Hyderabad is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Hyderabad is the 4th largest city in Pakistan and the 2nd largest in the province of Sindh and it is located in south-east of the country. In AD711, Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh, Raja Dahir was a Hindu king who ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty. The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir, Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot, a formal concept for the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people, the fort was built using fire-baked bricks, on account of which it was named Pacco Qillo meaning the strong fort. The City has a history of Sufism, in the 18th Century Syeds from Multan migrated and settled at Tando Jahania making it a sacred place for Muslims. These Syeds came here from Uch Sharif via Jahanian and these were the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht a noted Sufi saint. The city is a multi-ethnic and has a mix of Sindhi, Urdu speaking Muhajirs, Brahuis, Punjabis, Pashtuns, Memons, the independence of Pakistan in 1947 saw the influx of Muslim Urdu-speaking Muhajirs from India fleeing from anti-Muslim pogroms. Mahjirs mainly live in Latifabad and Sindhi mainly live in Qasimabad areas, a large influx of Punjabis were attracted to Hyderabad after the Indus treaty settlement. Most Punjabis and Pakhtuns are distinct and separately living near the railway station, the city therefore has cosmopolitan atmosphere with multiethnic and multicultural communities. Hindus account for the largest religious minority forming 5% of the population of the city. While Christians account for 1% of the population, Hyderabad is the seat of a Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and has five churches. Two of Pakistans largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad, several towns surrounding the city include Kotri at 6.7 kilometres, Jamshoro at 8.1 kilometres, Hattri at 5.0 kilometres and Husri at 7.5 kilometres. Hyderabad has a hot climate, with warm conditions year-round. The period from mid-April to late June is the hottest of the year, during this time, winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is more pleasant. Winters are warm, with highs around 25 °C, though lows can drop below 10 °C at night
Image: Montage of Hyderabad
A rare photograph of Hyderabad from the late 1800s. The triangular structures on the rooftops are wind catchers, funnelling the cool breeze into the homes below, called a moug.