Spaceballs is a 1987 American science fiction parody film co-written and directed by Mel Brooks. Starring Brooks, Bill Pullman, John Candy, and Rick Moranis, the film features Daphne Zuniga, Dick Van Patten, in addition to Brooks in a supporting role, the film features Brooks regulars Dom DeLuise and Rudy De Luca in cameo appearances. The film was released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer on June 24,1987 and it has since become a cult classic on video and one of Brookss most popular films. Its setting and characters parody the original Star Wars trilogy, as well as other sci-fi franchises including Star Trek, Planet Spaceball, led by the incompetent President Skroob, has wasted all of its fresh air. Skroob sends the villainous Dark Helmet to complete this task with Spaceball One, before they can arrive, Vespa abandons her wedding and flees the planet in her Mercedes spaceship with her droid of honor, Dot Matrix. Roland contacts mercenary Lone Starr and his mawg sidekick Barf, offering a reward to retrieve Vespa before she is captured.
Lone Starr readily accepts, as he is in debt with the gangster Pizza the Hutt. In their Winnebago space ship the Eagle 5, Starr and Barf are able to reach Vespa before Spaceball One, Spaceball One tries to follow, but Helmet foolishly orders the ship to ludicrous speed, causing it to overshoot the escapees. Out of fuel, Lone Starr is forced to crash-land on the desert moon of Vega. The escapees travel on foot in blazing sun and pass out and they are found by the Dinks, a group of diminutive red-clad aliens, and are taken to a cave occupied by Yogurt, who is old and wise. Yogurt introduces Lone Starr to The Schwartz, a power similar to the Force. Yogurt introduces the audience to the merchandising campaign. Starr and Vespa begin to flirt, but Vespa insists she can only be married to a prince and Sandurz break the fourth wall by using a VHS copy of the film to discover Vespas location, and Helmet orders Spaceball One to the moon. The Spaceballs capture Vespa and Dot, and return them to planet Spaceball.
Their captors threaten to reverse Vespas nose job, forcing Roland to give over the code to the shield that protects Druidia. Helmet and Sandurz take Spaceball One to Druidia, where they transform the ship into Mega Maid, Lone Starr and Barf rescue Vespa and Dot from captivity, and race to Druidia. When the vacuum bag is almost full, Lone Starr is able to use the Schwartz to reverse the robots sucking action, once the air is successfully returned to the planet, Lone Starr and his allies enter the Mega Maid to attempt to destroy it. Lone Starr is forced to fight Helmet with lightsaber-like Schwartz rings near the ships self-destruct button, Lone Starr manages to defeat Helmet, causing him to involuntarily strike the button
Watto is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise, featured in the films The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones. He is computer-generated and played by voice actor Andy Secombe and he is a mean-tempered, greedy Toydarian, and owner of a second-hand goods store in Mos Espa on the planet Tatooine. Among Wattos belongings are the slaves Shmi Skywalker and her son and he acquires them after winning a podracing bet with Gardulla the Hutt, and he puts them both to work in his store. Anakin demonstrates an aptitude for equipment repair, and Watto decides to profit from it by having the boy fix various broken equipment in the store. He eventually loses Anakin in a bet with Qui-Gon Jinn when he bets on a competitor, Sebulba. Initial designs for Watto were of a more bird-like nature, including plumage, another design included tentacles and a cigar. Wattos face originated in an early Neimoidian picture by design director Doug Chiang, the hooked trunk and crooked teeth were carried over to the Toydarian design.
Animation supervisor Rob Coleman realized that the dental work would need some modification when the time came to create Watto on screen. To solve the problem, Coleman broke off one of Wattos incisors, the sound of his wings flapping is a looped recording of sound designer Ben Burtt opening and closing an umbrella. Watto first appears in Star Wars, Episode I – The Phantom Menace and he has both an ability for haggling and a resistance to the Jedi mind trick, a technique used to persuade people. He is both a junk dealer and slave owner on the planet Tatooine, possessing both Shmi Skywalker and her son Anakin, when challenged to a bet for Anakins freedom, Watto agrees. After Anakin beats Sebulba, a racer that he challenged throughout the race he participated in. Searching Mos Espa, he finds Watto sitting outside the shop at a small stall, Watto tells Anakin that he sold Shmi some years ago to a moisture farmer named Cliegg Lars who freed and married her. Watto takes Anakin and Padmé to look through his records to find her, Watto makes multiple appearances in the Star Wars series Expanded Universe.
