Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups. Both the negatively charged anion OH−, called hydroxide, the neutral radical •OH, known as the hydroxyl radical, consist of an unbounded hydroxyl group. According to IUPAC rules, the term hydroxyl refers to the hydroxyl radical only, while the functional group −OH is called hydroxy group. Water, carboxylic acids, many other hydroxy-containing compounds can be deprotonated readily; this behavior is rationalized by the disparate electronegativities of hydrogen. Hydroxy-containing compounds engage in hydrogen bonding, which causes them to stick together, leading to higher boiling and melting points than found for compounds that lack this functional group. Organic compounds, which are poorly soluble in water, become water-soluble when they contain two or more hydroxy groups, as illustrated by sugars and amino acid; the hydroxy group is pervasive in biochemistry.

Many inorganic compounds contain hydroxy groups, including sulfuric acid, the chemical compound produced on the largest scale industrially. Hydroxy groups participate in the dehydration reactions that link simple biological molecules into long chains; the joining of a fatty acid to glycerol to form a triacylglycerol removes the −OH from the carboxy end of the fatty acid. The joining of two aldehyde sugars to form a disaccharide removes the −OH from the carboxy group at the aldehyde end of one sugar; the creation of a peptide bond to link two amino acids to make a protein removes the −OH from the carboxy group of one amino acid. Hydroxyl radicals are reactive and undergo chemical reactions that make them short-lived; when biological systems are exposed to hydroxyl radicals, they can cause damage to cells, including those in humans, where they can react with DNA, proteins. In 2009, India's Chandrayaan-1 satellite, NASA's Cassini spacecraft and the Deep Impact probe have each detected the presence of water by evidence of hydroxyl fragments on the Moon.

As reported by Richard Kerr, "A spectrometer detected an infrared absorption at a wavelength of 3.0 micrometers that only water or hydroxyl—a hydrogen and an oxygen bound together—could have created." NASA reported in 2009 that the LCROSS probe revealed an ultraviolet emission spectrum consistent with hydroxyl presence. The Venus Express orbiter sent back Venus science data from April 2006 until December 2014. Results from Venus Express include the detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere. Hydronium Ion Oxide Reece, Jane. "Unit 1, Chapter 4 &5." In Campbell Biology. Berge, Susan. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-321-55823-7


Pfaueninsel is an island in the River Havel situated in Berlin-Wannsee, in the district of Steglitz-Zehlendorf in southwestern Berlin, near the border with Potsdam in Brandenburg. The island is part of the Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin UNESCO World Heritage Site and a popular destination for day-trippers. Pfaueninsel is a nature reserve in accordance with the EU Habitats Directive and a Special Protection Area for wild birds. Pfaueninsel is an island of 67 hectares in the river Havel between the Großer Wannsee and the Jungfernsee near Berlin, Germany, it is woodland with some open areas, including lawns and fields. The total size of the protected area, including some water-covered areas, is 98 hectares. In the late 17th century the island was called Kaninchenwerder after a rabbit breeding station set up by Elector Frederick William I of Brandenburg of the Hohenzollern dynasty. From 1685, he gave the chemist Johann Kunckel financial aid to build a glass foundry in the east of the island, the whole of which became Kunckel's property.

Here Kunckel discovered a process to produce artificial ruby glass. After the elector's death in 1688, Kunckel gained no further support from Frederick William's heir. In 1689, the foundry was destroyed by a fire, Kunckel left in 1692 for Stockholm to work for the King of Sweden; the island remained unused for about 100 years until, in 1793, the Prussian king Frederick William II, a descendant of Frederick William I, acquired the island and had the Pfaueninsel castle built for himself and his mistress Wilhelmine Enke in 1794–97. The small Lustschloss was placed on the western tip of the island, visible from the king's residence at the Marmorpalais in Potsdam, it was designed as a summer residence for the King by Johann Gottlieb Brendel. Around it an English garden was created, including a dairy shaped like a gothic revival church on the other end of the island. One of the garden designers was Johann August Eyserbeck who died in 1801. In 1804, Ferdinand Fintelmann took over as royal gardener. Frederick William's successor, Frederick William III, turned the island into a model farm and in 1821–34 had the park redesigned by Peter Joseph Lenné and Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who planned several auxiliary buildings.

The king laid out a menagerie modeled on the Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes in Paris, in which exotic animals including alligators, kangaroos, chameleons, eagles, lamas, bears and peacocks were housed. This stretched between the castle and the Kavaliershaus, but was altered by Lenné in 1824. Buildings included grottos and an aviary; the number of animals peaked from over a 100 species. Frederick William III was fond of his animals feeding many of them personally, he made his collection accessible to the people of Berlin. However, this created such an onslaught on the small island, that from 1821 the public was allowed on the island only three days a week. Public interest remained so high that the special trains running from Berlin were overcrowded. In 1830 Harry Maitey, the first native Hawaiian who came to Prussia, was assigned as assistant to the engine master on the island. In 1842, Frederick William IV transferred all the animals to the Berlin Zoo, which opened its gates in 1844 as the first of its kind in Germany.

The Palmenhaus was erected based on a design by Schinkel. It housed exotic plants like tobacco, canna lilies, bananas and rhubarb and was praised by explorer Alexander von Humboldt, it burnt to the ground. It was suggested that the fire was due to a stray spark from the chimney, as the Palmenhaus had been built out of wood, it was not rebuilt. On 15 August 1936, the German government celebrated the closing of the 1936 Olympic Summer Games on the island, with fireworks and an Italian Night party involving a thousand invited guests. In the post-World War II period, the Pfaueninsel was part of West Berlin, it was situated right next to the border to East Germany. On the shore of Sacrow to the north and west were the Grenzsicherungsanlagen of the German Democratic Republic. In the 1960s, the Pfaueninsel served as an outdoor location for a number of films of the German Edgar Wallace series; the island has retained its intended character as an idyll of nature: in addition to several free-ranging peacocks, other native and exotic birds can be found in captivity, complemented by a rich variety of flora.

