage to Æthelburg, was the attempted assassination at York, at Easter 626, by an agent of Cwichelm of Wessex. Edwin's decision to allow the baptism of his daughter Eanfled and his su
History of Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066. It consisted of various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 927 when it was united as the Kingdom of England by King Æthelstan, it became part of the short-lived North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway in the 11th century. The Anglo-Saxons were the members of Germanic-speaking groups who migrated to the southern half of the island of Great Britain from nearby northwestern Europe and their cultural descendants. Anglo-Saxon history thus begins during the period of Sub-Roman Britain following the end of Roman control, traces the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th and 6th centuries, their Christianisation during the 7th century, the threat of Viking invasions and Danish settlers, the gradual unification of England under Wessex hegemony during the 9th and 10th centuries, ending with the Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066.
Anglo-Saxon identity survived beyond the Norman conquest, came to be known as Englishry under Norman rule and through social and cultural integration with Celts and Anglo-Normans became the modern English people. Bede completed his book Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum in around 731, thus the term for English people was in use by to distinguish Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The term'Anglo-Saxon' came in practice in the 8th century to distinguish English Saxons from continental Saxons; the historian James Campbell suggested that it was not until the late Anglo-Saxon period that England could be described as a nation state. It is certain that the concept of "Englishness" only developed slowly; as the Roman occupation of Britain was coming to an end, Constantine III withdrew the remains of the army in reaction to the Germanic invasion of Gaul with the Crossing of the Rhine in December 406. The Romano-British leaders were faced with an increasing security problem from seaborne raids by Picts on the east coast of England.
The expedient adopted by the Romano-British leaders was to enlist the help of Anglo-Saxon mercenaries, to whom they ceded territory. In about 442 the Anglo-Saxons mutinied because they had not been paid; the Romano-British responded by appealing to the Roman commander of the Western empire, Aëtius, for help though Honorius, the Western Roman Emperor, had written to the British civitas in or about 410 telling them to look to their own defence. There followed several years of fighting between the British and the Anglo-Saxons; the fighting continued until around 500, when, at the Battle of Mount Badon, the Britons inflicted a severe defeat on the Anglo-Saxons. There are records of Germanic infiltration into Britain that date before the collapse of the Roman Empire, it is believed that the earliest Germanic visitors were eight cohorts of Batavians attached to the 14th Legion in the original invasion force under Aulus Plautius in AD 43. There is a recent hypothesis that some of the native tribes, identified as Britons by the Romans, may have been Germanic-language speakers, but most scholars disagree with this due to an insufficient record of local languages in Roman-period artefacts.
It was quite common for Rome to swell its legions with foederati recruited from the German homelands. This practice extended to the army serving in Britain, graves of these mercenaries, along with their families, can be identified in the Roman cemeteries of the period; the migration continued with the departure of the Roman army, when Anglo-Saxons were recruited to defend Britain. If the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is to be believed, the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which merged to become England were founded when small fleets of three or five ships of invaders arrived at various points around the coast of England to fight the Sub-Roman British, conquered their lands; the language of the migrants, Old English, came over the next few centuries to predominate throughout what is now England, at the expense of British Celtic and British Latin. The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons into Britain can be seen in the context of a general movement of Germanic peoples around Europe between the years 300 and 700, known as the Migration period.
In the same period there were migrations of Britons to the Armorican peninsula: around 383 during Roman rule, but c. 460 and in the 540s and 550s. The historian Peter Hunter-Blair expounded what is now regarded as the traditional view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain, he suggested a mass immigration and driving the Sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the western extremities of the islands, into the Breton and Iberian peninsulas. This view was influenced by sources such as Bede, where he talks about the Britons being slaughtered or going into "perpetual servitude". According to Härke the more modern view is of co-existence between the British and the Anglo-Saxons, he suggests that several modern archaeologists have no
Sub-Roman Britain refers to the period in Late Antiquity in Great Britain, covering the end of Roman rule in the late 4th and early 5th centuries, its aftermath into the 6th century. The term "sub-Roman" was used to describe archaeological remains such as potsherds found in sites of the 5th and 6th centuries, hinted at the decay of locally-made wares from a previous higher standard that had existed under the Roman Empire, it is now more used to denote this period of history instead. The term Post-Roman Britain is used in non-archaeological contexts. Although the culture of Britain in the period was derived from Roman and Celtic sources, there were Saxons settled as foederati in the area from Saxony in northwestern Germany, although the term "Saxon" was used by the British for all Germanic incomers; the latter assumed more control, creating Anglo-Saxon England in the process. The Picts in northern Scotland were outside the applicable area; the period of sub-Roman Britain traditionally covers the history of the area which subsequently became England from the end of Roman imperial rule, traditionally dated to be in 410, to the arrival of Saint Augustine in 597.
