Smackover is a small city in northern Union County, United States. According to Citydata.com, the 2014 population was at 1,790. It had a large oil boom in the 1920s, with production continuing for some time. In 1686, the French settlers called this area "SUMAC COUVERT", which translates to "covered in sumac bushes"; this was transliterated, that is, phonetically Anglicized by the English-speaking settlers of the 19th century and to the name "SMACKOVER." The name Bayou de Chemin Couvert first appeared in an April 5, 1789, letter written by the commandant of Fort Miro to the French territorial governor. Oil was discovered in this area in 1922. Smackover was incorporated in 1923. In the 1920s there was a large-scale oil industry in Smackover; the industry declined here and across southern Arkansas by the 1960s, at a cost of many jobs and major losses to the area economy. The Smackover Oil Field was discovered on April 14, 1922; the J. T. Murphy well drilled by Oil Operators Trust, reached the Upper Cretaceous Nacatoch sand at a depth of 2024 feet, part of the Norphlet dome.
Within a year 1,000 wells had produced 25 million barrels of oil. In October 1922, a lighter oil was produced further west, from the Meakin sand, at depths between 2230 and 2350 feet. Oil was discovered in the Blossom sand at a depth of 2610 feet in March 1923; the Graves sand was exploited for oil at a depth of 2501 feet in January 1925. On 8 May 1936, oil was discovered in the Jurassic Smackover Formation limestone at a depth of 4800 feet by the Phillips Petroleum Company. Oil and gas were produced from the porous Reynolds oolite at a depth of 4897 feet; the city is in northern Union County along Smackover Creek. El Dorado lies about ten miles to the south-southeast along Arkansas Route 7. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.2 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Smackover has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,005 people, 794 households, 565 families residing in the city. The population density was 471.9 people per square mile. There were 915 housing units at an average density of 215.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.57% White, 26.28% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from two or more races. 0.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 794 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.8% were non-families. 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 21.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,807, the median income for a family was $36,875. Males had a median income of $31,081 versus $19,536 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,461. About 9.1% of families and 14.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. Public education for early childhood and secondary school students is provided by the Smackover School District, which includes: Smackover Elementary School, serving prekindergarten through grade 6. Smackover High School, serving grades 7 through 12; the school district's athletic emblem is the Battlin' Buckaroos with black and white as the school colors. The little oil town of Smackover is steeped in pure Americana. A street-mounted antique stop light is located in the center of town and western-style store fronts line Main Street.
It is home to the Arkansas Museum of Natural Resources. The Museum depicts the history and culture of Smackover and the surrounding area with an indoor reconstruction of the city's downtown, an Oil Field Park, numerous exhibits illustrating South Arkansas's oil industry. Smackover hosts an annual four-day Oil Town Festival held in June. Longtime college coaching legend Wayne Hardin, a former Smackover resident, was inducted into the NFF College Hall of Fame in 2013; the city has two natives in the College Football Hall of Fame. Wayne Hardin, college football player Nathan Fletcher, California politician Sleepy LaBeef, roots musician Clyde Scott, football player
El Dorado, Arkansas
El Dorado is a city in, the county seat of, Union County, on the southern border of Arkansas, United States. According to estimates, the 2012 census, the population of the city is 18,491. El Dorado is headquarters of the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission as well as Murphy Oil, Murphy USA, Deltic Timber Corporation, the Lion Oil Refinery; the city contains a community college, South Arkansas Community College, a multi-cultural arts center: South Arkansas Arts Center. El Dorado is the population and business center of the regional area; the city is best known as being the heart of the 1920s oil boom in southern Arkansas. Its nickname is "Arkansas’s Original Boomtown". During World War II, it became a center of the chemical industry, which still plays a part in the economy, as do oil and timber. El Dorado is located 100 miles from the state capital of Little Rock. On May 21, 1919, Frank Livingston, a black World War I veteran accused of murder with scant evidence, was burned alive by a mob in El Dorado.