One appearance details his time on his home planet before he came to Tatooine during a war and it tells how he sustained his broken tusk and disabled leg. He learns his business savvy from the Jawas, native to the planet Tatooine and his son Blatto makes an appearance in the non-canonical television special Phineas and Ferb, Star Wars. He is a character in the Lego Star Wars video games. Watto is available to purchase as a Lego minifigure, under the Lego Star Wars line, editors for IGN ranked Watto 78th in their list of Top 100 Star Wars characters
Architecture of Star Wars
Architecture in Star Wars includes the cities, buildings and other structures of the fictional Star Wars universe as described and depicted in books, movies and cartoons. Architects Journal ranked the top 10, including the Death Star and he describes the retro-futurist cities in the series as being in between those extremes and places of great beauty but dubious moral character. He attributes the ambivalence towards urbanity to series creator George Lucas own feelings about cities, the end of the first movie was shot in the Guatemalan rain forest where a celebration with rebel allies takes place in a caved area. The exotic locales provide scenery that is unfamiliar to all but a few experts in non-western architecture, the article included illustrations of Coruscant, including views from the Jedi Council building, and the city of Theed. On Coruscant, development extends miles below the surface of the city, the urban future has been depicted in Blade Runner where the setting is a grimy, crime-ridden Los Angeles in the 21st century.
The architecture of Star Wars may have influenced by Stanley Kubricks 2001. The temple has five towers, the tallest is Tranquillity Spire, Star Wars Insider listed it as the one hundredth greatest thing about Star Wars in its one hundredth issue special. The battle cruisers featured in Star Wars have been described as examples of Suprematist architecture, the San Francisco Federal Building designed by Thom Mayne has been compared to the Jawa Sandcrawler featured in Star Wars Episode IV, A New Hope. The ING headquarters building has been described as looking like something out of Star Wars that could move forward on its legs. Conversely, the Trinity College, Long Room Library is thought to be the basis for the Jedi Academy Library in Star Wars, Episode II – Attack of the Clones. Jedi Academy TIE fighter Technology in Star Wars Kippins, Jeffrey Star Wars III, The Battle at the Center of the Universe, Investigations in Architecture Eisenman Studios at the GSD 1983-1985 Ed.1986
Physics and Star Wars
The space opera interstellar epic Star Wars uses science and technology in its settings and storylines. The series has showcased many technological concepts, both in the movies and in the universe of novels and other forms of media. The Star Wars movies primary objective is to build upon drama, political science, many of the on-screen technologies created or borrowed for the Star Wars universe were used mainly as plot devices. The iconic status that Star Wars has gained in popular culture, many of the features or technologies used in the Star Wars universe are not yet considered possible. Despite this, their concepts are still probable, in the past scientists thought that planets would be unlikely to form around binary stars. However, recent simulations indicate that planets are just as likely to form around binary star systems as single-star systems, of the 3457 exoplanets currently known,146 actually orbit binary star systems. Specifically, they orbit what are known as wide binary star systems where the two stars are far apart.
Tatooine appears to be of the other type — a close binary, where the stars are close. The first observationally confirmed binary — Kepler-16b — is a close binary, intermediate binaries, or those with between 3 and 50 AU between them, had no dusty disks. In 2011 it was reported by The Guardian that NASA space craft Kepler had discovered a planet, named Kepler-16b, two stars of different masses orbiting one another would cause gravity fields to shift, causing potential instabilities in the orbits of any planets in their system. Even planets in stable orbits of a binary star system would suffer other kinds of problems according to her such as climatic problems. As an example, a planet in a star system orbiting the larger star would be drawn closer to its gravitational field. As the planet passes its larger star and reaches the orbit of its smaller star, the distance would send the planet into extreme frigid temperatures. According to Cavelos, astronomers hypothesize at least two solutions to these problems exist and that even life supporting binary star systems could exist.
One scenario could be two stars billions of miles apart, a planet or planets would be able to orbit one star while at minimum influence of the other. A star known as Proxima Centauri, or Alpha Centauri C, is about one miles away from its sister stars. Assuming the existence of planets around Proxima Centauri, the stars from these planets would appear as bright stars in the sky. Another scenario would be two stars that would be closer to one another at a distance of only a few million miles, a planet orbiting far enough away would be affected by their gravitational fields almost as if there were one
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal or machine that moves in a bipedal manner is known as a biped /ˈbaɪpɛd/. Types of bipedal movement include walking, running, or hopping, few modern species are habitual bipeds whose normal method of locomotion is two-legged. A larger number of modern species intermittently or briefly use a bipedal gait, several non-archosaurian lizard species move bipedally when running, usually to escape from threats. Many primate and bear species will adopt a bipedal gait in order to reach food or explore their environment, several arboreal primate species, such as gibbons and indriids, exclusively walk on two legs during the brief periods they spend on the ground. Many animals rear up on their hind legs whilst fighting or copulating, some animals commonly stand on their hind legs, in order to reach food, to keep watch, to threaten a competitor or predator, or to pose in courtship, but do not move bipedally.
The word is derived from the Latin words bi two and ped- foot, as contrasted with quadruped four feet and exclusive bipedalism can offer a species several advantages. While upright, non-locomotory limbs become free for other uses, including manipulation, digging, even though bipedalism is slower at first, over long distances, it has allowed humans to outrun most other animals according to the endurance running hypothesis. Bipedality in kangaroo rats has been hypothesized to improve locomotor performance, zoologists often label behaviors, including bipedalism, as facultative or obligate. Even this distinction is not completely clear-cut — for example, humans other than infants normally walk and run in biped fashion, but almost all can crawl on hands and knees when necessary. Even if one ignores exceptions caused by some kind of injury or illness, there are many cases, including the fact that normal humans can crawl on hands. This article therefore avoids the terms facultative and obligate, and focuses on the range of styles of locomotion used by various groups of animals.
There are a number of states of movement commonly associated with bipedalism, in most bipeds this is an active process, requiring constant adjustment of balance. One foot in front of another, with at least one foot on the ground at any time, one foot in front of another, with periods where both feet are off the ground. Moving by a series of jumps with both feet moving together, the great majority of living terrestrial vertebrates are quadrupeds, with bipedalism exhibited by only a handful of living groups. Humans and large birds walk by raising one foot at a time, on the other hand, most macropods, smaller birds and bipedal rodents move by hopping on both legs simultaneously. Tree kangaroos are able to walk or hop, most commonly alternating feet when moving arboreally, there are no known living or fossil bipedal amphibians. Many species of lizards become bipedal during high-speed, sprint locomotion, including the worlds fastest lizard, the first known biped is the bolosaurid Eudibamus whose fossils date from 290 million years ago
Han Solo is a character in the Star Wars franchise. In the original trilogy and his co-pilot, Chewbacca. During the course of the Star Wars story, he becomes a figure in the Alliance. Star Wars creator George Lucas described the character as a loner who realizes the importance of being part of a group and helping for the common good. Han owes crime lord Jabba the Hutt a great deal of money and has a price on his head and his passengers are attacked by Imperial stormtroopers, but escape by accelerating to light speed. When they arrive at Alderaan, they discover that the planet has been destroyed, the Falcon is captured and held within the Death Star, a moon-sized battle station constructed by the Empire. Han and company hide from detection inside the Falcons smuggling bays and they discover that Princess Leia Organa is a prisoner on board, and Luke convinces Han to help rescue her by promising him a huge reward. They rescue Leia and escape, though Obi-Wan is killed by Sith Lord Darth Vader, after delivering Luke, Leia, C-3PO, and R2-D2 to the Rebel Alliance and Chewbacca receive a payment for their services and prepare to leave.
Luke asks Han to stay and help the Rebels attack the Death Star, Han has a change of heart and returns to save Lukes life during the films climactic battle scene, ultimately enabling Luke to destroy the Death Star. For his heroics, Han is presented with a medal of honor, Han helps Chewbacca join his family on the Wookiee homeworld Kashyyyk. He faces Imperial forces on Kashyyyk, and joins Luke, Leia, R2-D2, C-3PO, Han returns with the Rebel Alliance to Echo Base on the frozen planet of Hoth. While out on patrol with Luke, they witness a meteor strike the surface, Han returns to base while Luke decides to investigate. Han informs Leia and the General of Echo Base that he must leave in order to clear his debt with Jabba, before he can depart, it is discovered that Luke has not returned from his reconnaissance. Han rides out alone into the frozen Hoth wastelands, soon finding Luke badly injured, using his friends lightsaber, Han cuts open his tauntaun, providing Luke warmth while he builds a shelter until they can be rescued the next morning.