The date taken for the end of this period is arbitrary in that the sub-Roman culture continued in northern England until the merger of Rheged with Northumbria by dynastic marriage in 633, longer in the West of England, Cornwall and Wales especially. This period has attracted a great deal of academic and popular debate, in part because of the scarcity of the written source material; the term "post-Roman Britain" is used for the period in non-archaeological contexts. Britain south of the Forth–Clyde line; the history of the area between Hadrian's Wall and the Forth–Clyde line is similar to that of Wales. North of the line lay a thinly-populated area including the kingdoms of the Maeatae and the kingdom whose kaer near Inverness was visited by Saint Columba; the Romans referred to these peoples collectively as Picti Picts. The term "Late Antiquity", implying wider horizons, is finding more use in the academic community when transformations of classical culture common throughout the post-Roman West are examined.
The period may be considered as part of the early Middle Ages, if continuity with the following periods is stressed. Popular works use a range of more dramatic names for the period: the Dark Ages, the Brythonic Age, the Age of Tyrants, or the Age of Arthur. There is little extant written material available from this period, though there is a considerable amount from periods that may be relevant. A lot of what is available deals with the first few decades of the 5th century only; the sources can usefully be classified into British and continental, into contemporary and non-contemporary. Two primary contemporary British sources exist: the Confessio of Saint Patrick and Gildas' De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae. Patrick's Confessio and his Letter to Coroticus reveal aspects of life in Britain, from where he was abducted to Ireland, it is useful in highlighting the state of Christianity at the time. Gildas is the nearest to a source of Sub-Roman history but there are many problems in using it; the document represents British history as he and his audience understood it.
Though a few other documents of the period do exist, such as Gildas' letters on monasticism, they are not directly relevant to British history. Gildas' De Excidio is a jeremiad: it is written as a polemic to warn contemporary rulers against sin, demonstrating through historical and biblical examples that bad rulers are always punished by God – in the case of Britain, through the destructive wrath of the Saxon invaders; the historical section of De Excidio is short, the material in it is selected with Gildas' purpose in mind. There are no absolute dates given, some of the details, such as those regarding the Hadrian's and Antonine Walls are wrong. Gildas does provide us with an insight into some of the kingdoms that existed when he was writing, how an educated monk perceived the situation that had developed between the Anglo-Saxons and the Britons. There are more continental contemporary sources that mention Britain, though these are problematic; the most famous is the so-called Rescript of Honorius, in which the Western Emperor Honorius tells the British civitates to look to their own defence.
The first reference to this rescript is written by the 6th century Byzantine scholar Zosimus and is found in the middle of a discussion of southern Italy. The Gallic Chronicles, Chronica Gallica of 452 and Chronica Gallica of 511, say prematurely that "Britain, abandoned by the Romans, passed into the power of the Saxons" and provide information about St Germanus and his visit to Britain, though again this text has received considerable academic deconstruction; the work of Procopius, another 6th-century Byzantine writer, makes some references to Britain, though the accuracy of these is uncertain. There are numerous written sources that claim to provide accurate accounts of the period; the first to attempt this was the monk Bede. He based his account of the Sub-Roman period in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (w
The Angles were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, their name is the root of the name England; the name comes from Anglia, a peninsula located on the Baltic shore of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. The name of the Angles may have been first recorded in Latinised form, as Anglii, in the Germania of Tacitus, it is thought to derive from the name of the area they inhabited, the Anglia Peninsula. This name has been hypothesised to originate from the Germanic root for "narrow", meaning "the Narrow ", i.e. the Schlei estuary. Another theory is. During the fifth century, all Germanic tribes who invaded Britain were referred to as Englisc, who were speakers of Old English. Englisc and its descendant, English goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ-, meaning narrow. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, so England would mean "land of the fishermen", English would be "the fishermen's language".
Gregory the Great, in an epistle, simplified the Latinised name Anglii to Angli, the latter form developing into the preferred form of the word. The country remained Anglia in Latin. Alfred the Great's translation of Orosius's history of the world uses Angelcynn to describe the English people; the earliest recorded mention of the Angles may be in chapter 40 of Tacitus's Germania written around AD 98. Tacitus describes the "Anglii" as one of the more remote Suebic tribes compared to the Semnones and Langobardi, who lived on the Elbe and were better known to the Romans, he grouped the Angles with several other tribes in that region, the Reudigni, Varini, Eudoses and Nuitones. These were all living behind ramparts of rivers and woods, therefore inaccessible to attack, he gives no precise indication of their geographical situation, but states that, together with the six other tribes, they worshiped Nerthus, or Mother Earth, whose sanctuary was located on "an island in the Ocean". The Eudoses are the Jutes.
