Catherine Conn, better known professionally as Kitty Carlisle and billed as Kitty Carlisle Hart, was an American stage and screen actress and spokeswoman for the arts. She is best remembered, she served 20 years on the New York State Council on the Arts. In 1991, she received the National Medal of Arts from President George H. W. Bush, she was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1999. Kitty Carlisle was born as Catherine Conn in Louisiana of German Jewish heritage, her grandfather Ben Holtzman was the mayor of Shreveport, a Confederate veteran of the American Civil War. He had been a gunner on the CSS Virginia, the Confederate ironclad warship that fought the USS Monitor at the Battle of Hampton Roads, her father Joseph Conn was a gynecologist. Her mother Hortense Holtzman Conn was obsessed with breaking into the prevailing Gentile society. A taxi driver once asked if her daughter was Jewish, she answered, "She may be, but I'm not". Carlisle's mother took her to Europe in 1921 where her mother hoped to marry her off to European royalty, believing that the nobility there were more amenable to a Jewish bride.
The two of them traveled around Europe and lived in what Carlisle recalled as "the worst room of the best hotel." She was educated at the Chateau Mont-Choisi in Lausanne, Switzerland at the Sorbonne and the London School of Economics. She studied acting in London at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. After returning to New York in 1932 with her mother, she appeared, billed as Kitty Carlisle, on Broadway in several operettas and musical comedies, in the American premiere of Benjamin Britten's The Rape of Lucretia, she sang the title role in Georges Bizet's Carmen in Salt Lake City. She studied voice with Juilliard teacher Anna E. Schoen-Rene, a student of Pauline Viardot-Garcia and Manuel Garcia. Carlisle's early movies included Murder at the Vanities, A Night at the Opera with the Marx Brothers, two films with Bing Crosby, She Loves Me Not and Here Is My Heart. Carlisle resumed her film career in life, appearing in Woody Allen's Radio Days and in Six Degrees of Separation, as well as on stage in a revival of On Your Toes, replacing Dina Merrill.
Her last movie appearance was in Catch Me If You Can in which she played herself in a dramatization of a 1970s To Tell the Truth episode. For her contributions to the film industry, Carlisle was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960 with a motion pictures star located at 6611 Hollywood Boulevard. In the early 1950s, Carlisle was an occasional panelist on the NBC game show, Who Said That?, in which celebrities try to determine the speaker of quotations taken from recent news reports. Carlisle became a household name through To Tell the Truth, where she was a regular panelist from 1956 to 1978, appeared on revivals of the series in 1980, 1990–91 and one episode in 2000, she was a semi-regular panelist on Password, Match Game, Missing Links, What's My Line? On December 31, 1966, Carlisle made her debut with the Metropolitan Opera, as Prince Orlofsky in Strauss's Die Fledermaus, she sang the role 10 more times that season returned in 1973 for four more performances. Her final performance with the company was on July 7, 1973.
She reprised this role during the Beverly Sills Farewell Gala in October 1980. Carlisle dated George Gershwin in 1933 "until George went to California", she married playwright and theatrical producer Moss Hart on August 10, 1946, the two having met as actors at the Bucks County Playhouse in New Hope, Pennsylvania. They had two children, she never remarried, although she dated former governor and presidential candidate Thomas E. Dewey after the death of his wife. Carlisle was known for her gracious manners and personal elegance, she became prominent in New York City social circles as she crusaded for financial support of the arts, she was appointed to various statewide councils, was chairman of the New York State Council of the Arts from 1976 to 1996. The New York State Theater in Albany is named the Kitty Carlisle Hart Theatre in recognition of this, she served on the boards of various New York City cultural institutions and made an appearance at the annual CIBC World Markets Miracle Day, a children's charity event.
