Hydrazoic acid

Hydrazoic acid known as hydrogen azide or azoimide, is a compound with the chemical formula HN3. It is a colorless and explosive liquid at room temperature and pressure, it is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, is therefore a pnictogen hydride. It was first isolated in 1890 by Theodor Curtius; the acid has few applications, but its conjugate base, the azide ion, is useful in specialized processes. Hydrazoic acid, like its fellow mineral acids, is soluble in water. Undiluted hydrazoic acid is dangerously explosive with a standard enthalpy of formation ΔfHo = +264 kJmol−1; when dilute, the gas and aqueous solutions can be safely handled. The acid is formed by acidification of an azide salt like sodium azide. Solutions of sodium azide in water contain trace quantities of hydrazoic acid in equilibrium with the azide salt, but introduction of a stronger acid can convert the primary species in solution to hydrazoic acid; the pure acid may be subsequently obtained by fractional distillation as an explosive colorless liquid with an unpleasant smell.

NaN3 + HCl → HN3 + NaClIts aqueous solution can be prepared by treatment of barium azide solution with dilute sulfuric acid, filtering the insoluble barium sulfate. It was prepared by the reaction of aqueous hydrazine with nitrous acid. N2H4 + HNO2 → HN3 + 2 H2OOther oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrosyl chloride, trichloramine or nitric acid, can be used. In its properties hydrazoic acid shows some analogy to the halogen acids, since it forms poorly soluble lead and mercury salts; the metallic salts all crystallize in the anhydrous form and decompose on heating, leaving a residue of the pure metal. It is a weak acid Its heavy metal salts are explosive and interact with the alkyl iodides. Azides of heavier alkali metals or alkaline earth metals are not explosive, but decompose in a more controlled way upon heating, releasing spectroscopically-pure N2 gas. Solutions of hydrazoic acid dissolve many metals with liberation of hydrogen and formation of salts, which are called azides.

Hydrazoic acid may react with carbonyl derivatives, including aldehydes and carboxylic acids, to give an amine or amide, with expulsion of nitrogen. This is called Schmidt rearrangement. Dissolution in the strongest acids produces explosive salts containing the H2N=N=N+ ion, for example: HN=N=N + HSbCl6 → +−The ion H2N=N=N+ is isoelectronic to diazomethane; the decomposition of hydrazoic acid, triggered by shock, spark, etc. goes as follows: 2HN3 → H2 + 3N2 Hydrazoic acid is volatile and toxic. It has a pungent smell and its vapor can cause violent headaches; the compound acts as a non-cumulative poison. 2-Furonitrile, a pharmaceutical intermediate and potential artificial sweetening agent has been prepared in good yield by treating furfural with a mixture of hydrazoic acid and perchloric acid in the presence of magnesium perchlorate in the benzene solution at 35 °C. The all gas-phase iodine laser mixes gaseous hydrazoic acid with chlorine to produce excited nitrogen chloride, used to cause iodine to lase.

OSHA: Hydrazoic Acid

James P. Kimball

James Putnam Kimball was a United States metallurgist and geologist, Director of the United States Mint from 1885 to 1889. James P. Kimball was born in Salem, Massachusetts on April 26, 1836. In 1854, he entered the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University. D. in 1857. He enrolled in mining studies at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg in Freiberg, Saxony. After making a tour of Europe, Kimball returned to the United States to become an assistant to Harvard University geology professor Josiah Whitney; as Whitney's assistant, Kimball participated in the geological surveys of the lead mining regions of Wisconsin and southeastern Iowa. When the New York State Agricultural College was founded in Ovid, New York, Kimball became Professor of Chemistry and Economic Geology. With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, the college's president, Maj. M. R. Patrick was appointed Brigadier-General of Volunteers, he saw field service under Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell, was present at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

Brig. Gen. Patrick was appointed Provost Marshal of the Army of the Potomac, Capt. Kimball accompanied him there, serving on the General Staff under Generals George B. McClellan, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, George Meade successively; when the army went into winter quarters, Kimball resigned to resume his life as a mining engineer based in New York City. During the 1860s and 1870s he investigated coal and iron mines in Pennsylvania, silver mines in Chihuahua, west Texas, Utah, he made recommendations on plant designs, based on European metallurgical practice. After his marriage in 1874, he became an honorary professor of Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. and relocated there, while his professional office remained in New York City. He was among the first American geologists to inspect and write about the mineral resources of Cuba and South America, he was an early member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, contributed to its Transactions, served as a vice-president during 1881-1882.

He became president of the Everett Iron Company, which played a major role in developing mines in Bedford County, Pennsylvania in 1883-84. In 1885, President of the United States Grover Cleveland named Kimball Director of the United States Mint and Kimball held that office from July 1885 until October 1889, he is best known for his report criticizing the quality of the coinage, which led to improvement in mint equipment. He served on the annual "Assay Commission" appointed by the President to ensure quality in coinage. During the 1890s-1900s he resumed his consultant business in New York City. By 1902, he had helped develop the coal fields of Red Lodge, where he relocated late in life with his son's family. Upon his death the respected Mining & Scientific Press of San Francisco called him "one of the pioneer mining geologists of America" and one who "left a record of clean honorable work." Kimball married Mary Elizabeth Farley July 22, 1874 in Cambridge, Massachusetts They had three children: Russell, named after a Revolutionary era ancestor and Farley.

Kimball died in Cody, Wyoming October 23, 1913

Live in a Dive (Bracket album)

Live in a Dive is a live album by Californian punk rock band Bracket, released on Fat Wreck Chords as the second installment of the labels Live in a Dive series on February 26, 2002. The performance was recorded on August 14, 1999 when the band appeared in support of Tilt at Bottom of the Hill in San Francisco, California; the set included material from all of Brackets' previous albums, as well as songs from E is for Everything on Fat Wreck Chords. Several tracks are different from their studio version counterpart. "Warren's Song, Pt. 8" features a lengthy musical introduction, while "2RAK005" is played at mid-tempo pace compared to its original version. The song "2RAK005" is featured on the soundtrack to Tony Hawk's Underground; the studio version of "Hearing Aid" can be found on Die Young. "Parade" had not yet been released at the time of the performance but would see release the following year on When All Else Fails. All songs composed by Bracket. "Trailer Park" – 3:14 "Green Apples" – 2:11 "Hearing Aid" – 3:19 "Warren's Song, Pt. 8" – 1:44 "Huge Balloon" – 2:33 "Talk Show" – 3:45 "Warren's Song, Pt. 2" – 2:47 "Hermit" – 4:36 "Happy to Be Sad" – 2:00 "Circus Act" – 4:29 "Back to Allentown" – 3:12 "J. Weed" – 3:11 "Sour" – 2:32 "Lazy" – 3:34 "Parade" – 2:16 "2RAK005" – 2:35 "Rod's Post" – 2:54 Marty Gregori – vocals, guitar Angelo Celli – guitar, vocals Zack Charlos – bass, vocals Ray Castro – drums Ryan Greene – producer Adam Krammer – engineer Winni Hines – photography Rick Hines – photography John Estes – cover art, comic book art Kevin Cross – cover art, comic book art Rick Remender – cover art Fat Wreck Chords album page