The coast contains sufficient estuaries, rivers, islands and marshes to have been inaccessible to those not familiar with the terrain, such as the Romans, who considered it unknown, with a small population and of little economic interest. The majority of scholars believe that the Anglii lived on the coasts of the Baltic Sea in the southern part of the Jutish peninsula; this view is based on Old English and Danish traditions regarding persons and events of the fourth century, because striking affinities to the cult of Nerthus as described by Tacitus are to be found in pre-Christian Scandinavian religion. Ptolemy, writing in around 150 AD, in his atlas Geography, describes the Sueboi Angeilloi, Latinised to Suevi Angili, further south, living in a stretch of land between the northern Rhine and central Elbe, but not touching either river, with the Suebic Langobardi on the Rhine to their west, the Suebic Semnones on the Elbe stretching to their east; these Suevi Angili would have been in Lower Saxony or near it.
The three Suebic peoples are separated from the coastal Chauci, Saxones, by a series of tribes including, between the Weser and Elbe, the Angrivarii, "Laccobardi", the Dulgubnii. South of the Saxons, east of the Elbe, Ptolemy lists the "Ouirounoi" and Teutonoari, which either denotes "the Teuton men", or else it denotes people living in the area where the Teutons had lived. Ptolemy describes the coast to the east of the Saxons as inhabited by the Farodini, a name not known from any other sources. Owing to the uncertainty of this passage, much speculation existed regarding the original home of the Anglii. One theory is that they or part of them dwelt or moved among other coastal people confederated up to the basin of the Saale on the Unstrut valleys below the Kyffhäuserkreis, from which region the Lex Anglorum et Werinorum hoc est Thuringorum is believed by many to have come; the ethnic names of Frisians and Warines are attested in these Saxon districts. A second possible solution is. According to Julius Pokorny, the Angri- in Angrivarii, the -angr in Hardanger and the Angl- in Anglii all come from the same root meaning "bend", but in different senses.
In other words, the similarity of the names is coincidental and does not reflect any ethnic unity beyond Germanic. However, Gudmund Schütte, in his analysis of Ptolemy, believes that the Angles have been moved by an error coming from Ptolemy's use of imperfect sources, he points out that Angles are placed just to the northeast of the Langobardi, but that these have been duplicated, so that they appear once on the lower Elbe, a second time, inco
Strathclyde was one of nine former local government regions of Scotland created by the Local Government Act 1973 and abolished in 1996 by the Local Government etc. Act 1994; the Strathclyde region had 19 districts. The area was on the west coast of Scotland and stretched from the Highlands in the north to the Southern Uplands in the south; as a local government region, its population, in excess of 2.5 million, was the largest of the regions. The Region was responsible for education; the regional administrative headquarters was in the City of Glasgow and politics were by and large dominated by the Labour Party. The first regional council convener was the Reverend Geoff Shaw, who died in 1978, it was due to his leadership that the Region forged its innovative strategy on multiple deprivation, which remained its central commitment to the end of the Region's life through "Social Strategy for the Eighties" and "SS for the 90s". Until April 2013, the area was used as a police force area, covered by Strathclyde Police and a fire service area, covered by Strathclyde Fire and Rescue Service.
Both have now been replaced by single services. The name is still in use as a transport area, covered by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport; the area covered by SPT however is smaller than the region, as most of Argyll and Bute lies outside its remit. The region was formed from the county of the City of Glasgow, the counties of Ayr, Dunbarton and Renfrew, parts of the counties of Argyll, the county of Stirling. Since 1996 the area of the region has been divided between 12 council areas: Argyll and Bute, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire, Glasgow City, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, West Dunbartonshire, all created to be within the area of the region. Except for Argyll and Bute and the City of Glasgow, the 19 districts were grouped to form'sub-regions' or'divisions', each named after a historic county; the Argyll and Bute district and the City of Glasgow district were sub-regions in their own right, Argyll and Bute was named after two counties.
The region was named after the ancient Brythonic Damnonii Kingdom of Strathclyde. The kingdom broadly covered the northern end of the region, except an area now covered by the Scottish Argyll and Bute council area and the Isle of Arran, now within the Scottish North Ayrshire council area, plus the Scottish Dumfries and Galloway council area and part of the English county of Cumbria. University of Strathclyde, in Glasgow