She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1997. During the 1980s and 1990s, Carlisle was the partner of diplomatic historian Ivo John Lederer, their relationship lasted 16 years until Lederer's death in 1998. In her years, she kept company with financier and art collector Roy Neuberger, she widely performed her one-woman show in which she told anecdotes about the many great men in American musical theater history whom she had known, notably George Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Kurt Weill, Oscar Hammerstein, Alan Jay Lerner, Frederick Loewe, interspersed with a few of the songs that made each of them famous. Carlisle Hart was a longtime champion of Historic Preservation in State. While chair of the New York State Council on the Arts from 1976 to 1996, Mrs. Hart directed many millions of dollars in support to preservation projects from the Niagara Frontier to Staten Island in an effort to keep historic preservation as a core program of the New York State Council on the Arts
Ralph Rexford Bellamy was an American actor whose career spanned 62 years on stage and television. During his career, he played leading roles as well as supporting roles, garnering acclaim and awards, including an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actor for The Awful Truth. Ralph Rexford Bellamy was born in Chicago, he was the son of Lilla Louise, a native of Canada, Charles Rexford Bellamy. He managed to get into a road show, he toured with road shows before landing in New York City. He by 1927 owned his own theater company. In 1931, he made his film debut and worked throughout the decade both as a lead and as a capable supporting actor, he co-starred in five films with Fay Wray. His film career began with The Secret Six starring Wallace Beery and featuring Jean Harlow and Clark Gable. By the end of 1933, he had appeared in 22 movies, most notably Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm and the second lead in the action film Picture Snatcher with James Cagney, he played in seven more films in 1934 alone, including Woman in the Dark, based on a Dashiell Hammett story, in which Bellamy played the lead, second-billed under Fay Wray.
Bellamy kept up the pace through the decade, receiving a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The Awful Truth with Irene Dunne and Cary Grant, played a similar part, that of a naive boyfriend competing with the sophisticated Grant character, in His Girl Friday. He portrayed detective Ellery Queen in a few films during the 1940s, but as his film career did not progress, he returned to the stage, where he continued to perform throughout the 1950s. Bellamy appeared in other movies during this time, including Dance, Dance with Maureen O'Hara and Lucille Ball, the horror classic The Wolf Man with Lon Chaney, Jr. and Evelyn Ankers. He appeared in The Ghost of Frankenstein in 1942 with Chaney and Bela Lugosi. In 1949, Bellamy starred in the television noir private eye series Man Against Crime on the DuMont Television Network; the lead role was taken by Frank Lovejoy in 1956, who subsequently starred in NBC's Meet McGraw detective series. Bellamy appeared on television in numerous roles over the following years.
He was a regular panelist on the CBS television game show To Tell the Truth during its initial run. Bellamy starred as Willard Mitchell, along with Patricia Breslin and Paul Fix, in the 1961 episode "The Haven" of CBS's anthology series The DuPont Show with June Allyson. About this same time, he appeared on the NBC anthology series, The Barbara Stanwyck Show. In December 1961, he portrayed the part of Judge Quince in the episode "Judgement at Hondo Seco" on CBS's Rawhide. During the 1963–1964 television season, Bellamy co-starred with Jack Ging in the NBC medical drama The Eleventh Hour, in the role of a psychiatrist in private practice. Wendell Corey had appeared in the first season of the series. Bellamy appeared on Broadway in one of his most famous roles, as Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Sunrise at Campobello, he reprised the role in the 1960 film version. In the summer of 1961, Bellamy hosted nine original episodes of a CBS Western anthology series called Frontier Justice, a Dick Powell Four Star Television production.
In 1950 Bellamy became a member of an actors club located in New York. In 1962, Bellamy was cast as a minister, Daniel Quint, in the 1962 episode, "The Vintage Years," on the syndicated anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. In the story line, a young woman whom Quint befriends on a stagecoach ride, Lorna Erickson, sets him up to be robbed by her paramour, Johnny Meadows. Regarded within the industry, Bellamy served as a four-term President of Actors' Equity from 1952–1964. On film, Bellamy starred in the Western The Professionals as an oil tycoon married to Claudia Cardinale opposite adventurers Burt Lancaster and Lee Marvin, Roman Polanski's Rosemary's Baby as an evil physician, before turning to television during the 1970s. Among many roles in numerous shows, sometimes as a series regular, Bellamy portrayed Adlai Stevenson in the 1974 TV-movie The Missiles of October, a treatment of the Cuban Missile Crisis, he was a member of the cast of the short-lived CBS espionage drama Hunter in 1977.
An Emmy Award nomination for the mini-series The Winds of War – in which Bellamy reprised his Sunrise at Campobello role of Franklin D. Roosevelt – brought him back into the spotlight; this was followed by his role as Randolph Duke, a conniving millionaire commodities trader in Trading Places alongside Don Ameche. The 1988 Eddie Murphy film, Coming to America, included a brief cameo by Bellamy and Don Ameche, reprising their roles as the Duke brothers. In 1984, Bellamy was presented with a Life Achievement Award from the Screen Actors Guild, in 1987, he received an Honorary Academy Award "for his unique artistry and his distinguished service to the profession of acting". In 1988, he again portrayed Franklin Roosevelt in the sequel to The Winds of War and Remembrance. Among his roles was a memorable appearance as a once-brilliant but senile lawyer sadly skewered by the Jimmy Smits character on an episode of L. A. Law. Bellamy continued working and gave his final performance in Pretty Woman. Throughout the 1930s and'40s, Bellamy was seen with a s
New York Herald Tribune
The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966. It was created in 1924, it was regarded as a "writer's newspaper" and competed with The New York Times in the daily morning market. The paper won at least nine Pulitzer Prizes during its lifetime. A "Republican paper, a Protestant paper and a paper more representative of the suburbs than the ethnic mix of the city", the Tribune did not match the comprehensiveness of The New York Times' coverage, but its national and business coverage was viewed as among the best in the industry, as was its overall style. At one time or another, the paper was home to such writers as Dorothy Thompson, Red Smith, Roger Kahn, Richard Watts, Jr. Homer Bigart, Walter Kerr, Walter Lippmann, St. Clair McKelway, Judith Crist, Dick Schaap, Tom Wolfe, John Steinbeck, Jimmy Breslin. Editorially, the newspaper was the voice for eastern Republicans referred to as Rockefeller Republicans, espoused a pro-business, internationalist viewpoint; the paper, first owned by the Reid family, struggled financially for most of its life and generated enough profit for growth or capital improvements.
However, it enjoyed prosperity during World War II and by the end of the conflict had pulled close to the Times in ad revenue. A series of disastrous business decisions, combined with aggressive competition from the Times and poor leadership from the Reid family, left the Herald Tribune far behind its rival. In 1958, the Reids sold the Herald Tribune to John Hay Whitney, a multimillionaire Wall Street investor, serving as ambassador to the United Kingdom at the time. Under his leadership, the Tribune experimented with new layouts and new approaches to reporting the news, made important contributions to the body of New Journalism that developed in the 1960s; the paper revived under Whitney, but a 114-day newspaper strike stopped the Herald Tribune's gains and ushered in four years of strife with labor unions the local chapter of the International Typographical Union. Faced with mounting losses, Whitney attempted to merge the Herald Tribune with the New York World-Telegram and the New York Journal-American in the spring of 1966.
Combined with investments in the World Journal Tribune, Whitney spent $39.5 million in his attempts to keep the newspaper alive. After the New York Herald Tribune closed, the Times and The Washington Post, joined by Whitney, entered an agreement to operate the International Herald Tribune, the paper's former Paris publication; the International Herald Tribune was renamed the International New York Times in 2013 and is now named The New York Times International Edition. New York magazine, created as the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine in 1963, was revived by editor Clay Felker in 1968, continues to publish today; the New York Herald was founded on May 6, 1835 by James Gordon Bennett, a Scottish immigrant who came to the United States aged 24. Bennett, a firm Democrat, had established a name in the newspaper business in the 1820s with dispatches sent from Washington to the New York Enquirer, most critical of President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of State Henry Clay. Bennett was a pioneer in crime reporting.
The fight over access overshadowed the trial itself. Bennett founded the New York Globe in 1832 to promote the re-election of Andrew Jackson to the White House, but the paper folded after the election. After a few years of journalistic piecework, he founded the Herald in 1835 as a penny newspaper, similar in some respects to Benjamin Day's Sun but with a strong emphasis on crime and financial coverage. Bennett, who wrote much of the newspaper himself, "perfected the fresh, pointed prose practiced in the French press at its best"; the publisher's coverage of the 1836 murder of Helen Jewett—which, for the first time in the American press, included excerpts from the murder victim's correspondence—made Bennett "the best known, if most notorious…journalist in the country". Bennett put his profits back into his newspaper, establishing a Washington bureau and recruiting correspondents in Europe to provide the "first systematic foreign coverage" in an American newspaper. By 1839, the Herald's circulation exceeded that of The London Times.