El Dorado is located at 33°12′49″N 92°39′45″W. in Union County, Arkansas in the southern part of the state. Union County borders the state of Louisiana; the area has the unique feature of sharing its border with eight parishes: Ouachita. El Dorado is the largest urban population center in its region. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.3 square miles, of which 16.3 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. El Dorado is located in the West Gulf Coastal Plain: In Arkansas, the West Gulf Coastal Plain covers the southeastern and south central portions of the state along the border of Louisiana; this Lowland area of Arkansas is characterized by pine farmlands. Natural resources include petroleum deposits and beds of bromine flats; the lowest point in the state is found on the Ouachita River in the West Gulf Coastal Plain of Arkansas. El Dorado is located about 28 miles to the west of Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, the world's largest green tree reservoir.
El Dorado is located in the humid subtropical zone. El Dorado is hot during summer when temperatures tend to be in the 90's and cool during winter when temperatures tend to be in the 50's; the warmest month of the year is July with an average maximum temperature of 92.70 degrees Fahrenheit, while the coldest month of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of 32.90 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperature variations between night and day tend to be moderate during summer with a difference that can reach 22 degrees Fahrenheit, moderate during winter with an average difference of 23 degrees Fahrenheit; the annual average precipitation at El Dorado is 54.11 inches. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year; the wettest month of the year is May with an average rainfall of 5.49 inches. Future Interstate 69 U. S. Highway 63 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 167 Highway 7 Highway 15 El Dorado has two airports, one commercial and a small general aviation airport, both of which are owned by the city.
The South Arkansas Regional Airport at Goodwin Field offers private aircraft, as well as commercial service via one airline carrier. El Dorado's second airport is located within the city limits and closer to the downtown area; the El Dorado Downtown Airport has flights in and out for local industries, including Fortune 500 oil and gas companies and those who own small private planes have the option to lease or own their own hangar. The airport was serviced by SeaPort Airlines, but flights ceased following SeaPort's liquidation on 20 September 2016; the US Department of Transportation announced 9 December 2016 that a new EAS contract had been awarded to Southern Airways Express to fly 18 weekly round trip non stop flights to Dallas Fort Worth. El Dorado water is served locally by El Dorado Water Utilities, a private company categorized under Water and Sewage Companies-Utility. Current estimates show this company has an annual revenue of $10 to 20 million and employs a staff of 50 to 99; the electric power is provided by Entergy of Arkansas.
Other utility companies serving El Dorado and surrounding areas include Centerpoint Energy, Southern Lp-Gas Inc, Bcs Inc, Suddenlink Television, Verizon Wireless, AT&T, among others. The city and surrounding area is served by the Medical Center of South Arkansas, MCSA, accredited by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, is a general acute-care hospital licensed by the Arkansas Department of Health; as of the census of 2010, there were 18,884 people, 8,969 households, 5,732 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,323.3 people per square mile. There were 9,969 housing units at an average density of 607.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.9% Black or African American, 45.1% White, 0.30% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 1.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,686 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families.
Of 8,686 households, 304 are unmarried partner households: 243 heterosexual, 19 same-sex male, 42 same-sex female. 30.7% o
Daisy Bates (activist)
Daisy Lee Gatson Bates was an American civil rights activist, publisher and lecturer who played a leading role in the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957. Daisy Lee Gatson Bates was born on November 11, 1914, she grew up in southern Arkansas in the small sawmill town of Huttig. Bates was born in a shotgun house to her biological mother and father, Hezakiah Gatson and Millie Riley. Hezakiah Gatson supported the family by working as a lumber grader in a local mill. After the murder of her mother, Daisy was handed off to Gatson's close friends, Orlee Smith, a World War I veteran, Susie Smith. Daisy never saw her biological father after that. In The Death of my Mother, Bates recounted learning at eight years old, of her birth mother being first raped murdered, by three local white men, her biological mother was dropped into a millpond when Daisy was only a few months old. Learning of her mother's death and knowing that nothing was done about it fueled her anger, her adoptive father, Orlee Smith, told her that the killers were never found due to the lack of devotion to the case from the police.
This released a desire for vengeance inside Daisy: "My life now had a secret goal – to find the men who had done this horrible thing to my mother." This new mission allowed her to find one of her mother's killers. At a commissary, she stumbled upon a gaze from a young white man that would imply that he was involved. After this interaction, Daisy would go there to belittle the drunken man with just her eyes; the young man's guilt would force him to plead Daisy, "In the name of God, please leave me alone." This ended once he was found in an alleyway. The understanding of her current societal norms dominates her actions as she begins to hate white people. Out of concern and hope, on his deathbed, her adoptive father, gave her some advice: You're filled with hatred. Hate can destroy you, Daisy. Don't hate white people just because they're white. If you hate, make it count for something. Hate the humiliations we are living under in the South. Hate the discrimination that eats away at the South. Hate the discrimination that eats away at the soul of every black man and woman.
Hate the insults hurled at us by white scum—and try to do something about it, or your hate won't spell a thing. Bates said she had never forgotten that and it is from this memory that Bates claimed her strength for leadership came. Before Daisy was exposed to her biological mother's death, she played with Beatrice, a white girl around her age, they shared pennies for hard candy, got along well. Bates' childhood included the attendance to Huttig's segregated public schools, where she learned firsthand the poor conditions to which black students were exposed. Orlee Smith died. Daisy appreciated her father, leading to her own assumption that she married her husband because he shared similar qualities with her father. Bates had great adulation for the man where she couldn't "remember a time when this man I called my father didn't talk to me as if I were an adult." In contrast to their relationship, Daisy had an austere relationship with her mother. Susie Smith would punish Daisy and, "often clobbered, tamed and made to stand in the corner" Even after the death of Orlee Smith, the two had a falling out.
Daisy was 25 when she started dating Lucius Christopher Bates, an insurance salesman who had worked on newspapers in the South and West. Daisy was only 13 years old when they first met, Lucius, still married to Kasssandra Crawford. Lucius divorced his first wife in 1941 before moving to Little Rock and starting the Arkansas State Press. After dating for several months, Daisy and L. C. Bates married on March 4, 1942. In 1952, Daisy Bates was elected president of the Arkansas Conference of NAACP branches. After their move to Little Rock, the Bateses decided to act on a dream of theirs, the ownership of a newspaper, they leased a printing plant that belonged to a church publication and inaugurated the Arkansas State Press, a weekly statewide newspaper. The first issue appeared on May 9, 1941; the Arkansas State Press was concerned with advocacy journalism and was modeled off other African-American publications of the era, such as the Chicago Defender and The Crisis. Stories about civil rights ran on the front page with the rest of the paper filled with other stories that spotlighted achievements of black Arkansans.
Pictures were in abundance throughout the paper. The paper became an avid voice for civil rights before a nationally recognized movement had emerged. Daisy Bates was recognized as co-publisher of the paper; as the former president of the Arkansas State Conference of the NAACP, Bates was involved in desegregated events. Though in 1954 the United States Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education made all the segregated schools illegal, the schools in Arkansas refused to enroll African American students. Bates and her husband tried to fight against the situation in their newspaper; the state press became a fervent supporter of the NAACP's integrated public school events. The State Press editorialized, "We feel that the proper approach would be for the leaders among the Negro race—not clabber mouths, Uncle Toms, or grinning appeasers to get together and counsel with the school heads." Concerning the policy of academic desegregation, The State press cultivated a spirit of immediatism within the hearts of African American and white citizens.
Opposite to gradual approach, this newspaper wanted immediate reform in Arkansas' educational system. The Arkansas State Press reported that the NAACP was the lead organizer in these protest events, the newspaper tend
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income