The entire island is designated as a nature reserve and since 1990 has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the several other castles and parks in the Potsdam/Berlin area. It can only be reached by a small ferry, but is a popular tourist destination, it is administered by the Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten. Official website, English-German Extensive description with numerous pictures of the Palmenhaus and the island's dairy farm Panorama shots of the Pfaueninsel

Joseph Nechvatal

Joseph James Nechvatal is an American post-conceptual digital artist and art theoretician who creates computer-assisted paintings and computer animations using custom-created computer viruses. Joseph Nechvatal was born in Chicago, he studied fine art and philosophy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Cornell University and Columbia University, where he studied with Arthur Danto while serving as the archivist to the minimalist composer La Monte Young. From 1979, he exhibited his work in New York City at Galerie Richard, Brooke Alexander Gallery and Universal Concepts Unlimited, he has solo exhibited in Berlin, Chicago, Atlanta, Los Angeles, Belgium, Senouillac, Toulouse, Turin and Munich. His work in the early 1980s chiefly consisted of postminimalist gray graphite drawings that were photomechanically enlarged. During that period he was associated with the artist group Colab and helped establish the non-profit cultural space ABC No Rio. In 1983 he co-founded the avant-garde electronic art music audio project Tellus Audio Cassette Magazine.

In 1984, Nechvatal began work on an opera called XS: The Opera Opus with the no wave musical composer Rhys Chatham. He began using computers to make "paintings" in 1986 and in his signature work, began to employ computer viruses; these "collaborations" with viral systems positioned his work as an early contribution to what is referred to as a post-human aesthetic. From 1991–1993 he was artist-in-residence at the Louis Pasteur Atelier in Arbois, France and at the Saline Royale/Ledoux Foundation's computer lab. There he worked on The Computer Virus Project, an artistic experiment with computer viruses and computer animation, he exhibited at Documenta 8 in 1987. In 1999 Nechvatal obtained his Ph. D. in the philosophy of art and new technology concerning immersive virtual reality at Roy Ascott's Centre for Advanced Inquiry in the Interactive Arts, University of Wales College, Newport, UK. There he developed his concept of viractualism, a conceptual art idea that strives "to create an interface between the biological and the technological."

According to Nechvatal, this is a new topological space. In 2002 he extended his experimentation into viral artificial life through a collaboration with the programmer Stephane Sikora of music2eye in a work called the Computer Virus Project II, inspired by the a-life work of John Horton Conway, by the general cellular automata work of John von Neumann, by the genetic programming algorithms of John Koza and the auto-destructive art of Gustav Metzger. In 2005 he exhibited Computer Virus Project II works in a solo show called cOntaminatiOns at Château de Linardié in Senouillac, France. In 2006 Nechvatal received a retrospective exhibition entitled Contaminations at the Butler Institute of American Art's Beecher Center for Arts and Technology. Dr. Nechvatal has contributed to digital audio work with his noise music viral symphOny, a collaborative sound symphony created by using his computer virus software at the Institute for Electronic Arts at Alfred University. Viral symphOny was presented as a part of nOise anusmOs in New York in 2012.

In 2016, a limited edition CD recording of his sex farce poetry book Destroyer of Naivetés was released on Entr'acte label under the name of Cave Bacchus. Cave Bacchus is Black Sifichi and Rhys Chatham. In 2013, Nechvatal showed work in Noise, an official collateral show of the 55th Venice Biennale of Art, based on his book Immersion Into Noise. From 1999 to 2013, Nechvatal taught art theories of immersive virtual reality and the viractual at the School of Visual Arts in New York City. A book of his collected essays entitled Towards an Immersive Intelligence: Essays on the Work of Art in the Age of Computer Technology and Virtual Reality was published by Edgewise Press in 2009. In 2009, his book Immersive Ideals / Critical Distances was published. In 2011, his book Immersion Into Noise was published by Open Humanities Press in conjunction with the University of Michigan Library's Scholarly Publishing Office. In 2014 he published a book and CD/cassette tape with Punctum Books and Punctum Records on the noise music artist Minóy and in 2015 he published with Punctum Books a collection of his farcical erotic poetry entitled Destroyer of Naivetés.

Since 2013, Nechvatal has been publishing his art criticism as the Paris correspondent for Hyperallergic blogazine. Joe Lewis wrote: in the artist/theorist tradition of Robert Smithson, Joseph Nechvatal is a pioneer in the field of digital image making who challenges our perceptions of nature by altering conventional notions of space and time and self.... Nechvatal plunged into the depths where art and theory meet. Viractualism is an art theory concept developed by Nechvatal in 1999 from the Ph. D. research Nechvatal conducted in the philosophy of art and new technology concerning immersive virtual reality at Roy Ascott's Centre for Advanced Inquiry in the Interactive Arts, University of Wales College, Newport, UK. There he developed his concept of the viractual, which strives to create an interface between the biological and the virtual, it is central to Nechvatal's work as an artist. Nechvatal suggests that viractualism may be an entrainment/égréore conception helpful in defining our now third-fused inter-spatiality, forged from the meeting of the virtual and the actual.

- a concept close to the military's augmented