When the Mexican–American War broke out in 1846, the Herald assigned a reporter to the conflict—the only newspaper in New York to do so—and used the telegraph a new technology, to not only beat competitors with news but provide Washington policymakers with the first reports from the conflict. During the American Civil War, Bennett kept at least 24 correspondents in the field, opened a Southern desk and had reporters comb the hospitals to develop lists of casualties and deliver messages from the wounded to their families; the New-York Tribune was founded by Horace Greeley in 1841. Greeley, a native of New Hampshire, had begun publishing a weekly paper called The New-Yorker in 1834, whi
A clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick or similar types of physical comedy in a mime style. Clowns have a varied tradition with significant variations in performance; the most recognisable modern clown character is the Auguste or "red clown" type, with outlandish costumes featuring distinctive makeup, colourful wigs, exaggerated footwear, colourful clothing. Their entertainment style is designed to entertain large audiences. Modern clowns are associated with the tradition of the circus clown, which developed out of earlier comedic roles in theatre or Varieté shows during the 19th to mid 20th centuries. Many circus clowns are a key circus act in their own right; the first mainstream clown role was portrayed by Joseph Grimaldi. In the early 1800s, he expanded the role of Clown in the harlequinade that formed part of British pantomimes, notably at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and the Sadler's Wells and Covent Garden theatres, he became so dominant on the London comic stage that harlequinade Clowns became known as "Joey", both the nickname and Grimaldi's whiteface make-up design were, still are, used by other types of clowns.
The comedy that clowns perform is in the role of a fool whose everyday actions and tasks become extraordinary—and for whom the ridiculous, for a short while, becomes ordinary. This style of comedy has a long history in many cultures across the world; some writers have argued that due to the widespread use of such comedy and its long history it is a need, part of the human condition. The "fear of clowns," circus clowns in particular as a psychiatric condition has become known by the term coulrophobia; the "clown" character developed out of the zanni "rustic fool" characters of the early modern commedia dell'arte, which were themselves directly based on the "rustic fool" characters of ancient Greek and Roman theatre. Rustic buffoon characters in Classical Greek theater were known as sklêro-paiktês or deikeliktas, besides other generic terms for "rustic" or "peasant". In Roman theater, a term for clown was fossor "digger; the English word clown was first recorded c. 1560 in the generic meaning "rustic, peasant".
The origin of the word is uncertain from a Scandinavian word cognate with clumsy. It is in this sense that "Clown" is used as the name of fool characters in Shakespeare's Othello and The Winter's Tale; the sense of clown as referring to a professional or habitual fool or jester developed soon after 1600, based on Elizabethan "rustic fool" characters such as Shakespeare's. The harlequinade developed in England in the 17th century, it was here. A foil for Harlequin's slyness and adroit nature, Clown was a buffoon or bumpkin fool who resembled less a jester than a comical idiot, he was a lower class character dressed in tattered servants' garb. The now-classical features of the clown character were developed in the early 1800s by Joseph Grimaldi, who played Clown in Charles Dibdin's 1800 pantomime Peter Wilkins: or Harlequin in the Flying World at Sadler's Wells Theatre, where Grimaldi built the character up into the central figure of the harlequinade; the circus clown developed in the 19th century.
The modern circus derives from Philip Astley's London riding school, which opened in 1768. Astley added a clown to his shows to amuse the spectators between equestrian sequences. American comedian George L. Fox became known for his clown role, directly inspired by Grimaldi, in the 1860s. Tom Belling senior developed the "red clown" or "Auguste" character c. 1870, acting as a foil for the more sophisticated "white clown". Belling worked for Circus Renz in Vienna. Belling's costume became the template for the modern stock character of circus or children's clown, based on a lower class or "hobo" character, with red nose, white makeup around the eyes and mouth, oversized clothes and shoes; the clown character as developed by the late 19th century is reflected in Ruggero Leoncavallo's 1892 opera Pagliacci. Belling's Auguste character was further popularized by Nicolai Poliakoff's Coco in the 1920s to 1930s; the English word clown was borrowed, along with the circus clown act, from many other languages, such as French clown, Russian кло́ун, Greek κλόουν, Danish/Norwegian klovn, Romanian clovn etc.
Italian retains Pagliaccio, a Commedia dell'arte zanni character, derivations of the Italian term are found in other Romance languages, such as French Paillasse, Spanish payaso, Catalan/Galician pallasso, Portuguese palhaço, Greek παλιάτσος, Turkish palyaço, German Pajass, Yiddish פּאַיאַץ, Russian пая́ц. In the early 20th century, with the disappearance of the rustic simpleton or village idiot character of everyday experience, North American circuses developed characters such as the tramp or hobo. Examples include Marceline Orbes, who performed at the Hippodrome Theater, Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp, Emmett Kelly's Weary Willie based on hobos of the Depression era. Another influential tramp character was played by Otto Griebling during the 1930s to 1950s. Red Skelton's Dodo the Clown in The Clown, depicts the circus clown as a tragicomic stock character, "a funny man with a drinking problem". In the United States, Bozo the Clown was an influential Auguste character since the late 1950s; the Bozo Show premiered in 1960 and appeared nationally on cable television in 1978.
