Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Second Battle of Adobe Walls
The Second Battle of Adobe Walls was fought on June 27, 1874, between Comanche forces and a group of 28 U. S. bison hunters defending the settlement of Adobe Walls, in what is now Hutchinson County, Texas. "Adobe Walls was scarcely more than a lone island in the vast sea of the Great Plains, a solitary refuge uncharted and unknown." Adobe Walls was the name of a trading post in the Texas Panhandle, just north of the Canadian River. In 1845 an adobe fort was built there to house the post, but it was blown up by traders three years after repeated Indian attacks. In 1864 the ruins were the site of one of the largest battles to take place on the Great Plains. Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson led 335 soldiers from New Mexico and 72 Ute and Jicarilla Apache scouts against a force of more than 1000 Comanche and Plains Apache; the Indians forced Carson to retreat, though he was acclaimed as a hero for striking a blow against the Indians and for leading his men out of the trap with minimal casualties.
This is known as the First Battle of Adobe Walls. After the "enormous slaughter" of the buffalo in the north during 1872 and 1873, the hunters moved south and west "into the good buffalo country, somewhere on the Canadian... in hostile Indian country". In June 1874 a group of enterprising businessmen had set up two stores near the ruins of the old trading post in an effort to rekindle the town of Adobe Walls; the complex grew to include a store and corral, a sod saloon owned by James Hanrahan, a blacksmith shop and a sod store used to purchase buffalo hides, all of which served the population of 200-300 buffalo hunters in the area. By late June "two hunters had been killed by Indians twenty-five miles down river, on Chicken Creek" and two more were killed in a camp on "a tributary of the Salt Fork of Red River" north of present-day Clarendon. "The story of the Indian depredations had spread to all the hunting camps, a large crowd had gathered in from the surrounding country" at the "Walls".
The remaining free-ranging Southern Plains bands perceived the post and the buffalo hunting as a major threat to their existence. That spring the Indians held a sun dance. Comanche medicine man Isatai'i promised victory and immunity from bullets to warriors who took the fight to the enemy; the 1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty reserved the area between the Arkansas River and Canadian River as Indian hunting grounds. Yet, since 1873, several buffalo hunting parties operated in the area, in violation of the treaty, prompting Indian outrage. On June 5, 1874, Hanrahan and his party of hunters departed Dodge City for Adobe Walls; the party encountered a band of Cheyenne Indians on June 7 at Sharp's Creek, 75 miles southwest of Dodge, who ran off all of their cattle. The party joined a wagon train, en route to the Walls, arriving just hours before the major battle took place; some 28 men were present at Adobe Walls, including James Hanrahan, 20-year-old Bat Masterson, William "Billy" Dixon and one woman, the wife of cook William Olds.
At 2:00 am on June 27, 1874, the ridgepole holding up the sod roof of the saloon made a loud cracking sound, although two men nearby thought that it sounded like "the report of a rifle". According to some sources Hanrahan awoke the camp by firing a gun telling the others that the sound had come from the ridgepole; the reason for his action was that he knew about the attack in advance, but did not tell anyone, afraid that men would leave the camp, hurting his business. Everyone in the saloon and several other men from the town set to repair the damage. Thus, most of the inhabitants were wide awake and up at dawn when a combined force of Comanche and Kiowa warriors swept across the plains, intent on erasing the populace of Adobe Walls. In Dixon's words: There was never a more splendidly barbaric sight. In after years I was glad. Hundreds of warriors, the flower of the fighting men of the southwestern Plains tribes, mounted upon their finest horses, armed with guns and lances, carrying heavy shields of thick buffalo hide, were coming like the wind.
Over all was splashed the rich colors of red and ochre, on the bodies of the men, on the bodies of the running horses. Scalps dangled from bridles, gorgeous war-bonnets fluttered their plumes, bright feathers dangled from the tails and manes of the horses, the bronzed, halfnaked bodies of the riders glittered with ornaments of silver and brass. Behind this headlong charging host stretched the Plains, on whose horizon the rising sun was lifting its morning fires; the warriors seemed to emerge from this glowing background. The Indian force was estimated to be in excess of 700 strong and led by Isatai'i and Comanche Chief Quanah Parker, son of a captured white woman, Cynthia Ann Parker, their initial attack carried the day. The fight was in such close quarters, they were fighting with Henry and Winchester lever-action rifles in.44 rimfire. After the initial attack was repulsed, the hunters were able to keep the Indians at bay with their large-caliber, long-range Sharps rifles. Nine men were located in Hanrahan's Saloon—including Bat Masterson and Billy Dixon—11 in Meyer's & Leonard's Store and seven in Rath & Wright's Store.
The hunters suffered four fatalities, three on the first day: the two Shadler brothers asleep in a wagon were killed in the initial onslaught, Billy Tyler was shot through the lungs
The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Lakota and Dakota. By the 1850s, Arapaho bands formed two tribes: the Northern Southern Arapaho. Since 1878, the Northern Arapaho have lived with the Eastern Shoshone on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming and are federally recognized as the Arapahoe Tribe of the Wind River Reservation; the Southern Arapaho live with the Southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma. Together, their members are enrolled as Arapaho Tribes, it is uncertain. Europeans may have derived it from the Pawnee word for "trader", iriiraraapuhu, or it may have been a corruption of a Crow word for "tattoo"; the Arapahoe autonym is Inun-ina. They refer to their tribe as Hinono'eiteen; the Cheyenne called them Hetanevoeo/Hetanevo ` eo'o. The Caddo called them Detseka'yaa, the Wichita Nia'rhari's-kûrikiwa'ahûski, the Comanche Saria Tʉhka / Säretika, all names signifying "dog-eaters".
The Pawnee and other tribes referred to them with names signifying "dog-eaters". The Northern Arapahoe, who called themselves Nank'haanseine'nan or Nookhose'iinenno, were known as Baantcline'nan or Bo'oociinenno to the Southern Arapahoe, whereas the latter were called by their northern kin Nawathi'neha or Noowunenno'; the Northern Arapaho were known as BSakuune'na'. The Cheyenne adapted the Arapahoe terms and referred to the Northern Arapahoe as Vanohetan or Vanohetaneo / Váno'étaneo'o and to the Southern Arapahoe as Nomsen'nat or Nomsen'eo; the Arapaho recognize five main divisions among their people, each speaking a different dialect and representing as many distinct but cognate tribes. Through much of Arapaho history, each tribal nation maintained a separate ethnic identity, although they came together and acted as political allies; each spoke mutually intelligible dialects. Dialectically, the Haa'ninin, Beesowuunenno', Hinono'eino were related. Arapaho elders claimed that the Hánahawuuena dialect was the most difficult to comprehend of all the dialects.
In his classic ethnographic study, Alfred Kroeber identified these five nations from south to north: Nanwacinaha'ana, Nawathi'neha or Nanwuine'nan / Noowo3iineheeno'. Their now-extinct language dialect – Nawathinehena – was the most divergent from the other Arapaho tribes. Hánahawuuena, Hananaxawuune'nan or Aanû'nhawa, occupying territory adjacent to, but further north of the Nanwacinaha'ana, spoke the now extinct Ha'anahawunena dialect. Hinono'eino or Hinanae'inan spoke the Arapaho language. Beesowuunenno', Baasanwuune'nan or Bäsawunena resided further north of the Hinono'eino, their war parties used temporary brush shelters similar to the dome-shaped shade or Sweat lodge of the Great Lakes Algonquian peoples. They are said to have migrated from their former territory near the Lakes more than the other Arapaho tribes, they spoke the now extinct Besawunena dialect. Haa'ninin, A'aninin or A'ani, the northernmost tribal group. In Blackfoot they were called Atsina. After they separated, the other Arapaho peoples, who considered them inferior, called them Hitúnĕna or Hittiuenina.
They speak the nearly extinct Gros Ventre language dialect, there is evidence that the southern Haa'ninin tribal group, the Staetan band, together with bands of the political division of the Northern Arapaho, spoke the Besawunena dialect. Before their historic geo-political ethnogensis, each tribal-nation had a principal headman; the exact date of the ethnic fusion or fission of each social division is not known. The elders say that the Hinono'eino and Beesowuunenno' fought over the tribal symbols – the sacred pipe and lance. Both sacred objects traditionally were kept by the Beesowuunenno'; the different tribal-nations lived together and the Beesowuunenno' have dispersed for at least 150 years among the distinct Arapaho tribal groups. By the late eighteenth century, the four divisions south of the Haa'ninin or Gros Ventre consolidated into the Arapaho. Only the Arapaho and Gros Ventre identified as separate tribal-nations. While living on the Great Plains, the Hinono'eino divided into two geo-political social divisions: Northern Arapaho or Nank'haanseine'nan, Nookhose'iinenno.
Stephen Harriman Long
Stephen Harriman Long was a U. S. army explorer, topographical engineer, railway engineer. As an inventor, he is noted for his developments in the design of steam locomotives, he was one of the most prolific explorers of the early 1800s, although his career as an explorer was short-lived. He covered over 26,000 miles in five expeditions, including a scientific expedition in the Great Plains area, which he famously confirmed as a "Great Desert". Long was born in the son of Moses and Lucy Long, he received an A. B. from Dartmouth College in 1809 and an A. M. from Dartmouth in 1812. In 1814, he was commissioned a lieutenant of engineers in the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Upon the reorganization of the Army in 1816, he was appointed a Major on 16 April and assigned to the Southern Division under Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson as a topographical engineer. In 1817, Major Long headed a military excursion up the Mississippi River to the Falls of St. Anthony near the confluence with the Minnesota River; as a result of his recommendations, the Army established Fort Snelling to guard against Indian incursions against settlers in the Upper Mississippi Valley.
Long recorded his experiences of the expedition in Voyage in a Six-oared Skiff to the Falls of St. Anthony, in 1860. In March 1819 he married Martha Hodgkiss of Philadelphia, the sister of Isabella Hodgkiss Norvell, wife of US Senator John Norvell. Soon afterwards he led the scientific contingent of the 1819 Yellowstone Expedition to explore the Missouri River. In 1820 he was appointed to lead an alternative expedition through the American West, exploring areas acquired in the Louisiana Purchase; the specific purpose of the voyage was to find the sources of the Platte and Red rivers. In 1823 he led additional military expeditions into the United States borderlands with Canada, exploring the Upper Mississippi Valley, the Minnesota River, the Red River of the North and across the southern part of Canada. During this time he determined the northern boundary at the 49th parallel at Pembina. Following his official military expeditions, Major Long spent several years on detached duty as a consulting engineer with various railroads.
He helped to survey and build the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1826 he received his first patent for his work on railroad steam locomotives. Long received many more patents for locomotive design and worked with other Army engineers in planning and building the railroad. In 1832, along with William Norris and several other business partners, he formed the American Steam Carriage Company; the business was dissolved in 1834 due to the difficulties in placing Long's locomotive designs into production. From June to November, 1836, Long led two parties of about 15 each to conduct a survey of a route inland from the shores of the Penobscot Bay at Belfast, Maine to Quebec for the proposed Belfast & Quebec Railroad, chartered by the State of Maine on March 6, 1836. In his report to Governor Robert P. Dunlap of Maine, Col. Long recommended a route into Quebec of 227 miles from "Belfast to the Forks of the Kennebec, by a line of levels thence to the Canadian line." However a provision in the Maine Constitution which prohibited public loans for purposes such as building railroads as well as the financial panic of 1837 intervened to kill the project.
Colonel Long received a leave of absence to work on the newly incorporated Western & Atlantic Railroad in Georgia. His yearly salary was established at $5,000, the contract was signed May 12, 1837, he served as the chief engineer for the W&A until November 3, 1840, he arrived in north Georgia in late May and his surveying began in July and by November he had submitted an initial report which the construction followed exactly. In 1838 he was appointed to a position in the newly separated U. S. Corps of Topographical Engineers. Like most of their officers Major Long remained loyal to the Federal government during the Civil War, he became Colonel of the Corps in 1861 until its merger back into the U. S. Corps of Engineers in 1863, he died in Alton, Illinois in 1864. Like most engineers, Long was college-trained, interested in searching for order in the natural world, willing to work with the modern technology of the time. Topographical engineers had two unique points of view that set them apart from the other pioneers — geographical and technological.
In 1818 he was appointed to organize a scientific contingent to accompany soldiers of Col. Henry Atkinson's command on the Yellowstone Expedition; this was planned to explore the upper Missouri, Long spent the autumn designing the construction of an experimental steamboat for the venture, Western Engineer. Departing from St. Louis in June 1819, it was the first steamboat to travel up the Missouri River into the Louisiana Purchase territory, the first steamboat to have a stern paddle wheel. On September 17, Long's party arrived at Fort Lisa, a trading fort belonging to William Clark's Missouri Fur Company, it was about five miles south of Iowa. Long's group built their winter quarters nearby and called it "Engineer Cantonment." Within a month, Long returned to the east coast, by the following May, his orders had changed. The Yellowstone Expedition had become a costly failure and so instead of exploring the Missouri River, President James Monroe decided to have Long lead an expedition up the Platte River to the Rocky mountains and back along the border with the Spanish colonies.
Exploring that border was vital, since John Quincy Adams had just concluded the treaty with Spain, which drew a new U. S. border to the Pacific. Major Long was the leader of the fir
The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous people of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne comprise two Native American tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese; these tribes merged in the early 19th century. Today, the Cheyenne people are split into two federally recognized Nations: the Southern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma, the Northern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana. At the time of their first contact with the Europeans, the Cheyenne were living in the area of what is now Minnesota. At times they have been allied with the Lakota and Arapaho, at other points enemies of the Lakota. In the early 18th century they migrated west across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota, where they adopted the horse culture. Having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota bands about 1730.
Allied with the Arapaho, the Cheyenne pushed the Kiowa to the Southern Plains. In turn, they were pushed west by the more numerous Lakota; the Cheyenne Nation or Tsêhéstáno was at one time composed of ten bands that spread across the Great Plains from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota. They fought their traditional enemies, the Crow and the United States Army forces. In the mid-19th century, the bands began to split, with some bands choosing to remain near the Black Hills, while others chose to remain near the Platte Rivers of central Colorado; the Northern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese, meaning "Northern Eaters" or as Ohmésêhese meaning "Eaters", live in southeastern Montana on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. Tribal enrollment figures, as of late 2014, indicate that there are 10,840 members, of which about 4,939 reside on the reservation. 91% of the population are Native Americans, with 72.8% identifying themselves as Cheyenne. More than one quarter of the population five years or older spoke a language other than English.
The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneo'o meaning "Roped People", together with the Southern Arapaho, form the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, in western Oklahoma. Their combined population is 12,130, as of 2008. In 2003 8,000 of these identified themselves as Cheyenne, although with continuing intermarriage it has become difficult to separate the tribes; the Cheyenne Nation is composed of two tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese, which translates to "those who are like this". These two tribes had always traveled together, becoming merged sometime after 1831, when they were still noted as having separate camps; the Suhtai were said to have had different speech and customs from their traveling companions. The name "Cheyenne" may be derived from Dakota Sioux exonym for Šahíyena. Though the identity of the Šahíya is not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some other people who spoke an Algonquian language related to Cree and Cheyenne; the Cheyenne word for Ojibwe is a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word Šahíya.
Another of the common etymologies for Cheyenne is "a bit like the alien speech". According to George Bird Grinnell, the Dakota had referred to themselves and fellow Siouan-language bands as "white talkers", those of other language families, such as the Algonquian Cheyenne, as "red talkers"; the etymology of the name Tsitsistas, which the Cheyenne call themselves, is uncertain. According to the Cheyenne dictionary, offered online by Chief Dull Knife College, there is no definitive consensus and various studies of the origins and the translation of the word has been suggested. Grinnell's record is typical, it most means related to one another bred, like us, our people, or us. The term for the Cheyenne homeland is Tsiihistano." The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as Tsêhésenêstsestôtse. 800 people speak Cheyenne in Oklahoma. There are only a handful of vocabulary differences between the two locations; the Cheyenne alphabet contains 14 letters. The Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group.
The Só'taeo'o or Suhtai bands of Southern and Northern Cheyenne spoke Só'taéka'ękóne or Só'taenęstsestôtse, a language so close to Tsêhésenêstsestôtse, that it is sometimes termed a Cheyenne dialect. The earliest known written historical record of the Cheyenne comes from the mid-17th century, when a group of Cheyenne visited the French Fort Crevecoeur, near present-day Peoria, Illinois; the Cheyenne at this time lived between the Mississippi River and Mille Lacs Lake in present-day Minnesota. The Cheyenne economy was based on the collection of wild rice and hunting of bison, which lived in the prairies 70–80 miles west of the Cheyenne villages. According to tribal history, during the 17th century, the Cheyenne had been driven by the Assiniboine from the Great Lakes region to present-day Minnesota and No
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford and Sebastian, the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah. Fort Smith has a sister city relationship with Cisterna, site of the World War II Battle of Cisterna, fought by United States Army Rangers commanded by Fort Smith native William O. Darby; the city has a mutual friendship-city relationship with Jining, China. Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers known as Belle Point. Fort Smith was established as a western frontier military post in 1817, when it was a center of fur trading; the city developed there. It became well known as a base for migrants' settling of the "Wild West" and for its law enforcement heritage.
In 2007, the city of Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior as the site of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum, slated to open in 2019. This area was occupied for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, attracted to the advantageous site near the rivers, they used the waterways for transportation and trading, to supply fish and water for their villages. The French claimed this area as part of their New La Louisiane; some colonial fur traders traveled the Arkansas and other rivers to trade with the native American tribes. The United States acquired this territory and large areas west of the Mississippi River from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Soon after, the government sent the Pike Expedition to explore the areas along the Arkansas River; the US founded Fort Smith in 1817 as a military post. It was named after General Thomas Adams Smith, who commanded the United States Army Rifle Regiment in 1817, headquartered near St. Louis. General Smith had ordered Army topographical engineer Stephen H. Long to find a suitable site on the Arkansas River for a fort.
General Smith never visited the forts that bore his name. A stockade was built and occupied from 1817 until 1822 by a small troop of regulars commanded by Major William Bradford. A small settlement began forming around the fort, but the Army abandoned the first Fort Smith in 1824 and moved 80 miles further west to Fort Gibson. John Rogers, an Army sutler and land speculator, bought up former government-owned lands at this site and promoted growth of the new civilian town of Fort Smith. Due to the strategic location of this site, the federal government re-established a military presence at Fort Smith during the 1830s era of Indian Removal of tribes from the American Southeast to west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. In 1838 the Army moved back into the old military post near Belle Point, expanded the base, they used troops from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast. Remnants of the Five Civilized Tribes remained in the southeast, their descendants in some cases have reorganized and been federally recognized.
The Cherokee called the forced march the Trail of Tears, as many of their people and African-American slaves died along the way. The army enforced the removal of these peoples to the reserved Indian Territory, where the federal government granted them land. Many displaced Native Americans fell out of the march and settled in Fort Smith and adjoining Van Buren, Arkansas on the other side of the river; the US Army used Fort Smith as a base during the Mexican War. As a result, the US acquired large territories in the Southwest, annexed the Republic of Texas, independent for some years. Sebastian County was formed in 1851, separated from Crawford County north of the Arkansas River. In 1858, Fort Smith was designated as a Division Center of the Butterfield Overland Mail's 7th Division route across Indian Territory from Fort Smith to Texas and as a junction with the mail route from Memphis, Tennessee, an important port on the east side of the Mississippi River. During the early years of the U. S. Civil War, the fort was occupied by the Confederate Army.
Union troops under General Steele took control of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863. A small fight occurred there on July 31, 1864, but the Union army maintained command in the area until the war ended in 1865; as a result, many refugee slaves, Southern Unionists, others came here to escape the guerrilla warfare raging in Arkansas and the Border States. The slaves were freed under the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln. Federal troops abandoned the post of Fort Smith for the last time in 1871; the town continued to thrive despite the absence of federal troops. Two of Fort Smith's most notable historic figures were Judge Isaac Parker and William Henry Harrison Clayton known as W. H. H. Clayton. In 1874, William Henry Harrison Clayton was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas by President Ulysses S. Grant. Fort Smith was a bustling community full of brothels and outlaws, just across the river from Indian Territory. William Clayton realized a strong judge would be necessary to bring order to the region.
He knew. But Judge Parker had been confirmed by the US Senate. With the help of President Grant and US Senator Powell Clayt