SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hydrolase

Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that perform as biochemical catalysts that use water to break a chemical bond, which results in dividing a larger molecule to smaller molecules. Some common examples of hydrolase enzymes are esterases including lipases, glycosidases and nucleosidases. Esterases cleave ester bonds in lipids and phosphatases cleave phosphate groups off molecules. An example of crucial esterase is the acetylcholine esterase, which assists in transforming the neuron impulse into acetic acid after it the hydrolase breaks the acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid. Acetic acid is an important metabolite in the body and a critical intermediate for other reactions such as glycolysis. Lipases hydrolyze glycerides. Glycosidases cleave sugar molecules off peptidases hydrolyze peptide bonds. Nucleosidases hydrolyze the bonds of nucleotides. Hydrolase enzymes are important for the body. In lipids, lipases contribute to the breakdown of fats and lipoproteins and other larger molecules into smaller molecules like fatty acids and glycerol.

Fatty acids and other small molecules are used as a source of energy. In biochemistry, a hydrolase is an enzyme. For example, any enzyme that catalyzes the following reaction is a hydrolase: A–B + H2O → A–OH + B–Hwhere A–B represents a chemical bond of unspecified molecules. Systematic names of hydrolases are formed as "substrate hydrolase." However, common names are in the form "substratease." For example, a nuclease is a hydrolase. Hydrolases are classified as EC 3 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Hydrolases can be further classified into several subclasses, based upon the bonds they act upon: EC 3.1: ester bonds EC 3.2: sugars EC 3.3: ether bonds EC 3.4: peptide bonds EC 3.5: carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds EC 3.6 acid anhydrides EC 3.7 carbon-carbon bonds EC 3.8 halide bonds EC 3.9: phosphorus-nitrogen bonds EC 3.10: sulphur-nitrogen bonds EC 3.11: carbon-phosphorus bonds EC 3.12: sulfur-sulfur bonds EC 3.13: carbon-sulfur bonds Hydrolase secreted by Lactobacillus jensenii in the human gut stimulates the liver to secrete bile salts that aids in the digestion of food.

Many hydrolases, proteases associate with biological membranes as peripheral membrane proteins or anchored through a single transmembrane helix. Some others are multi-span transmembrane proteins, for example rhomboid protease; the word hydrolase suffixes the combining form of -ase to the hydrol syllables of hydrolysis. Phosphorylase Serine hydrolase EC 3 Introduction from the Department of Chemistry at Queen Mary, University of London, only covers 3.1-3.4 More detailed taxonomy

New York Bight

The New York-New Jersey Bight is an indentation along the Atlantic coast of the United States, extending northeasterly from Cape May Inlet in New Jersey to Montauk Point on the eastern tip of Long Island. The coastal climate of the bight is temperate as the result of direct contact from the Gulf Stream along the coast of North America, it is notable for TWA Flight 800, which exploded in-mid air and crashed into the bight on July 17, 1996, killing all 230 people on board. The bight results from the fact that the Atlantic coast of New Jersey, running north-south, the southern coast of Long Island, running east-west, form a right angle with the point at the mouth of the Hudson; the New York Bight Apex is the area including and between the Hudson River estuary and the Raritan River estuary extending 6–7 km of the coast and includes Raritan Bay and Lower New York Bay. The geography of the bight has long been of major concern to meteorologists in the study of tropical storm patterns along the east coast, is one of the primary reasons the New York Metropolitan Area is considered a high danger zone for storm generated ocean-water surges, despite its northerly latitude.

In the presence of a hurricane off the coast of New Jersey, the easterly cyclonic winds along the northern edge of the storm could drive a strong surge to the west, laterally along the southern coast of Long Island and straight into Lower New York Bay. The angle bend of the New Jersey coast would leave little outlet for the surge, leading to widespread flooding throughout New York City along the southern coast of Staten Island and Manhattan. Examples of this phenomenon are the hurricane of 1893, in which storm surges of up to 30 feet were reported, Hurricane Sandy in 2012; the sea floor of the New York Bight consists of continental shelf and includes the Hudson Canyon, an undersea Pleistocene submarine canyon, formed by the Hudson River during the ice ages, when the sea level was lower. The bight includes major shipping channels that access New York Harbor; the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management is a federal agency responsible for determining offshore areas where wind farms may be built on the Outer Continental Shelf.

It sells leases to qualified bidders. The waters in New Jersey and New York have been leased to private concerns for the development of offshore wind farms. Clean Ocean Action New York Harbor Storm-Surge Barrier

Ghoramara Island

Ghoramara Island is an island 92 km south of Kolkata, India in the Sundarban Delta complex of the Bay of Bengal. The island is small five square kilometers in area, is disappearing due to erosion and sea level rise. Global warming has caused the rivers that pour down from the Himalayas and empty into the Bay of Bengal to swell and shift in recent decades, placing these islands, known as the Sundarbans, in danger. Four islands are underwater, another 10 in the area are at risk. A 2007 study by Jadavpur University concluded that 31 square miles of the Sundarbans had disappeared during the preceding 30 years, that Ghoramara had shrunk to less than five square miles, about half its size in 1969: this loss of land had caused the displacement of more than 600 families. Ghoramara island once had a population of 40,000; the 2001 Government of India census showed a population of 5,000 on Ghoramara. As of 2016 the island has 3,000 residents. Lohachara Island South Talpatti Island Satellite view from Google images International Herald Tribune article Morphological changes of Ghoramara Island: a documentation.

Indian Journal of Geography and Environment. Vol.2, p. 64-65, 1997. Destruction and Agony in Ghoramara Island. Paper accepted to present in the 22nd Conference of Institute of Indian Geographers and IGU Commission meeting on Land Degradation and Desertification, January 9-1, 2001