McDonald's derived Ronald McDonald, from the Bozo character in the 1960s. Willard Scott, who h
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Michael Hammer is a fictional character created by the American author Mickey Spillane in the 1947 book I, the Jury. Hammer is a no-holds-barred private investigator who carries a.45 Colt M1911A1 in a shoulder harness under his left arm. His love for his secretary Velda is outweighed only by his willingness to kill a killer. Hammer's best friend is Pat Chambers, Captain of Homicide NYPD. Hammer was a World War II army veteran who spent two years fighting jungle warfare in the Pacific theatre against Japan. In 1946, Spillane, an established comic-book writer, worked with illustrator Mike Roy to create the private-eye character Mike Danger for proposed comic-book or comic-strip publication. Unable to sell the project as a comic, he reworked the story as the novel I, the Jury, converting Mike Danger to Mike Hammer and supporting character Holly to Velda. While pulp detectives such as Sam Spade and Philip Marlowe are hard-boiled and cynical, Hammer is in many ways the archetypal "hard man": brutally violent, fueled by a genuine rage against violent crime that never afflicts Raymond Chandler's or Dashiell Hammett's heroes.
In The Big Kill Hammer describes himself to a bargirl as a misanthrope. Spillane admitted to pulp writer Carroll John Daly regarded as the inventor of the hard-boiled private eye figure, that Hammer was loosely modeled on Race Williams, Daly's most used detective character. While other hardboiled heroes bend and manipulate the law, Hammer views it as an impediment to justice, the one virtue he holds in absolute esteem. Hammer has a strong respect for the majority of police, realizing they have a difficult job and their hands are tied by the law when trying to stop criminals. Hammer is patriotic and anti-communist; the novels are peppered with remarks by Hammer supporting American troops in Korea, in Survival... Zero Vietnam. In One Lonely Night, where Hammer attends a communist meeting in a park, his reaction to the speaker's propaganda is a sarcastic "Yeah." So far as violence is concerned, the Hammer novels leave little to the imagination. Written in the first person, Hammer describes his violent encounters with relish.
In all but a few novels, Hammer's victims are left vomiting after a blow to the stomach or groin. Hammer is an ageless character. Spillane said of his character: "heroes never die. John Wayne isn't dead, Elvis isn't dead. Otherwise you don't have a hero. You can't kill a hero. That's why I never let him get older." The Washington Times obituary of Spillane said of Hammer, "In a manner similar to Clint Eastwood's Dirty Harry, Hammer was a cynical loner contemptuous of the'tedious process' of the legal system, choosing instead to enforce the law on his own terms." The Night I Died The Duke Alexander The Killing Man Black Alley The Big Switch A Long Time Dead Grave Matter Skin So Long, Chief It's In The Book Fallout A Dangerous Cat A Long Time Dead: A Mike Hammer Casebook Tonight My Love Several movies and radio and television series have been based on the books in the Hammer series. The actor most identified with the character in recent years has been Stacy Keach, who portrayed Hammer in a CBS television series, Mickey Spillane's Mike Hammer, which ran from 1984–1987 and had a syndicated revival in 1997–1998.
Spillane himself played Hammer in a 1963 motion picture adaptation of The Girl Hunters. Spillane himself favoured ex-Marine and former Newburgh, New York police officer Jack Stang, on whom he based the character, to play him. Stang appeared with Spillane in the 1954 film Ring of Fear and in the film adaptation of I, the Jury. I, the Jury, filmed in 3-D starring Biff Elliot as Mike Hammer. Kiss Me Deadly, Robert Aldrich was the director, Ralph Meeker was cast as Hammer, while Maxine Cooper portrayed Hammer's sexy secretary/companion Velda. My Gun Is Quick, Robert Bray was cast as Hammer, with more of the violence originating from the villain than the detective; the film grossed $308,000 with a total of $602 overseas. The Girl Hunters (Colorama Feature
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC