Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club has won 5 European Cups, more than any other English club, 3 UEFA Cups, 3 UEFA Super Cups, 18 League titles, 7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, 15 FA Community Shields. Founded in 1892, the club joined the Football League the following year and has played at Anfield since its formation. Liverpool established itself as a major force in English and European football in the 1970s and 1980s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to 11 League titles and seven European trophies. Under the management of Rafael Benítez and captained by Steven Gerrard, Liverpool became European champions for the fifth time in 2005. Liverpool was the ninth highest-earning football club in the world in 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €424.2 million, the world's eighth most valuable football club in 2018, valued at $1.944 billion. The club is one of the best supported teams in the world.
Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with Manchester Everton. The club's supporters have been involved in two major tragedies: the Heysel Stadium disaster, where escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall at the 1985 European Cup Final in Brussels, with 39 people – Italians and Juventus fans – dying, after which English clubs were given a five-year ban from European competition, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing; the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964, used since. The club's anthem is "You'll Never Walk Alone". Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892 and Houlding founded Liverpool F. C. to play at Anfield. Named "Everton F. C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd", the club became Liverpool F. C. in March 1892 and gained official recognition three months after The Football Association refused to recognise the club as Everton.
The team won the Lancashire League in its début season, joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, which it won in 1901 and again in 1906. Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, it won consecutive League championships in 1922 and 1923, but did not win another trophy until the 1946–47 season, when the club won the First Division for a fifth time under the control of ex-West Ham Utd centre half George Kay. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950; the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. Upon his arrival he released 24 players and converted a boot storage room at Anfield into a room where the coaches could discuss strategy; the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years.
In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup. In 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners' Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, the FA Cup again a year later. Shankly was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisley's second season as manager, the club won another UEFA Cup double; the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979. During Paisley's nine seasons as manager Liverpool won 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six League titles and three consecutive League Cups. Paisley was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagan's first season, becoming the first English side to win three trophies in a season. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium.
Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence which separated the two groups of supporters, charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans Italians; the incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster. The match was played in spite of protests by both managers, Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus; as a result of the tragedy, English clubs were banned from participating in European competition for five years. Fourteen Liverpool fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter. Fagan had announced his retirement just before the disaster and Kenny Dalglish was appointed as player-manager. During his tenure, the club won another three league titles and two FA Cups, including a League and Cup "Double" in the 1985–86 season. Liverpool's success was overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster: in an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest on 15 April 1989, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. Ninety-four fans died that day.
After the Hillsborough disaster there was a government review of stadium saf
Moss Side is an inner-city area of Manchester, England, 1.9 miles south of the city centre. It had a population of 18,902 at the 2011 census. Moss Side is bounded by Hulme to the north, Chorlton-on-Medlock and Fallowfield to the east, Whalley Range to the south, Old Trafford to the west; as well as Whitworth Park and Alexandra Park, Moss Side is close to Manchester and Manchester Metropolitan universities. Manchester City played at Maine Road in Moss Side between 1923 and 2003. Part of Lancashire, Moss Side was a rural township and chapelry within the parish of Manchester and hundred of Salford. Thought to be named after a great moss which stretched from Rusholme to Chorlton-cum-Hardy, the earliest mention of the area is in 1533 when it contained part of the estates of Trafford. Moss Side is described in the opening chapter of Elizabeth Gaskell's Mary Barton as a rural idyll with a'deep clear pool' and an old black and white timber-framed farmhouse identified as Pepperhill Farm. Following the Industrial Revolution there was a process of unplanned urbanisation and a rapid increase in population size.
The population in 1801 was 151 but by 1901 this had increased to 26,677. The industrial growth of the area resulted in a densely populated area, so much so, that a part of the township of Moss Side was amalgamated into the expanding city of Manchester in 1885, with the rest joining in 1904. Mass development in Moss Side occurred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when large numbers of red brick terraced houses were built, soon attracted numerous Irish immigrants and other working people. Manchester City F. C. moved to a new stadium on Maine Road on 25 August 1923, having moved from Ardwick. The club would play there for the next 80 years. During the Manchester Blitz in the Second World War many of the terraced houses were damaged by German bombing on the night of 22/23 December 1940. Migrants from the Indian subcontinent and Caribbean settled in the locality during the 1950s and 1960s, by the 1980s Moss Side was the hub of Manchester's Afro-Caribbean community. During the 1960s and early 1970s, Manchester City Council demolished many of the Victorian and terraced houses to the west of Moss Side and replaced these with new council houses and flats.
Most of the newer properties, built around the turn of the 20th century, were refurbished instead of demolished during the final two decades of the century. In 1981, the Moss Side area was one of England's inner city areas affected by a series of riots. Analysts trace the 1970s origins of Manchester's gang crime to social deprivation in the south-central part of the city – Hulme and Moss Side – where the activity of the underground economy encouraged a trade in illegal narcotics and firearms contributing to Manchester's nickname of "Gunchester". "Turf wars" between rival drugs'gangs', resulted in a high number of fatal shootings. During what has been termed the Madchester phase of the history of Manchester, narcotic trade in the city became "extremely lucrative" and in the early 1990s a gang war started between two groups vying for control of the market in Manchester city centre – the'Cheetham Hill Gang' and'The Gooch Close Gang', in Cheetham Hill and Moss Side, respectively. There were several high-profile shootings associated with gangs and drugs in this area during the 1990s and into the 21st century.
Aided by the work of Xcalibre, the Greater Manchester Police's task force, founded in 2004, the multiagency Integrated Gang Management Unit, gang related shootings in the area have fallen by about 90% in recent years. In April 1994, The Independent newspaper highlighted Moss Side as one of the most deprived areas on Britain, as having some of the highest crime rates. Drug abuse was described as one of the area's biggest problems, with gun crime rates being so high that there had been 400 armed incidents reported within a 12-month period. Ambulance crews had resorted to wearing body armour after having to deal with a string of drug-related shootings. Several doctors had been robbed of medical bags at knife point after being called out to local patients. A number of police vehicles had been fire-bombed and there had been reports of attempted ambushes on police patrols. Unemployment stood at nearly 30% – up to three times the national average in the early 1990s. Many of the flats in neighbouring Hulme were demolished in the early 1990s to make way for new low rise homes.
Housing on the Alexandra Park Estate in the west of Moss Side has been renovated and the streets redesigned to reduce the fear of crime. Moss Side is part of the Manchester Central constituency, represented by the Labour Party MP Lucy Powell. CouncillorsMoss Side is a ward within the local authority of Manchester City Council; the ward is represented by Labour Councillors: Mahadi Hussein Sharif Mahamed, Emily Rowles, Sameem Ali. indicates seat up for re-election. Moss Side lies either side of the A5103, the main road out of Manchester towards Northenden, Manchester Airport, the M56 motorway and Chester. Parallel to this is Alexandra Road. Landmarks on Princess Road are the Royal Brewery and the Princess Road Bus Depot, built for the tramways in 1909 and used by Stagecoach Manchester until 2010; the western border of the Moss Side Ward is bounded in part by Withington Road. Parts of the eastern border are bounded by Wilmslow Road, where it meets Whitworth Park, Parkfield Street. To the south, the border includes Alexandra Park, Horton Road and part of Platt La
Halifax, West Yorkshire
Halifax is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town has been a centre of woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward dealing through the Piece Hall. Halifax is known for Mackintosh's toffee products including Rolo and Quality Street; the Halifax Bank was founded and is still headquartered in Halifax. Dean Clough, one of the largest textile factories in the world at more than 1⁄2 mile long, was in the north of the town; the premises have since been converted for office and retail use including a gym, theatre and radio station. The town's name was recorded in about 1091 as Halyfax, from the Old English halh-gefeaxe, meaning "area of coarse grass in the nook of land"; this explanation is preferred to derivations from the Old English halig, in hālig feax or "holy hair", proposed by 16th-century antiquarians. The incorrect interpretation gave rise to two legends. One concerned. Another held; the legend is certainly medieval rather than ancient, although the town's coat of arms carries an image of the saint.
Another explanation ley a clearing or meadow. This etymology is based on Haley Hill, the nearby hamlet of Healey, the common occurrence of the surnames Hayley/Haley around Halifax; the erroneous derivation from halig has given rise to the demonym Haligonian, of recent origin and not in universal use. The Earldom of Halifax took the name of the town, its first creation, in the Peerage of England in 1677, was for William Savile, created Baron Savile of Eland and Viscount Halifax in 1668 and became the Marquess of Halifax. George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, became the President of the Board of Trade in 1748. In 1749 the city of Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, was named in his honour; the Halifax River in Central Florida, United States, was named after him. Halifax is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, evidence of the early settlement is indefinite. By the 12th century the township had become the religious centre of the vast parish of Halifax, which extended from Brighouse in the east to Heptonstall in the west.
Halifax Minster, parts of which date from the 12th century is dedicated to St John the Baptist. The minster's first organist, in 1766, was William Herschel; the coat of arms of Halifax include the chequers from the original coat of arms of the Earls Warenne, who held the town during Norman times. Halifax was notorious for its gibbet, an early form of guillotine used to execute criminals by decapitation, last used in 1650. A replica has been erected on the original site in Gibbet Street, its original blade is on display at Bankfield Museum. Punishment in Halifax was notoriously harsh, as remembered in the Beggar's Litany by John Taylor, a prayer whose text included "From Hull, from Halifax, from Hell, ‘tis thus, From all these three, Good Lord deliver us.". The town's 19th century wealth came from the cotton and carpet industries and like most other Yorkshire towns, it had a large number of weaving mills many of which have been lost or converted to alternate use. In November 1938, in an incident of mass hysteria, many residents believed a serial killer, the Halifax Slasher, was on the loose.
Scotland Yard concluded there were no attacks after several locals admitted they had inflicted wounds on themselves. Halifax plc started as a building society, the Halifax Permanent Benefit Building and Investment Society, in the town in 1853. Today the bank operates as a trading name of part of the Lloyds Banking Group. Yorkshire Bank, based in Leeds and known as the West Riding Penny Savings Bank, was established on 1 May 1859 by Colonel Edward Akroyd of Halifax. Halifax is twinned with Aachen in Germany; the A58 has a stretch called Aachen Way. Halifax has benefited from Single Regeneration Budget, European URBAN II and the Home Office’s Community Cohesion Fund money through Action Halifax who have a vision for "a prosperous and safe centre where all sections of the community can access opportunities to enhance their quality of life." The ancient parish of Halifax was divided into a large number of civil parishes in the 19th century. In Halifax, a body of improvement commissioners or town trustees was created between 1762 and 1823, the town became a borough constituency under the Great Reform Act of 1832.
Halifax was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888, became a county borough in 1889. Since 1974, Halifax has been the administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire. Topographically, Halifax is located in the south-eastern corner of the moorland region called the South Pennines. Halifax is situated about 4 miles from the M62 motorway, close to Huddersfield; the Tees-Exe line passes through the A641 road, which links Brighouse with Bradford and Huddersfield, The town lies 65 miles from Hull and Liverpool, about 170 miles from the cities of London, Belfast and Cardiff as the crow flies. The Hebble Brook joins the River Calder at Salterhebble. In 2004 Calderdale had a population of 192,405; the main ethnic group in Halifax is White, followed by Pakistani. Over 90% of people aged 16–74 were employed full-time. 64% of residents had qualification
Archibald Keir Leitch was a Scottish architect, most famous for his work designing football stadiums throughout Britain and Ireland. Born in Glasgow, Leitch's early work was on designing tea factories in Deltota in the former Kandyan Kingdom of Ceylon, as well as factories in his home city and in Lanarkshire, the sole surviving example of which being the category A listed Sentinel Works at Jessie Street, just south of Glasgow city centre. In 1896 he became a member of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, he moved into stadium design when he was commissioned to build Ibrox Park, the new home ground of his boyhood heroes Rangers, in 1899. Leitch's stadiums were considered functional rather than aesthetically elegant, were influenced by his early work on industrial buildings, his stands had two tiers, with criss-crossed steel balustrades at the front of the upper tier, were covered by a series of pitched roofs, built so that their ends faced onto the playing field.
His first project in England was the design and building of the John Street Stand at Bramall Lane, which provided 3,000 seats and terracing for 6,000 and was dominated by a large mock-Tudor press box. After the Ibrox disaster of 1902, when 26 people were killed when a bank of wooden terracing collapsed, Leitch was still in demand. Over the next four decades he became Britain's foremost football architect. In total he was commissioned to design part or all of more than 20 stadiums in the UK and Ireland between 1899 and 1939, including: Anfield, Liverpool Arsenal Stadium, London Ayresome Park, Middlesbrough Bramall Lane, Sheffield Cardiff Arms Park, Cardiff Craven Cottage, London Dalymount Park, Dublin Deepdale, Preston The Old Den, New Cross, London Dens Park, Dundee The Dell, Southampton Ewood Park, Blackburn The Double Decker stand, Filbert Street, Leicester Fratton Park, Portsmouth Goodison Park, Liverpool Hampden Park, Glasgow Home Park, Plymouth Hyde Road Football Stadium, Manchester Ibrox Park, Glasgow Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield Lansdowne Road, Dublin Leeds Road, Huddersfield Molineux, Wolverhampton Old Trafford, Greater Manchester Park Avenue, Bradford Roker Park, Sunderland Rugby Park, Kilmarnock Saltergate, Chesterfield Selhurst Park, South Norwood, London Somerset Park, Ayr Stamford Bridge, Walham Green, London fulham Starks Park, Kirkcaldy Twickenham Stadium, London Tynecastle Park, Edinburgh Valley Parade, Bradford Villa Park, Birmingham West Ham Stadium, Custom House, London White Hart Lane, London Windsor Park, BelfastMany of his works have since been demolished for redevelopment, most notably the Trinity Road Stand at Villa Park, considered his masterpiece, demolished in 2000.
