Fuel cell vehicle
Fuel cells in vehicles generate electricity to power the motor, generally using oxygen from the air and compressed hydrogen. Most fuel cell vehicles are classified as vehicles that emit only water. As compared with internal combustion vehicles, hydrogen vehicles centralize pollutants at the site of the hydrogen production and storing hydrogen may create pollutants. Fuel cells have been used in various kinds of vehicles including forklifts, especially in applications where their clean emissions are important to air quality. The first commercially produced hydrogen fuel cell automobiles began to be sold by Toyota and leased on a basis by Hyundai in 2015. As of June 2016, the Toyota Mirai is available for sale in Japan, the UK, Germany, Belgium. Furthermore, fuel cells are being developed and tested in buses, boats and bicycles, some public hydrogen fueling stations exist, and new stations are being planned, in Japan and elsewhere. Critics doubt whether hydrogen will be efficient or cost-effective for automobiles, all fuel cells are made up of three parts, an electrolyte, an anode and a cathode.
In principle, a fuel cell functions like a battery, producing electricity. Instead of requiring recharging, the cell can be refilled with hydrogen. The concept of the cell was first demonstrated by Humphry Davy in 1801, but the invention of the first working fuel cell is credited to William Grove, a chemist, lawyer. Groves experiments with what he called a gas voltaic battery proved in 1842 that a current could be produced by the electrochemical reaction of breaking the hydrogen atom. The first modern fuel cell vehicle was a modified Allis-Chalmers farm tractor, fitted with a 15 kilowatt fuel cell, the Cold War Space Race drove further development of fuel cell technology. Project Gemini tested fuel cells to provide power during manned space missions. Fuel cell development continued with the Apollo Program, the electrical power systems in the Apollo capsules and lunar modules used alkali fuel cells. In 1966, General Motors developed the first fuel cell road vehicle and it had a PEM fuel cell, a range of 120 miles and a top speed of 70 mph.
There were only two seats, as the fuel cell stack and fuel tanks took up the portion of the van. Only one was built, as the project was deemed cost-prohibitive, General Electric and others continued working on PEM fuel cells in the 1970s
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Fibre-reinforced plastic is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, aramid, or basalt, other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive and construction industries. They are commonly found in ballistic armor as well, a polymer is generally manufactured by step-growth polymerization or addition polymerization. When combined with various agents to enhance or in any way alter the properties of polymers the result is referred to as a plastic. Fibre-reinforced plastics are a category of composite plastics that specifically use fibre materials to enhance the strength. The original plastic material without fibre reinforcement is known as the matrix or binding agent, the matrix is a tough but relatively weak plastic that is reinforced by stronger stiffer reinforcing filaments or fibres. Reinforcement of the matrix occurs by definition when the FRP material exhibits increased strength or elasticity relative to the strength, bakelite was the first fibre-reinforced plastic.
Dr. Leo Baekeland had originally set out to find a replacement for shellac, chemists had begun to recognize that many natural resins and fibres were polymers, and Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to phenol and formaldehyde, he found in 1905 he could produce his dreamed-of hard mouldable material and he announced his invention at a meeting of the American Chemical Society on February 5,1909. The development of fibre-reinforced plastic for use was being extensively researched in the 1930s. In the UK, considerable research was undertaken by such as Norman de Bruyne. It was particularly of interest to the aviation industry, a patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented fibreglas in 1936, fibreglas was a glass wool with fibres entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator, especially at high temperatures.
A suitable resin for combining the fibreglas with a plastic to produce a material, was developed in 1936 by du Pont. The first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamids resin of 1942, peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fibreglas and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic and this reduced to insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fibre composites continued to be called fibreglass, ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used
HydroGen4 is the successor of the fuel cell vehicle HydroGen3, developed by General Motors/Opel and presented in 2007 at the IAA in Frankfurt, Germany. It is expected that automotive hydrogen technology, such as the featured in the HydroGen4. The vehicle is based on the Chevrolet Equinox and has a GM fuel cell with 440 cells, the hybrid powertrain contains a nickel-metal-hydride battery with an energy content of 1.8 kWh/35 kW and a three-phase synchronous motor with 73 kW continuous power and 320 Nm of torque. The peak power of the engine is 94 kW, the hydrogen tanks at 700 Bar pressure contain 4.2 kilograms of hydrogen, which last about 320 kilometers. The maximum speed is 160 km/h with an acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h in 12 seconds, the HydroGen4 was produced in a batch of 170 pcs from which 10 for the Clean Energy Partnership project in Berlin. List of fuel cell vehicles HydroGen4
Cascade filling system
A cascade filling system is a high pressure gas cylinder storage system which is used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. In some applications, each of the cylinders is filled by a compressor, otherwise they may be filled remotely. The cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without a compressor, an example could be a 100-litre cylinder pressurised to 200 bar filling a 10-litre cylinder which was unpressurised (resulting in both cylinder equalising to approximately 180 bar. If another 100 litre cylinder pressurised this time to 250 bar were used to top-up the 10 litre cylinder. However, if the higher pressure 100 litre cylinder were used first, the 10 litre cylinder would equalise to about 225 bar, in practice the theoretical transfers can only be achieved if the gases are allowed to reach a temperature equilibrium before disconnection. This requires significant time, and a lower efficiency may be accepted to save time, actual transfer can be calculated using the general gas equation of state if the temperature of the gas in the cylinder is accurately measured. A breathing set cylinder may be filled to its working pressure by decanting from larger cylinders, the storage cylinders are available in a variety of sizes, typically from 50 litre internal capacity to well over 100 litres.
In the more general case a pressure hose known as a filling whip is used to connect the filling panel or storage cylinder to the receiving cylinder. Cascade storage is used at compressed natural gas fueling stations, typically three CNG tanks will be used, and a vehicle will first be fueled from one of them, which will result an incomplete fill, perhaps to 2000 PSI for a 3000 PSI tank. The second and third tanks will bring the vehicles tank closer to 3000 PSI, the station normally has a compressor, which refills the stations tanks, using natural gas from a utility line. This prevents accidentally overfilling the tank, which could happen with a using a single fueling tank at a higher pressure than the target pressure for the vehicle. In cascade storage systems for storage, as for example at hydrogen stations, fuel dispenser A draws hydrogen from tank A. If dispenser A is over-utilized, tank A will become depleted before tank B, at this point the dispenser A is switched to tank C
Methods of hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches including high pressures and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating. Most research into hydrogen storage is focused on storing hydrogen as a lightweight, Liquid hydrogen or slush hydrogen may be used, as in the Space Shuttle. However liquid hydrogen requires cryogenic storage and boils around 20.268 K. Hence, the tanks must be well insulated to prevent boil off but adding insulation increases cost. Liquid hydrogen has less energy density by volume than hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline by approximately a factor of four. This highlights the density problem for pure hydrogen, there is actually about 64% more hydrogen in a liter of gasoline than there is in a liter of liquid hydrogen. The carbon in the gasoline contributes to the energy of combustion, compressed hydrogen, by comparison, is stored quite differently. Hydrogen gas has good energy density by weight, but poor energy density by volume versus hydrocarbons, a large hydrogen tank will be heavier than the small hydrocarbon tank used to store the same amount of energy, all other factors remaining equal.
Increasing gas pressure would improve the density by volume, making for smaller. Compressed hydrogen costs 2. 1% of the content to power the compressor. Higher compression without energy recovery will mean more energy lost to the compression step, compressed hydrogen storage can exhibit very low permeation. Compressed hydrogen is a form where hydrogen gas is kept under pressures to increase the storage density. Compressed hydrogen in hydrogen tanks at 350 bar and 700 bar is used for hydrogen tank systems in vehicles, car manufacturers have been developing this solution, such as Honda or Nissan. BMW has been working on liquid hydrogen tanks for cars, producing for example the BMW Hydrogen 7, Hydrogen storage technologies can be divided into physical storage, where hydrogen molecules are stored, and chemical storage, where hydrides are stored. Chemical storage could offer high performance due to the strong binding of hydrogen. However, the regeneration of storage material is still an issue, storage in hydrocarbons may be successful in overcoming the issue with low density.
These liquids would use smaller, safer storage tanks. Metal hydrides, such as MgH2, NaAlH4, LiAlH4, LiH, LaNi5H6, TiFeH2 and palladium hydride, with varying degrees of efficiency, some are easy-to-fuel liquids at ambient temperature and pressure, others are solids which could be turned into pellets. These materials have good energy density by volume, although their energy density by weight is often worse than the leading hydrocarbon fuels, most metal hydrides bind with hydrogen very strongly
Hydrogen technologies are technologies that relate to the production and use of hydrogen. Hydrogen technologies are applicable for many uses, some hydrogen technologies are carbon neutral and could have a role in preventing climate change and a possible future hydrogen economy. Hydrogen is a used chemical used in various applications including ammonia production, oil refining. Hydrogen is not an energy source, because it is not naturally occurring as a fuel. There are a number of different types of fuel and electrolysis cells. The potential environmental impact depends primarily on the used to generate the hydrogen fuel. Note however that Ford Motor Company has dropped its plans to develop hydrogen cars,2006 – F-250 Super Chief a Tri-Flex engine concept pickup. 1993 – Mazda HR-X2 Hydrogen Wankel Rotary,1993 – Mazda MX-5 Miata Hydrogen Wankel Rotary. 1995 – Mazda Capella Cargo, first public street test of the hydrogen Wankel Rotary engine, however that in 2009, Nissan announced that it is cancelling its hydrogen car R&D efforts.
Peugeot,2004 – Peugeot Quark 2006 – Peugeot 207 Epure 2008 – H2Origin-Fuel cell Renault, Scenic ZEV H2 is a hydro-electric MPV co-developed by Nissan
The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be preferred for reasons, common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter. More recently, researchers have begun to actively include sensing, actuation and communication into composites. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft and aircraft in demanding environments, the earliest man-made composite materials were straw and mud combined to form bricks for building construction. Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb paintings and daub is one of the oldest man-made composite materials, at over 6000 years old. Concrete is a material, and is used more than any other man-made material in the world. As of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic metres of concrete are made each year—more than one metre for every person on Earth. 2181–2055 BC and was used for death masks Cob Mud Bricks, concrete was described by Vitruvius, writing around 25 BC in his Ten Books on Architecture, distinguished types of aggregate appropriate for the preparation of lime mortars.
For structural mortars, he recommended pozzolana, which were volcanic sands from the beds of Pozzuoli brownish-yellow-gray in colour near Naples. Natural cement-stones, after burning, produced cements used in concretes from post-Roman times into the 20th century, the glass fiber is relatively strong and stiff, whereas the polymer is ductile. Thus the resulting fiberglass is relatively stiff, flexible, concrete is the most common artificial composite material of all and typically consists of loose stones held with a matrix of cement. Concrete is a material, and will not compress or shatter even under quite a large compressive force. However, concrete cannot survive tensile loading, therefore, to give concrete the ability to resist being stretched, steel bars, which can resist high stretching forces, are often added to concrete to form reinforced concrete. Fibre-reinforced polymers or FRPs include carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer or CFRP, and glass-reinforced plastic or GRP, if classified by matrix there are thermoplastic composites, short fiber thermoplastics, long fibre thermoplastics or long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics.
There are numerous thermoset composites, including paper composite panels, many advanced thermoset polymer matrix systems usually incorporate aramid fibre and carbon fibre in an epoxy resin matrix. Shape memory polymer composites are high-performance composites, formulated using fibre or fabric reinforcement and they can be reheated and reshaped repeatedly without losing their material properties. These composites are ideal for such as lightweight, deployable structures, rapid manufacturing. Although high strain composites exhibit many similarities to shape memory polymers, Composites can use metal fibres reinforcing other metals, as in metal matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, which includes bone and concrete
Fiberglass is a type of fiber-reinforced plastic where the reinforcement fiber is specifically glass fiber. The glass fiber may be arranged, flattened into a sheet. The plastic matrix may be a polymer matrix – most often based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin. The glass fibers are made of various types of glass depending upon the fiberglass use and these glasses all contain silica or silicate, with varying amounts of oxides of calcium and sometimes boron. To be used in fiberglass, glass fibers have to be made very low levels of defects. Fiberglass is a lightweight material and is used for many products. Although it is not as strong and stiff as composites based on fiber, it is less brittle. Its bulk strength and weight are better than many metals, other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK. Because glass fiber itself is referred to as fiberglass, the composite is called fiberglass reinforced plastic. This article will adopt the convention that fiberglass refers to the glass fiber reinforced composite material.
A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933, Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented fibreglas in 1936. Originally, fibreglas was a wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator. A suitable resin for combining the fibreglass with a plastic to produce a material was developed in 1936 by du Pont. The first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamids resin of 1942, peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic and this reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called fiberglass, ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used.
In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a boat of plastic materials. The first car to have a body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab
A pressure regulator is a control valve that reduces the input pressure of a fluid to a desired value at its output. A pressure regulators primary function is to match the flow of gas through the regulator to the demand for gas placed upon it, if the load flow decreases, the regulator flow must decrease also. If the load increases, the regulator flow must increase in order to keep the controlled pressure from decreasing due to a shortage of gas in the pressure system. The loading element is a part that can apply the force to the restricting element. This loading can be provided by a weight, a spring, the measuring element functions to determine when the inlet flow is equal to the outlet flow. The diaphragm itself is used as a measuring element, it can serve as a combined element. In the pictured single-stage regulator, a balance is used on the diaphragm to control a poppet valve in order to regulate pressure. With no inlet pressure, the spring above the diaphragm pushes it down on the poppet valve, by adjusting the top screw, the downward pressure on the diaphragm can be increased, requiring more pressure in the upper chamber to maintain equilibrium.
In this way, the pressure of the regulator is controlled. High pressure gas from the supply enters into the regulator through the inlet valve, the gas enters the body of the regulator, which is controlled by the needle valve. The pressure rises, which pushes the diaphragm, closing the valve to which it is attached. The outlet side is fitted with a pressure gauge, as gas is drawn from the outlet side, the pressure inside the regulator body falls. The diaphragm is pushed back by the spring and the valve opens, the outlet pressure therefore depends on the spring force, which can be adjusted by means of an adjustment handle or knob. The outlet pressure and the inlet pressure hold the assembly in the closed position against the force of the large spring. If the supply falls, it is as if the large spring compression is increased allowing more gas. Thus, if the pressure falls, the outlet pressure will increase. This is the cause of end-of-tank dump where the supply is provided by a gas tank. With a single regulator, when the supply tank gets low