Hybe is a village and municipality in the Liptovský Mikuláš District in the Žilina Region of northern Slovakia. The name is of Slavic origin with uncertain etymology, it derives from the stem -gyb/-hyb. Proto-Slavic gybij, gybaja, Slovak hybký - unstable, the stem is present in words like ohyb - bending, pohyb - movement, etc; the name may refers to the character of the river Hybica. The name was adopted by the Germans before the spirantisation of Slavic /g/ to /h/ in Slovak language - Geib; the village of Hybe was first mentioned in historical records in 1239. The village was founded as a Slovak settlement. In 1230 the village was owned by Hauk and Beuch from Uhorská Ves. In 1239, King Béla IV of Hungary associated it with the royal property. In 1396, Hybe gives from toll free. In the 1. Half of 13th century move in German Sasses. In 1265 Hybe purchase city privileges like mining city - in the 13th century the citizens trying mine a gold on the root of the mountain Kriváň. On sign of village is digger and hoe, which has remained unchanged to today.

Mining was too useless because of poory gold lode and because of high expenses in hard terrain. Part of gold miners went to Bocianska dolina. In 1390 Hybe became the property of Liptov District Administrator and become villein small town of domination in Liptovský Hrádok. Between 14th and 15th centuries mining crafts. Despite of villein ratio to Liptovský Hrádok, Hybe was important farming and culture center of top part of Liptov from the end of the 19th century to 1st half of the 20th century. Above 20 kinds of crafts were in the village but the most widespread was builders, which became famous specialists at building of City of Budapest. Important infrastructure in the village represent: infant school, elementary school, palace of culture, Evangelic church, Roman Catholic Church, house of Dobroslav Chrobák and library. Both churches, memorable house of Dobroslav Chrobák, memorable house of poet Jakub Grajchman, grave of Jakub Grajchman with gravestone, memorable house of Alojz Štróbl are inhere in the Central list ancient monument foundation of Slovak Republic, on the list: Culture monuments.

Entire center of village is promulgated for national culture treasure. On the present is on the village created strong sports background, local sportsmen get awards in the slovak competitions in the cross-country skiing. Hybe has good conditions for winter sports, cyclo-tourism, tourism in Hybe gully or into mineral springs and for mushrooms. There is situated certified racing track. In village is volunteer fireman brigade. Local school visit kids from surrounding villages. School has good equipped Computer class within of program Infovek, on Hybe's school is a lot of activities like table tennis, football and in winter hockey. Today's citizens of Hybe take pride in their cultural history, on men of the day, which came from Hybe and prove competent in a number of areas social and cultural life of Slovak Republic; these include: writers Jakub Grajchman and Dobroslav Chrobák, writer and screenwriter Peter Jaroš, historian and writer Rudo Brtáň, poet Július Lenko, actors Ivan Rajniak, Ondrej Jariabek, Teodor Piovarči, Slavo Záhradník, director Ondrej Rajniak, director of amateur theatre Ruzena Jariabeková, academic painter Pavol Michalides, architects Ján Svetlík, Jozef Chrobák, Vladimir Chrobák, Ján Mlynár and many others.

The municipality lies at an altitude of 690 metres and covers an area of 52.866 km². It has a population of about 1600 people, it lies in north part of Slovak Republic. It is situated in valley of Hybica and White Váh. Thanks to the works of the writer Peter Jaroš, Hybe has been depicted in Slovak cinematography. From director Martin Ťapák; this movie is about historical legend - brigand Pacho, who helped poor people and fight with poorness like Juraj Jánošík. The saga about builder lineage of Pichandovci, located in small village in years 1887–1917; this movie belongs between the best movie of central Europe. On movie works several important people from social and cultural life after 1968. Director Juraj Jakubisko, Screenwriter Peter Jaroš, Music - Petr Hapka and famous Slovak actors Michal Dočolomanský, Štefan Kvietik, Pavol Mikulík and the best slovak actor Academy Award winner Jozef Króner; the main part of movie was filmed in Hybe and supernumeraries are real citizens of Hybe. The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Bytca, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1675-1923 Lutheran church records: 1731-1895 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Official website Millennial Bee on IMDb Surnames of living people in Hybe

The Phoenix (newspaper)

The Phoenix was the name of several alternative weekly periodicals published in the United States of America by Phoenix Media/Communications Group of Boston, including the Portland Phoenix and the now-defunct Boston Phoenix, Providence Phoenix and Worcester Phoenix. These publications emphasized local arts and entertainment coverage as well as lifestyle and political coverage; the Portland Phoenix, although it is still publishing, is now owned by another company, New Portland Publishing. The papers, like most alternative weeklies, are somewhat similar in format and editorial content to the Village Voice; the Phoenix was founded in 1965 by a former editor at MIT's student newspaper, The Tech. Since many Boston-area college newspapers were printed at the same printing firm, Hanlon's idea was to do a four-page single-sheet insert with arts coverage and ads, he began with the Harvard Business School's newspaper The Harbus News. A student there, James T. Lewis, became Hanlon's advertising manager.

Boston After Dark began March 2, 1966. Theater enthusiast Larry Stark began contributing theater reviews with the second issue; when the insert idea did not pan out, the trio continued Boston After Dark as a weekly free paper. A year after the launch, Hanlon sold off his half to Lewis. For three years, Boston After Dark kept the four-page format, with Lewis as publisher, Jane Steidemann as editor, Stephen M. Mindich as ad salesman and Stark as full-time theater critic and copy editor, plus film reviews by Deac Rossell, who went on to become head of programming at London's National Film Theatre; as the paper expanded, Mindich acquired a half interest. Stark quit in 1972 and began reviewing for the rival Cambridge Phoenix, which had begun October 9, 1969, started by Jeffrey Tarter; the first managing editor of the Cambridge Phoenix was April Smith, who became a novelist and TV writer-producer. Following a two-week writers' strike in August 1972, the Cambridge Phoenix was sold to Boston After Dark.

Mindich's merger became known as The Boston Phoenix, with Boston After Dark used as the name for the paper's arts and entertainment section, as well as the nameplate for a free edition of the Phoenix distributed on college campuses in Boston. In the conflicts between writers and management, ousted writers started another weekly, The Real Paper, while management continued the Boston Phoenix. In 1988, the company that owns the Phoenix, Phoenix Media/Communications Group, bought a similar publication in neighboring Providence, Rhode Island called The NewPaper, founded in 1978 by Providence Journal columnist Ty Davis, it continued under the NewPaper name until 1993. In 1999, PM/CG branched out into Maine by creating the Portland Phoenix; that same year the nameplate changed from Phoenix B. A. D. to The Boston Phoenix. From 1992 through 2000, there was a Worcester Phoenix, but it folded due to Worcester's dwindling arts market. In 2005, the Phoenix underwent a major redesign, switching from a broadsheet/Berliner format to a tabloid format and introduced a new logo in order to increase its appeal to younger readers.

Towards the end of its existence, The Phoenix had a weekly circulation of 253,000, its website featured 90% of the paper's content, as well as extra content not included in the paper. On August 1, 2012, it was announced that Stuff Magazine and the Boston Phoenix newspaper would merge and the result would be a weekly magazine to be called The Phoenix, to debut in the fall of 2012; the first issue of the new, glossy-paper Phoenix had a cover date of September 21, 2012. On March 14, 2013, the publisher announced that the Boston Phoenix would fold effective as of the March 15, 2013 print edition, though the Portland and Providence papers would be unaffected. In October 2014, The Phoenix announced that their Providence paper would cease publication, with last issue being the October 17 issue; the Boston Phoenix published its last issue on March 14, 2013. A statement from publisher Mindich in that issue blamed the 2007 financial crisis and changes in the media business the downturn in print advertising revenue, as the reasons for the closing.

In November 2014, Mindich sold the Portland Phoenix to the Portland News Club LLC, publishers of The Portland Daily Sun. Although the Daily Sun would cease publication one month the Portland Phoenix continues to be published by new owners weekly. In January 2019, the owner of the since-renamed Country News Club, Mark Guerringe, announced that the Portland Phoenix would move from once weekly to bi-weekly. In February, the paper ceased publication altogether, with an announcement that the paper had folded coming in April. In an interview with the Portland Press Herald, Guerringue said he may try to relaunch the Portland Phoenix on a membership basis or as a non-profit, funded by ads for Maine's legal marijuana industry. After the closing of the Boston Phoenix and the Providence Phoenix, Mindich reassured the public that the websites would be maintained, the online and print archives would be preserved. Sometime in 2014, the websites ceased to function and when they did start to come back in 2015, the sites responded and intermittently.

As of 2018, they are dark. In November 2015, The Boston Globe announced that Mindich, with the help of former Phoenix columnist and current Northeastern University journalism professor Dan Kennedy, had donated the Phoenix's archives to Northeastern University’s Snell Library Archives and Special Collections; the gift included other publications associated with the Phoenix including Boston After Dark, the Portland, Provi


Embryology is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes and development of embryos and fetuses. Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology. Embryology has a long history. Aristotle proposed the accepted theory of epigenesis, that organisms develop from seed or egg in a sequence of steps; the alternative theory, that organisms develop from pre-existing miniature versions of themselves, held sway until the 18th century. Modern embryology developed from the work of Karl Ernst von Baer, though accurate observations had been made in Italy by anatomists such as Aldrovandi and Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end. In bilateral animals, the blastula develops in one of two ways that divide the whole animal kingdom into two halves. If in the blastula the first pore becomes the mouth of the animal, it is a protostome.

The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the vertebrates. In due course, the blastula changes into a more differentiated structure called the gastrula; the gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells from which all the bodily organs and tissues develop: The innermost layer, or endoderm, give rise to the digestive organs, the gills, lungs or swim bladder if present, kidneys or nephrites. The middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton if any, blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system, including the brain, skin or carapace and hair, bristles, or scales. Embryos in many species appear similar to one another in early developmental stages; this was first observed by Karl Ernst von Baer. His four principles helped to explain why embryos resemble those of other species but not their adult forms; the reason for this similarity is. These similarities among species are called homologous structures, which are structures that have the same or similar function and mechanism, having evolved from a common ancestor.

Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much research into embryology has been done. Before fertilization, the female gamete produces an abundance of mRNA - transcribed from the genes that encode bicoid protein and nanos protein; these mRNA molecules are stored to be used in what will become the developing embryo. The male and female Drosophila gametes exhibit anisogamy; the female gamete is larger than the male gamete because it harbors more cytoplasm and, within the cytoplasm, the female gamete contains an abundance of the mRNA mentioned. At fertilization, the male and female gametes fuse and the nucleus of the male gamete fuses with the nucleus of the female gamete. Note that before the gametes' nuclei fuse, they are known as pronuclei. A series of nuclear divisions will occur without cytokinesis in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell known as a syncytium. All the nuclei in the syncytium are identical, just as all the nuclei in every somatic cell of any multicellular organism are identical in terms of the DNA sequence of the genome.

Before the nuclei can differentiate in transcriptional activity, the embryo must be divided into segments. In each segment, a unique set of regulatory proteins will cause specific genes in the nuclei to be transcribed; the resulting combination of proteins will transform clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into multiple fetal and adult tissues in development. Outlined below is the process that leads to tissue differentiation. Maternal-effect genes - subject to Maternal inheritance Egg-polarity genes establish the Anteroposterior axis. Zygotic-effect genes - subject to Mendelian inheritance Segmentation genes establish 14 segments of the embryo using the anteroposterior axis as a guide. Gap genes establish 3 broad segments of the embryo. Pair-rule genes define 7 segments of the embryo within the confines of the second broad segment, defined by the gap genes. Segment-polarity genes define another 7 segments by dividing each of the pre-existing 7 segments into anterior and posterior halves.

Homeotic genes use the 14 segments as pinpoints for specific types of cell differentiation and the histological developments that correspond to each cell type. Humans are deuterostomes. In humans, the term embryo refers to the ball of dividing cells from the moment the zygote implants itself in the uterus wall until the end of the eighth week after conception. Beyond the eighth week after conception, the developing human is called a fetus; as as the 18th century, the prevailing notion in western human embryology was preformation: the idea that semen contains an embryo – a preformed, miniature infant, or homunculus – that becomes larger during development. The competing explanation of embryonic development was epigenesis proposed 2,000 years earlier by Aristotle. Much early embryology came from the work of the Italian anatomists Aldrovandi, Leonardo da Vinci, Marcello Ma