The main stand and pavilion at Craven Cottage, the facade of the main stand at Ibrox and the Bullens Road and Gwladys Street stands at Goodison Park still survive to this day. Inglis, Simon. Engineering Archie: Archibald Kier Leitch –The first Steal Tea Factory in hill country of Kandyan Kingdom Deltota Ceylon, Deltota Great Vally Estate was Designed by Archibald Keir Leitch, Football Ground Designer. English Heritage. ISBN 1-85074-918-3. Whitehead, Richard. "Man who built his place in history". London: The Times. Oxford University Press | Biography Explore Glasgow – All round the city Features architectural elevations of all Leitch's stadiums in Glasgow
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed "the Red Devils", the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won more trophies than any other club in English football, with a record 20 League titles, 12 FA Cups, 5 League Cups and a record 21 FA Community Shields. United have won three UEFA Champions Leagues, one UEFA Europa League, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the club became the first in the history of English football to achieve the continental European treble. By winning the UEFA Europa League in 2016–17, they became one of five clubs to have won all three main UEFA club competitions; the 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players.
In 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies as manager, including 13 Premier League titles, 5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, between 1986 and 2013, when he announced his retirement. Manchester United was the highest-earning football club in the world for 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €676.3 million, the world's most valuable football club in 2018, valued at £3.1 billion. As of June 2015, it is the world's most valuable football brand, estimated to be worth $1.2 billion. After being floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was purchased by Malcolm Glazer in May 2005 in a deal valuing the club at £800 million, after which the company was taken private again, before going public once more in August 2012, when they made an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. Manchester United is one of the most supported football clubs in the world, has rivalries with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United.
Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. The team played games against other departments and railway companies, but on 20 November 1880, they competed in their first recorded match. By 1888, the club had become a founding member of a regional football league. Following the league's dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance, which ran for three seasons before being merged with the Football League; this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the "LYR" from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division. In January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £280,000 in 2019 – the club was served with a winding-up order. Captain Harry Stafford found four local businessmen, including John Henry Davies, each willing to invest £500 in return for a direct interest in running the club and who subsequently changed the name.
Under Ernest Mangnall, who assumed managerial duties in 1903, the team finished as Second Division runners-up in 1906 and secured promotion to the First Division, which they won in 1908 – the club's first league title. The following season began with victory in the first Charity Shield and ended with the club's first FA Cup title. Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, where it remained until regaining promotion in 1925. Relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Following the death of principal benefactor John Henry Davies in October 1927, the club's finances deteriorated to the extent that Manchester United would have gone bankrupt had it not been for James W. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000 and assumed control of the club.
In the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. In October 1945, the impending resumption of football led to the managerial appointment of Matt Busby, who demanded an unprecedented level of control over team selection, player transfers and training sessions. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947, 1948 and 1949, to FA Cup victory in 1948. In 1952, the club won its first league title for 41 years, they won back-to-back league titles in 1956 and 1957. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season. En route to the semi-final, which they lost to Real Madrid, the team recorded a 10–0 victory over Belgian champions Anderlecht, which remains the club's biggest victory on record; the following season, on the way home from a European Cup quarter-final victory against Red Star Belgrade, the aircraft carrying the Manchester United players and journalists crashed while attempting to take off after refuelling in Munich, Germany.
Maine Road was a football stadium in Moss Side, England, home to Manchester City F. C. from 1923 to 2003. It hosted FA Cup semi-finals, Charity Shield matches, a League Cup final and England matches and, because of its high capacity, gained the nickname Wembley of the North. Maine Road holds the record for the second highest attendance for a club in their normal home stadium in English club football, set in 1934 at an FA Cup sixth round match between Manchester City and Stoke City. By Manchester City's last season at Maine Road in 2002–03, it was an all-seater stadium with a capacity of 35,150 and of haphazard design with stands of varying heights due to the ground being renovated several times over its 80-year history; the following season Manchester City moved to the City of Manchester Stadium in East Manchester, a mile from the city centre and near Ardwick where the club formed in 1880. Plans to build Maine Road were first announced in May 1922, following a decision by Manchester City F. C. to leave their Hyde Road ground, which did not have room for expansion and its main stand had been damaged by fire in 1920.
Two sites in Belle Vue, East Manchester were suggested. To many City fans east Manchester was regarded as City's home and a move to Belle Vue seemed right, but the site was just 8 acres and an available lease of 50 years was deemed too short by the club, so it was decided that City would move to Moss Side. The move to a larger stadium at Maine Road was backed by manager Ernest Mangnall. Many were disappointed. A City director, John Ayrton, resigned from the board in the decade and helped to form a breakaway club, Manchester Central F. C. which played at Belle Vue. A 16.25 acre former brickworks on Maine Road was purchased for £5,500. Maine Road was known as Dog Kennel Lane but renamed Maine Road during the 1870s at the insistence of the Temperance movement which owned land on Dog Kennel Lane and the local authority accepted its request. During construction, the stadium was reputedly cursed by a Gypsy when officials evicted a Gypsy camp from the area; this curse was removed on 28 December 1998. However, the Gypsy curse is to be an urban myth, as such stories are endemic to a number of football league grounds.
Construction took 300 days, the total cost £100,000. The initial layout of the ground consisted of one covered stand with a seating capacity of 10,000, uncovered terracing on the other three sides, with gentle curves connecting the corners; the first match at Maine Road took place on 25 August 1923 when 58,159 fans watched the home side beat Sheffield United 2–1. The first changes to the ground took place in 1931, when the corner between the Main Stand and the Platt Lane end at the south of the ground was rebuilt to incorporate a roof; this renovation was the first of many, as Maine Road's layout and capacity was varied throughout its lifespan. In 1934, the second highest attendance at an English football game at a club ground was recorded at Maine Road; the first was the 1913 FA Cup Final, hosted by Crystal Palace with a crowd of 121,919. The Maine Road match was between Manchester City and Stoke City in front of 84,569 fans in the sixth round of the FA Cup on 3 March 1934. Queues formed four hours before the match, one journalist stated that Maine Road was packed two hours before kick-off.
A decision was taken to close the turnstiles with an attendance at 85,000, 3000 short of what was thought to be the maximum capacity. Supporters witnessed a visiting Stoke team which included Stanley Matthews and City's team boasted players, Frank Swift, Fred Tilson, Sam Cowan and Matt Busby; the match was won 1–0 by Manchester City. This is the record home attendance for a domestic match and the record home attendance at a club ground, as the 1913 FA Cup final is not considered a home match for either team. Changes at the Platt Lane end took place in 1935, extending the terracing and providing a roof for the full stand; this marked the peak capacity of the ground, estimated at around 88,000. Further changes were planned, but suspended when Manchester City were relegated from Division One in 1938, abandoned when World War II broke out; the stadium was shared by Manchester United after the Second World War as Manchester United's Old Trafford ground had been damaged during the Manchester Blitz.
United paid City £ a share of gate receipts. The highest attendance for a league game at Maine Road occurred during this period, when 83,260 people watched Manchester United play Arsenal on 17 January 1948; this figure is a national record for a league game. Maine Road was used by Manchester United to host three of their four home games in the 1956–57 European Cup. Floodlights were installed in 1953, in 1957, prompted by the hosting of two FA Cup semi-finals in successive years, the side facing the Main Stand was redeveloped and named the Kippax Stand after a nearby street. Over the course of the 1960s and 1970s, the Kippax became the part of the ground where the club's most vociferous fans congregated. In 1963, benches were installed at the Platt Lane end, meaning that Maine Road had more seats than any other English club ground of the time; the next major redevelopment came in the 1970s, with the construction of the North Stand, a cantilevered stand which remained in place until the closure of Maine Road.
The 1980s saw ambitious plans for improvements: however, these plans were shelved due to financial pressures after the Main Stand roof had been replaced at a cost of £1 million. By 1990, some areas of the ground were becoming outdated, there was the need for the stadium to become al