Wilmer is a city in Dallas County, United States. The population was 3,682 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area. Wilmer is located at 32°35′27″N 96°40′57″W, it is situated along Interstate 45 in southeastern Dallas County 14 miles south of downtown Dallas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.4 square miles, of which 6.4 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.82%, is water. The area was settled by Andrew K. Gray before 1850; the settlement was known as Prairie Valley when the Houston and Texas Central Railroad arrived in 1872. In 1884, the post office in Prairie Valley was renamed Wilmer, after A. J. Wilmer, a conductor on the Houston and Texas Central line; the population was estimated at 100 in 1890, with several stores and businesses operation in the community. That figure had risen to over 200 by the start of World War I. A fire destroyed most of Wilmer's business district on July 4, 1929.
The community's shallow wells were unable to pump the adequate amount of water needed to extinguish the blaze. Wilmer incorporated in 1945, its first mayor, J. H. May, was elected on a platform of installing a water system. At the time of incorporation, Wilmer had 136 homes and a population of 450. In 1949, a volunteer fire department was established and a fire truck was purchased. Around the same time and the neighboring city of Hutchins consolidated their schools. By 1960, Wilmer was home to 1,785 residents. Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, Wilmer continued to grow, but at a much slower rate than other communities in Dallas County. With 3,393 residents as of the 2000 census, Wilmer is one of the smallest incorporated cities in Dallas County; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,393 people, 958 households, 714 families residing in the city. The population density was 538.9 people per square mile. There were 1,078 housing units at an average density of 171.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 47.89% White, 23.43% African American, 1.12% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 24.55% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 41.50% of the population. There were 958 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.4% were non-families. 19.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.71. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.7% under the age of 18, 13.0% from 18 to 24, 33.5% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 115.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,843, the median income for a family was $35,820. Males had a median income of $26,742 versus $22,007 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,167. About 16.3% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Within Wilmer’s Primary Trade Area, the 2017 population is 26,431 and expected to grow to over 29,000 over the next ten years. This represents a growth rate of 4.5%. The median household income of the PTA is $50,052, while the average household income is $62,337. Union Pacific's Dallas Intermodal Terminal is located in the city of Wilmer and in the city of Hutchins; the shipping facility, built by AUI Contractors, Prime Rail Interests and Halff Associates, was a 70 million U. S. dollar project. After Union Pacific chose Wilmer for its global intermodal facility, the City attracted Fortune 500 companies like Unilever, Procter & Gamble, Ace Hardware and Medline. Wilmer offers easy access to all regional Interstates, U. S. Highways, both international and general aviation airports. Wilmer offers a low tax rate along with incentives that include City Tax Abatements, Economic Development Sales Tax Funds, City of Wilmer Sales Tax - 380 agreements, Triple Freeport Exemptions, State of Texas Programs, Dallas County Tax Abatements, Federal Programs including New Market Tax Credits, a Foreign Trade Zone.
Read more. Procter & Gamble Distribution Center Unilever Shippers Warehouse Whirlpool Distribution Center Ace Hardware Distribution Center Sprouts Farmers Market Distribution Center Medline Industries Makita USA Portacool Distribution Center Sunridge Business Park Prime Pointe Dalport Trade Center Southport Logistics Center DFW Inland Port Wilmer is served by the Dallas Independent School District; the area is within the Board of Trustees District 5. As of fall 2011 the area is zoned to Wilmer-Hutchins Elementary School, Kennedy-Curry Middle School, Wilmer-Hutchins High School. In 2015 the Wilmer Early Childhood Center, located on the site of the former Wlmer Elementary School, opened. Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District used to serve Wilmer; until the end of the school district, Wilmer Elementary School was located in Wilmer. In addition, Kennedy-Curry Middle School and Wilmer-Hutchins High School in Dallas under WHISD control, served Wilmer. WHISD was closed after spring 2005 with official termination in June
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes
Dallas Independent School District
The Dallas Independent School District is a school district based in Dallas, Texas. It operates schools in much of Dallas County and is the second-largest school district in Texas and the sixteenth-largest in the United States. In 2014, the school district was rated "as having met the standard" by the Texas Education Agency; the Dallas public school district in its current form was first established in Dallas in 1884, although there is evidence that public schools had existed for Dallas prior to that date. Mayor W. L. Cabell ordered just one month after the June 16, 1884, district founding that "all former Ordinances in relation to the city public school are hereby repealed," and the district's 1884–85 superintendent, a Mr. Boles, had enrollment figures for each year from 1880 through his own tenure; the 1884 organizational meeting coincides with changes in statewide education law establishing a system of school districts, each to be assigned its own number, with the ability to levy taxes and raise funds as well as to determine the length of school terms and other educational decisions.
Booker T. Washington High School is one of these original schools, beginning as "Colored School No. 2" in 1884 and adopting its name in 1902. Dallas ISD has absorbed many smaller school districts throughout its history. Vickery Independent School District was annexed into Dallas ISD in 1948. Pleasant Grove ISD was annexed in 1954, Pleasant Grove High School was replaced by Samuell High School in the same year. Seagoville ISD of Seagoville was annexed into Dallas ISD in 1965. Other schools and school districts annexed by Dallas ISD include: 1920: Lagow Independent School, a one-room school attended only by the Lagow children and one other family; the change was resisted by families who felt the additional year would be too expensive, though others promoted the addition of a further year of athletics and some anticipated an ability for gifted students to finish the 12-year program in as little as 10.5 years, although that hope did not prove a reality. The period from 1946 to 1966 construction of schools, with 97 of the district's school buildings erected during this period, at a peak of 17 schools in 1956 alone.
School desegregation was a gradual process that did not begin for nearly six years after the United States Supreme Court made its May 17, 1954, Brown v. Board of Education decision, nullifying the previous doctrine of "separate but equal" public facilities; the Dallas school board commissioned studies over the next several months, deciding in August, 1956, that desegregation was premature and that the segregated system would stay in place for 1956–57. Texas passed legislation in 1957 requiring that districts not integrate their schools unless district residents voted to approve the change. Meanwhile, a lawsuit was filed by the district against the state superintendent on August 13, 1958, with the goal of a resolution of conflicts between federal and state courts on the subject of integration. In 1960 the district adopted a plan to desegregate grade by grade, starting with the 1961 first-grade class, proceed year by year until desegregation had been achieved; the year 1965 brought substantial changes to this process, as on September 1, 1965, the elementary schools were ordered desegregated to be followed by the junior high schools in 1966 and the senior high schools in 1967.
A book on the history of DISD published the following year by the school district made the statement, "Desegregation of the Dallas Schools was accomplished in the course of ten short years with a minimum of commotion and stress... the patient and sympathetic understanding... and the flinty determination of the School Board... to serv
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans. The Union Pacific Railroad system is the second largest in the United States after the BNSF Railway and is one of the world's largest transportation companies; the Union Pacific Railroad is the principal operating company of the Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific is known for pioneering multiple innovative locomotives the most powerful of their era; these include members of the Challenger-type, the Northern-type, as well as the famous Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first streamliner, the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world, still owns the largest operational diesel locomotive; the Union Pacific legacy began in 1862 with the original company, called the Union Pacific Rail Road, part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project known as the Overland Route. The railroad would subsequently be reorganized thrice: as the Union Pacific Railway, as the Union Pacific "Railroad", as a renamed Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
The current Union Pacific corporation began in 1969 as the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, itself created in a reorganization of a railroad whose legacy dated to 1865. Over the years it would grow to include the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, in addition to its eponymous railroad; the 1998 Union Pacific-Southern Pacific merger was not UP's first: Union Pacific had merged with Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. However, because the merger with Southern Pacific changed the scope of the Union Pacific railroad, this article will refer to the unmerged system as Union Pacific, the merged system as Union Pacific. Union Pacific's main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the nation's largest freight railroad by volume, which primarily services the Continental U. S. west of the Mississippi River. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the U.
S. The original company, the Union Pacific Rail Road was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862; the act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, constructed eastward from Sacramento, CA; the combined Union Pacific-Central Pacific line became known as the First Transcontinental Railroad and the Overland Route. The line was constructed by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha; the two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah, 53 miles west of Ogden on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America.
Subsequently, the UP purchased three Mormon-built roads: the Utah Central Railroad extending south from Ogden to Salt Lake City, the Utah Southern Railroad extending south from Salt Lake City into the Utah Valley, the Utah Northern Railroad extending north from Ogden into Idaho. The original UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872; as detailed by The Sun, Union Pacific's largest construction company, Crédit Mobilier, had overcharged Union Pacific. In order to convince the federal government to accept the increased costs, Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. Although the UP corporation itself was not guilty of any misdeeds, prominent UP board members had been involved in the scheme; the ensuing financial crisis of 1873 led to a credit crunch, but not bankruptcy. As boom followed bust, the Union Pacific continued to expand; the original company was purchased by a new company on January 24, 1880, with dominant stockholder Jay Gould. Gould owned the Kansas Pacific, sought to merge it with UP.
Thusly was the original "Union Pacific Rail Road" transformed into "Union Pacific Railway."Extending towards the Pacific Northwest, Union Pacific built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Portland, Oregon. Towards Colorado, it built the Union Pacific and Gulf Railway: both narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Rockies and a standard gauge line that ran south from Denver, across New Mexico, into Texas; the Union Pacific Railway would declare bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. Again, a new Union Pacific "Railroad" was formed and Union Pacific "Railway" merged into the new corporation. In the early 20th century, Union Pacific's focus shifted from expansion to internal improvement. Recognizing that farmers in the Central and Salinas Valleys of California grew produce far in excess of local markets, Union Pacific worked with its rival Southern Pacific to develop a rail-based transport system, not vulnerable to spoilage; these efforts came culminated in the 1906 founding of
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District of Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 (although known and signed as the northern terminus of I-45 and the southern terminus of US 75, on the west by I-35E, on the south by I-30, on the north by Spur 366; the square miles and density figures in the adjacent table represent the data for this traditional definition. However, the strong organic growth of Downtown Dallas since the early 2000s and continuing into the present has now resulted in Downtown Dallas, Inc.'s expansion of the term "Downtown" to include the explosive growth occurring north of the Woodall Rodgers Freeway in the Victory Park and Uptown/ Turtle Creek Districts as well as past Central Expressway to the east in the Deep Ellum and Bryan Place Districts, past Interstate 30 to the south with the Cedars District, jumping over Interstate 35E to the west to include the Design District and Lower Oak Lawn.
In total there are 15 districts that now form the definition of "Downtown"."Downtown Dallas" is now viewed as an interconnected grouping of dense and urban center city districts, that while unique in their own right share strong urban linkages to each other and collectively participate in their role as Downtown Dallas. Downtown Dallas achieved notoriety on November 22, 1963, with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Both President Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally were shot as their motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in what is now the West End Historic District. Part of the former Texas School Book Depository is now the Sixth Floor Museum, with exhibits about Kennedy and the assassination. Nearby is the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial; the building boom of the 1970s and 1980s produced a distinctive contemporary profile for the downtown skyline influenced by nationally prominent architects. At the same time, the establishment of the West End Historic District in the 1980s preserved a large group of late 19th century brick warehouses that have been adapted for use as restaurants and shops.
With the construction of the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts in the Arts District of Downtown, Dallas will be the only city in the world that has four buildings within one contiguous block designed by four separate and distinguished Pritzker Architecture Prize winners. Downtown Dallas has gained more recent national attention, as it was the location of the 2016 shooting of 14 Dallas police officers The area is undergoing a transition as dozens of residential conversions and new high rise condos bring more permanent residents to the downtown area; as of, 2017 there were an estimated 10,766 people. Its redeveloped Main Street has become more of a place for Dallasites to play after several restaurants and residential towers opened their doors along the strip. Downtown's growth can be attributed to Dallas Area Rapid Transit's three Light rail lines and the one commuter line that run through Downtown and an aggressive stance taken by the city to drive development at all costs; the city has invested $160 million of public funds in downtown Dallas for residential development that attracted $650 million of private investment.
Two of the first new-construction office building projects downtown in over 20 years broke ground in 2005—One Arts Plaza, a 24 story mixed use office, residential development in the Arts District, the new home of 7-Eleven's World Headquarters. Additionally, the $200 million 42-story Museum Tower residential skyscraper in the Downtown Dallas Arts District was completed in 2013; the Trinity River Corridor is poised to undergo a significant transformation into a giant urban park. The park is expected to include an equestrian center, lakes and three bridges designed by Santiago Calatrava. Funding over the years, has been a constant problem. Though serious work on the project now appears eminent, with the first two bridges having received significant private backing. Downtown Dallas has undergone a series of important changes that city officials believe will drastically improve the city's core; these changes are located in four downtown areas: Victory Park, the Arts District, the Trinity River, the Convention center corridor.
Victory Park, named one of the nation's most successful Brownfield reclamation projects, is home to the American Airlines Center, built in 2001, as well as several new high-rise hotels, residential towers and office buildings including the 33 story "W Dallas Victory Hotel and Residences", the 28 story "Cirque" residential tower, the 29 story "The House" residential tower, the 20 story "One Victory Park" office tower, among others. Under construction in Victory Park is the new "Perot Museum of Nature and Science", a $185 million 14 story ultra-modern addition to Downtown Dallas that opened in late 2012; the Dallas Arts District one of the world's largest completed the final stages of a massive ten year construction project that resulted in a 2,300 seat opera house, a series of theaters, residential space, parks, a gleaming 42 story residential tower known as Museum Tower that opened in 2013. One of the prominent attractions in the Arts District is the Dallas Museum of Art. Of all the changes in downtow