Later and Chewbacca are sent out to investigate another meteor strike and they discover that the meteor is actually an Imperial Probe Droid. The two succeed in destroying the probe, but not before the Empire is alerted to the location of Echo Base, when the Empire attacks Echo Base, Chewie, and C-3PO narrowly escape on board the Millennium Falcon. Han evades a squad of Imperial TIE fighters by flying through an asteroid field and Leia fall in love during the long journey. They manage to hide from the Imperial fleet long enough to escape, bounty hunter Boba Fett secretly follows the Falcon during this getaway
Admiral Gial Ackbar is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. A member of the amphibious Mon Calamari species, Ackbar was the foremost military commander of the Rebel Alliance who led combat operations against the Galactic Empire. Ackbar played a role in the 1983 film Return of the Jedi. He was portrayed in the film by puppeteer Timothy D. Rose, Ackbar was voiced by Erik Bauersfeld, who made up the voice he believed matched the character after looking at a photo of Ackbar. The Ackbar character has been received positively by critics and fans, which he says during a scene in Return of the Jedi, has become a popular Internet meme. Ackbars first name, was not established until the April 2012 release of the Star Wars reference book The Essential Guide to Warfare, Admiral Ackbar was designed for the film Return of the Jedi, the final entry in the original Star Wars trilogy. However, before the May 1983 debut of film, the character made his first chronological appearance in a series of Star Wars newspaper comic strips by Archie Goodwin.
There he was portrayed as the leader of the alien species Mon Calamari, the Mon Calamari are a species of fish-like, amphibious humanoids with salmon-colored skin, webbed hands, high-domed heads, and large fish-like eyes. Ackbars back story was not explained in Return of the Jedi, Ackbar was born on the planet Dac, a world almost entirely covered by water, where his species built giant floating cities. The peaceful Ackbar was the leader of his town, Coral Depths City. Despite the Mon Calamaris attempts to make peace, the Imperial forces destroyed several of their cities, stole their technology, Ackbar was one of the first to be enslaved, and was eventually presented as an interpreter and personal servant to Grand Moff Tarkin. Ackbar was freed from captivity during an attempt by Rebel forces to capture Tarkin. Starting with the rank of Rebel commander, Ackbar helped design the B-wing, a line of starfighters. His responsibilities kept growing until Mon Mothma promoted him to commander of the entire Rebel fleet and head of military operations, as well as one of her top two advisers.
When Rebel spies discovered plans for a partially constructed second Death Star, Ackbar personally led the assault from his flagship, the Mon Calamari cruiser Home One. The attack did not go as planned, because the Imperial forces were expecting the assault and had in fact allowed the Death Star plans to fall into Rebel hands to lead them into a trap. The Imperials launched a counterattack against the Rebel fleet with TIE starfighters. Ackbar initially called for a retreat, but Calrissian convinced him to move forward with the attack
Max Rebo Band
The Max Rebo Band is a fictional alien pop music band that appeared in the 1983 film Return of the Jedi as in-house performers for crime lord Jabba the Hutt. The original lineup consisted of the blue-skinned Ortolan keyboardist Max Rebo, a plump Kitonak woodwind player named Droopy McCool, and their role in the Star Wars canon is elaborated upon in several Star Wars expanded universe short stories and comics. The group are classified as Jizz-wailers, according to the Star Wars Encyclopedia, refers to a musician who plays a fast and upbeat style of music. Max and Droopy were portrayed by actors in bodysuits, while Sy was operated by two puppeteers who were stationed above and beneath the set, for the 1997 Special Edition re-release of Return of the Jedi, the band gained nine new members while Sy Snootles was computer-generated. The Max Rebo Band made their Star Wars canon debut in Return of the Jedi during the set in Jabbas palace on Tatooine. In the original version, the trio performs a Huttese-language pop song titled Lapti Nek, the track was replaced in the Special Edition with Jedi Rocks, described by the Star Wars Databank as a less-dated piece of music.
In both versions, the song was performed shortly after C-3PO and R2-D2 were given to Jabba, the group thereafter played festive instrumental tunes, during which Max was the only band member who appeared onscreen. The fate of the trio was unclear following the explosion of Jabbas sail barge after the unsuccessful attempt of Luke Skywalker, Han Solo. The original members of the Max Rebo Band make several appearances in Star Wars Expanded Universe literature, Droopy, and Sy are featured in John Gregory Betancourts short story And the Band Played On, The Bands Tale, from the 1995 anthology Tales from Jabbas Palace. According to the story, the band begins as a quartet called Evar Orbus, Droopy and Sy elect Max as their new bandleader, and the trio secures an audition with Jabba the Hutt, who is pleased with their performance of Lapti Nek. He offers the band a lifetime contract paid in food instead of money, much to Maxs delight and Sys disdain. Droopy quits the group on the spot after wandering off into the desert to join fellow Kitonaks he hears playing in the distance, and Sy and Max join forces as the Max Rebo Duo.
The books epilogue describes the splitting up, Sy flops as a solo act while Max joins up with the Rebellion. In the 2000 Dark Horse release A Hot Time in the Cold Town Tonite. Jabba sends the trio to the frozen planet Hoth to play for a rival crime lord, Bingo Mehndra. The group soon discovers that Jabba is actually using them as pawns in an attempt against Bingo after they discover explosives hidden inside their speakers. They make their getaway by superimposing holograms of themselves from a past performance onto the stage, though Jabba had blatantly endangered their lives, the band nonetheless chooses to avoid his wrath by returning to Tatooine. In Dave Coopers Stop That Jawa. the trio has their instruments salvaged by Jawa scavengers outside the Mos Eisley Cantina and they are pursued by a droid bounty hunter who earlier overheard Sy badmouthing Jabba in the cantina
Phil Tippett is an American movie director and a visual effects supervisor and producer, who specializes in creature design and character animation. Tippett was born in Berkeley, when he was seven, Tippett saw Ray Harryhausens special effects classic, The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad, and his lifes direction was set. Tippett completed a degree in art at the University of California, Irvine. When Star Wars was being released on theatres, in 1977, Tippett was approached by Joe Dante and that year,1978, Tippett headed the ILM animation department with Jon Berg for The Empire Strikes Back. For this film, Tippett co-developed the animation technique called go motion to animate the sinister AT-AT Imperial Walkers, in 1981 Tippett continued using go motion for Dragonslayer, and received his first Academy Award nomination for the extraordinarily realistic dragon animation. By 1983, Tippett led the famed Lucasfilm creature shop for Return of the Jedi for which he was awarded his first Oscar in 1984. In 1984 Tippett Studio was born when Tippett left ILM and set up a studio in his garage to create a 10-minute experimental film called Prehistoric Beast, the realism of the dinosaurs it depicted and the films reflection of contemporary scientific theory led to the 1985 CBS animated documentary Dinosaur.
The next year, in 1986, granted Tippett Studio its first award, a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Special Visual Effects, for the animated dinosaur sequences. In 1986 producer Jon Davison hired Tippett to create the animated sequences for RoboCop. The ED-209 stop-motion model was animated by Tippett but designed by Craig Hayes, as one of the setpieces of the movie, the ED-209s look and animated sequences were under the close supervision of director Paul Verhoeven, who sometimes acted out the robots movements himself. ED209 was voiced by producer Jon Davison and this project became the start of a long and successful collaboration between Davies and Tippet. He modeled the Dark Overlord creatures seen in Howard the Duck, in 1991, Tippett was hired to create the dinosaur effects for the Steven Spielberg blockbuster Jurassic Park using his go motion technique made famous in the film Dragonslayer. However, Dennis Muren and his CGI team at Industrial Light & Magic created animated test footage of a T-Rex that Spielberg loved, when Tippett was told that Jurassic Park dinosaurs would be computer-generated, he was shocked, exclaiming Ive just become extinct.
Tippett supervised both the Tippett Studio and ILM animators, resulting in realistic digital dinosaurs that breathe, flex and his effort earned him a second Oscar. Tippett is the subject of an internet meme regarding his credit in the film. Implying that because he didnt supervise the dinosaurs properly, he was responsible for the on-screen deaths, mashable interviewed Tippett in April 2014 about this meme, which he called beyond silly and such a waste of time. In 1995, Tippett Studio was hired to create the giant, Tippett marshaled a team of 100 animators, model makers, computer artists and technicians and expanded his all-CGI facility. The excellence of this resulted in Tippetts sixth nomination in 1997 for an Academy Award
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes. Many taxonomic groups of animals do not have separate sexes, in these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which either partner can act as the female or male. For example, the majority of tunicates, pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails. Hermaphroditism is found in fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Historically, the term hermaphrodite has used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species. A rough estimate of the number of animal species is 65,000. Since the estimated number of animal species is 8.6 million. Arthropods are the phylum with the largest number of species, most hermaphroditic species exhibit some degree of self-fertilization. The distribution of self-fertilization rates among animals is similar to that of plants, suggesting that similar processes are operating to direct the evolution of selfing in animals and plants.
The term derives from the Latin, from Ancient Greek, ἑρμαφρόδιτος hermaphroditos, which derives from Hermaphroditus, the word hermaphrodite entered the English lexicon as early as the late fourteenth century. Sequential hermaphrodites occur in species in which the individual is born as one sex and this contrasts simultaneous hermaphrodites, in which an individual may possess fully functional male and female gonads. Sequential hermaphroditism is common in fish and some jellyfish, many gastropods, while some sequential hermaphrodites can change sex multiple times, most can only change sex once. Generally one anemone contains a harem, consisting of a female, a smaller reproductive male. If the female is removed, the male will change sex. It has been shown that fishing pressure can change when the switch from male to female occurs, the populations are generally changing sex at a smaller size, due to natural selection. Protogyny, Where the organism is born as a female, and changes sex to a male. Example, wrasses have an uncommon life history strategy, which is termed diandry.
In these species, two male morphs exists, an initial phase male and a terminal phase male, initial phase males do not look like males and spawn in groups with other females. Terminal phase males are territorial and have a distinctively bright coloration, individuals are born as males or females, but if they are born males, they are not born as terminal phase males
Star Wars is an American epic space opera franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas. It depicts the adventures of characters a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away. The franchise began in 1977 with the release of the film Star Wars and it was followed by the successful sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, these three films constitute the original Star Wars trilogy. A prequel trilogy was released between 1999 and 2005, which received mixed-to-negative reactions, a sequel trilogy began in 2015 with the release of Star Wars, The Force Awakens. All seven films were nominated for Academy Awards and have been successes, with a combined box office revenue of over $7.5 billion. Spin-off films include Star Wars, The Clone Wars and Rogue One, Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the Most successful film merchandising franchise. In 2015, the value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at USD $42 billion. In 2012, The Walt Disney Company acquired Lucasfilm for $4.06 billion and earned the rights to all subsequent Star Wars films.
Walt Disney Studios owns digital distribution rights to all the Star Wars films, the events depicted in the Star Wars franchise take place in an unnamed fictional galaxy at an undetermined point in the distant past. Many species of creatures are depicted. Robotic droids are commonplace and are built to serve their owners. Space travel is common, and many planets in the galaxy are members of a single galactic government. In the prequel trilogy, this is depicted in the form of the Galactic Republic, at the end of the trilogy and throughout the original trilogy. Preceding and during the trilogy, this government is the New Republic. One of the prominent elements of Star Wars is the Force and it is described in the first produced film as an energy field created by all living things surrounds us, penetrates us, binds the galaxy together. While the Force can be used for good, known as the side, it has a dark side that, when pursued, imbues users with hatred, aggression. The sequel trilogy introduces the Knights of Ren, an order of practitioners of the side of the Force aligned with the First Order.
The first film in the series, Star Wars, was released on May 25,1977 and this was followed by two sequels, The Empire Strikes Back, released on May 21,1980, and Return of the Jedi, released on May 25,1983
Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called protection, gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate, European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter, for example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organised crime and war sometimes complement each other. The term Oligarchy has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families, in the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as he unlawful activities of a highly organized, disciplined association.
Criminal activity as a process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups, bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010, the term “street gang” is commonly used interchangeably with “youth gang, ” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, a sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs that lack the family aspect at home. Zones of transition are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations, in such areas, conflict between groups, turf wars, and theft promote solidarity and cohesion. Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later, klein like Spergel studied the effects on members of social workers’ interventions.
More interventions actually lead to greater participation and solidarity and bonds between members. Downes and Rock on Parker’s analysis, strain theory applies, labeling theory, control theory and these may be defined by age or peer group influences, and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups form their own identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large. Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure, members saw themselves as organized criminals, gangs were formal-rational organizations, Strong organizational structures, well defined roles and rules that guided members’ behavior. Also a specified and regular means of income, padilla agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals