Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
Mazandaran Province pronunciation, is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran. Mazandaran Province is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran and has natural resources, notably large reservoirs of oil. The provinces four largest counties are Sari, Nur, Mazandaran is a major producer of farmed fish, and aquaculture provides an important economic addition to traditional dominance of agriculture. Another important contributor to the economy is the industry, as people from all of Iran enjoy visiting the area. Mazandaran is a centre for biotechnology. The province covers an area of 23,842 km², Sari is the capital city of the province. Mazandaran is divided into 15 counties, all the shahrestans are named after their administrative center, except Savadkooh. Human habitation in the dates back at least 75,000 years. Recent excavations in Gohar Tape in Behshahr provide proof that the area has been urbanized for more than 5,000 years, and it has played an important role in cultural and urban development of the region.
Mazandaran is one of the oldest areas Sedentism, Mazandaran is a Caspian province in the north of Iran. Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Russia, Semnan, Alborz, Sari is the largest city and the capital of Mazandaran province. Mazandaran Province was made part of the First Region upon the division of the provinces into five regions solely for coordination, before the arrival of the Iranian-speakers to Iran, native people of this area were subsistence hunters and cattle herders. Archaeological studies in caves belt and Hutu man in Behshahr in the Mazandaran date to approximately 9500 BC, the Amard were a tribe living along the mountainous region bordering the Caspian Sea, including current day Amol. The territory known as Mazandaran has changed hands among various dynasties from early in its history, there are several fortresses remaining from Parthia and Sassanid times, and many older cemeteries scattered throughout the province. During this era, Mazandaran was part of Hyrcania Province which was one of the important provinces, in 662 CE, ten years after the death of Yazdegerd III the last Sassanian Emperor, a large Muslim army under the command of Hassan ibn Ali invaded Tabarestan.
With the advent of the Sassanid dynasty, the King of Mazandaran was Gushnasp, in 529–536, Mazandaran was ruled by the Sassanid prince Kawus, son of Kawadh. Anushirawan, the Sassanid king, defeated Zarmihr, who claimed his ancestry from the legendary blacksmith Kaveh and this dynasty ruled the area till 645 AD, when Gil Gilanshah joined Mazandaran to Gilan. There are several fortresses remaining from Parthian and Sassanid times, during this era, Mazandaran was part of Hyrcania Province which was one of the important provinces
Badanj Cave is located in Borojevići village near the town of Stolac and Herzegovina. This rather small cave has come to attention after the 1976 discovery of its cave engravings. The site is rock shelter or overhang recessed beneath a cliff that descends to the bank of the river Bregava. Two chronologically distinct strata of Palaeolithic occupation were identified beneath the surface layer, of particular significance was the discovery of a particular carving of the Badanj site, as it ranks among the oldest works of art in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The carving is cut into the surface of a large polished block of stone. Only the rear half of the body survives, with flanks typical for a horse and part of the body, the Badanj carvings include depictions of animals and symbols, as is typical of Mediterranean prehistoric art. The site was dated to the late Upper Palaeolithic and it is designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2003
Neolithic flint mines of Spiennes
The mines were active during the mid and late Neolithic between 4,300 and 2,200 BC. Declared to be remarkable for the diversity of technological solutions used for extraction the site, discovered in 1843, the first excavations were undertaken during railway construction in 1867 and intermittent excavations have been carried out up to the present day. The Mines of Spiennes cover some 100 ha of downland four miles south-east of the city of Mons, the site is dotted with millions of scraps of worked flint and numerous mining pits, that Neolithic settlers have gradually turned into vertical mine shafts to depths of over 10 m. Research has illustrated Neolithic techniques for the cutting of the flint and the extraction of large slabs of flint, the nodules were extracted using flint picks. The stones were knapped into rough-out shapes of axes, the SILEXS Interpretive Centre has opened in spring 2015. The rough-outs were exchanged over an area, about 150 km. Polishing strengthens the product, making the axe- or adze-head last longer.
The smooth surface aids the cutting action by lowering friction with the wood, the axes were used initially for forest clearance during the Neolithic period, and for shaping wood for structural applications, such as timber for huts and canoes. The site has been compared with Grimes Graves and Cissbury in the United Kingdom, and Krzemionki in Poland, different hard rocks were used for the polished stone axes. Examples include the Langdale axe industry and Tievebulliagh, guillaume, Ph. Lipinski & A. Masson, Les mines de silex néolithiques de la Meuse dans le contexte européen. Musées de la Meuse, Sampigny 1987, F. Gosselin, Un site dexploitation du silex à Spiennes, au lieu-dit Petit-Spiennes. F. Hubert, Une minière néolithique à silex au Camp-à-Cayaux de Spiennes, F. Hubert, Lexploitation préhistorique du silex à Spiennes. Ministère de la Région wallonne, Direction générale de lAménagement du Territoire, du Logement et du Patrimoine, R. Shepherd, Prehistoric Mining and Allied Industries. Société de recherches préhistoriques en Hainaut, Minières néolithiques à Spiennes,1997 ICOMOS evaluation Collet, H.
Les mines néolithiques de Spiennes, état des connaissances et perspectives de recherche. Section 10, The Neolithic in the Near East and Europe, actes du XIVème congrès UISPP, Université de Liège, Belgique,2 –8 septembre 2001 H. Collet, A. Hauzeur & J. Lech,2008. The prehistoric flint mining complex at Spiennes on the occasion of its discovery 140 years ago In P. Allard, F. Bostyn, flint mining in Prehistoric Europe, Interpreting the archaeological records. European Association of Archaeologists, 12th Annual Meeting, Poland, 19–24 September 2006, H. Collet,2014. Les minières néolithiques de silex de Spiennes
The Tischofer Cave is a cave in the Kaisertal valley in the Kaisergebirge mountains in Austria. It was important locally as a place and weapons cache for local rebels during the Napoleonic Wars. The roughly 40 m long cave, which is about 8.5 m high at the entrance, was used during the Stone Age by bears and other predators as shelter and that makes the Tischofer Cave the oldest proven site of human occupation in Tyrol. Discoveries of human skeletons and tools indicate that the cave acted as a copper smithy, the Tischofer Cave may be reached on foot via the Kaiser Path in the Kaisertal valley, a pathway secured with cable railings. It is recorded in the Tyrolean Cave Register as number 1312/001, article from Hofmann, Wege im Inntal with comprehensive description Die Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal bei Kufstein at www. tirol-infos. at. Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal at www. kaisergebirge-online. de
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks, inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white, from a petrological point of view, flint refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Similarly, common chert occurs in limestone, the exact mode of formation of flint is not yet clear but it is thought that it occurs as a result of chemical changes in compressed sedimentary rock formations, during the process of diagenesis. One hypothesis is that a gelatinous material fills cavities in the sediment, such as bored by crustaceans or molluscs. This hypothesis certainly explains the shapes of flint nodules that are found. The source of dissolved silica in the media could be the spicules of silicious sponges.
Certain types of flint, such as that from the south coast of England, pieces of coral and vegetation have been found preserved like amber inside the flint. Thin slices of the stone often reveal this effect, puzzling giant flint formations known as paramoudra and flint circles are found around Europe but especially in Norfolk, England on the beaches at Beeston Bump and West Runton. Flint sometimes occurs in large flint fields in Jurassic or Cretaceous beds, flint was used in the manufacture of tools during the Stone Age as it splits into thin, sharp splinters called flakes or blades when struck by another hard object. This process is referred to as knapping, flint mining is attested since the Palaeolithic, but became more common since the Neolithic. When struck against steel, a flint edge will produce sparks, the hard flint edge shaves off a particle of the steel that exposes iron which reacts with oxygen from the atmosphere and can ignite the proper tinder. Prior to the availability of steel, rocks of pyrite would be used along with the flint.
These methods are popular in woodcraft and among those who wish to use traditional skills, a later, major use of flint and steel was in the flintlock mechanism, used primarily in flintlock firearms, but used on dedicated fire-starting tools. The sparks ignite the powder and that flame, in turn, ignites the main charge, propelling the ball, bullet. While the military use of the flintlock declined after the adoption of the cap from the 1840s onward, flintlock rifles. Flint and steel used to strike sparks were superseded by ferrocerium and this man-made material, when scraped with any hard, sharp edge, produces sparks that are much hotter than obtained with natural flint and steel, allowing use of a wider range of tinders. Because it can produce sparks when wet and can start fires when used correctly, ferrocerium is used in many cigarette lighters, where it is referred to as flint
Carleton S. Coon
Carleton Coon was born in Wakefield, Massachusetts to a Cornish American family. He developed an interest in prehistory, and attended Phillips Academy, Coon matriculated to Harvard University, where he was attracted to the relatively new field of anthropology by Earnest Hooton and he graduated magna cum laude in 1925. He became the Curator of Ethnology at the University Museum of Philadelphia, Coon continued with coursework at Harvard. He conducted fieldwork in the Rif area of Morocco in 1925 and he earned his Ph. D. in 1928 and returned to Harvard as a lecturer and a professor. Coons interest was in attempting to use Darwins theory of selection to explain the differing physical characteristics of races. Coon rewrote William Z. Ripleys 1899 The Races of Europe in 1939, Coon wrote widely for a general audience like his mentor Earnest Hooton. Coon published The Riffians, Flesh of the Wild Ox, Measuring Ethiopia, during that time, Coon was affiliated with the United States Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency.
Coon left Harvard to take up a position as Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania in 1948, throughout the 1950s he produced academic papers, as well as many popular books for the general reader, the most notable being The Story of Man. Coon did photography work for the United States Air Force from 1954-1957 and he photographed areas where US planes might be attacked. This led him to travel throughout Korea, India, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Sikkim, Coon published The Origin of Races in 1962. In its Introduction he described the book as part of the outcome of his project he conceived around the end of 1956, for a work to be titled along the lines of Races of the World. He said that since 1959 he had proceeded with the intention to follow The Origin of Races with a sequel, the book asserted that the human species divided into five races before it had evolved into Homo sapiens. Further, he suggested that the races evolved into Homo sapiens at different times, one of his harshest critics, Theodore Dobzhansky, scorned it as providing grist for racist mills.
He continued to write and defend his work, publishing two volumes of memoirs in 1980 and 1981 and he died on June 3,1981, in Gloucester, Massachusetts. Coon concluded that sometimes different racial types annihilated other types, while in other instances warfare and/or settlement led to the displacement of racial types. He asserted that Europe was the product of a long history of racial progression. Coon suggested that the survival of the European racial type was increased by the replacement of the indigenous peoples of the New World. He stated the history of the White race to have involved racial survivals of White subraces
Alid dynasties of northern Iran
The first and most powerful Zaydi emirate was established in Tabaristan in 864 and lasted until 928. It was interrupted by Samanid occupation in 900, but restored in 914 by another Alid branch. The second period of the Alid emirate was plagued by internal dissensions, local Zaydi rulers survived in Daylam and Gilan until the 16th century. Hasan ibn Zayd, adopted the regnal name al-Dai ilal-Haqq and he was forced to abandon Tabaristan briefly for Daylam in 869 and 874 due to invasions Muhammad ibn Zayd, adopted the regnal name al-Dai ilal-Haqq. Rule in Tabaristan proper was usurped by Abul-Husayn Ahmad ibn Muhammad for a few months as Muhammad was in Gurgan at the time of Hasans death. Tabaristan was overrun briefly by Rafi ibn Harthama in 891–893, and in 900 Muhammad tried to conquer Khurasan, the Samanids captured Tabaristan, and the Alavids fled to Daylam in exile. Hasan ibn Ali al-Utrush, adopted the regnal name al-Nasir lil-Haqq, a Husaynid from Medina, he converted the Gilites and Daylamites to the Zaydi doctrine, recovered Tabaristan.
Abu Muhammad Hasan ibn Qasim, adopted the regnal name al-Dai ilal-haq, a Hasanid, he was the commander of the army under al-Utrush and named by the latter as his heir. His rule was challenged by al-Utrushs sons and their numerous supporters, regained the throne with the help of Makan ibn Kaki, ruled until he was killed in battle with Asfar ibn Shiruya. Abu l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir, reigned jointly with his brother in 919, thereafter reconciled himself with Abu Muhammad Hasan al-Dai until 923, when he reigned briefly until his death. Abu l-Qasim Jafar ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir, reigned jointly with his brother in 919 and from 923 until his death. Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Abu l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir, son of Ahmad ibn Hasan, he was chosen as emir after Jafar died. Deposed briefly by Makan ibn Kaki, who installed Ismail ibn Jafar as a puppet ruler, Abu Jafar Husayn ibn Abu l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir. Brother of Abu Ali Muhammad, he was deposed by Makan ibn Kaki, installed once more as imam briefly by Asfar ibn Shiruya under Samanid suerainty, but removed to the Samanid court at Bukhara.
Tried to recover Tabaristan in 931 with the help of Mardavij, History of Iran Muslim dynasties of Iran List of Shia Muslim dynasties Madelung, W. The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran, the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Madelung, W. ʿALIDS OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀN
Iran, known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars and thinkers.
During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
Nizari Ismaili state
The Ismaili state, called the Alamut state, was a Shia Nizari Ismaili state founded by Hasan-i Sabbah after he took control of the Alamut Castle in 1090 AD. The state consisted of a nexus of strategic fortresses throughout Persia and Syria. The state collapsed when Rukn-ud-Din Khurshah surrendered Alamut Castle to the invading Mongols, within two generations, the Fatimid Empire would suffer several more splits and eventually implode. The Seljuq amirs usually held full jurisdiction and control over the districts they administered, Persian artisans and lower classes grew increasingly dissatisfied with the Seljuq policies and heavy taxes. Hasan too, was appalled by the political and economic oppression imposed by the Sunni Seljuq ruling class on Shiite Muslims living across Iran. It was in context that he embarked on a resistance movement against the Seljuqs. The castle had never before been captured by means and thus Hasan planned meticulously. Meanwhile, he dispatched his reliable supporters to the Alamut valley to begin settlements around the castle, in the summer of 1090 AD, Hasan set out from Qazvin towards Alamut on a mountainous route through Andej.
Still in disguise, Hasan made his way into the fortress, earning the trust, careful not to attract the attention of the castle’s Zaydi lord, Hasan began to attract prominent figures at Alamut to his mission. It has even suggested that Mahdi’s own deputy was a secret supporter of Hasan. The Alamut fortress was captured from Mahdi in 1090 AD and therefore from Seljuq control by Hasan. Mahdis life was spared, and he received 3,000 gold Dinars in compensation, capturing of the Alamut Castle marks the founding of the Nizari Ismaili state. These periods of internal turmoil allowed the Ismaili state respite from attack, the state had around 200 fortresses overall. The most important one was Alamut Castle, the residence of the Lord, the largest castle was Lambasar Castle, featuring a complex and highly efficient water storage system. The most important fortress in Syria was Masyaf Castle, though the castle of Kahf was probably the residence of the Syrian Ismaili leader Rashid al-Din Sinan. The natural geographical features of the valley surrounding Alamut largely secured the castle’s defence, positioned atop a narrow rock base approximately 180 meters above ground level, the fortress could not be taken by direct military force.
To the east, the Alamut valley is bordered by a range called Alamkuh between which the Alamut River flows. The valleys western entrance is a one, shielded by cliffs over 350m high